Results for 'Gerhard ��verland'

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  1. The Feasible Alternatives Thesis: Kicking Away the Livelihoods of the Global Poor.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (1):97-119.
    Many assert that affluent countries have contributed in the past to poverty in developing countries through wars of aggression and conquest, colonialism and its legacies, the imposition of puppet leaders, and support for brutal dictators and venal elites. Thomas Pogge has recently argued that there is an additional and, arguably, even more consequential way in which the affluent continue to contribute to poverty in the developing world. He argues that when people cooperate in instituting and upholding institutional arrangements that foreseeably (...)
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  2. Doing, Allowing, and Enabling Harm: An Empirical Investigation.Christian Barry, Matthew Lindauer & Gerhard Øverland - 2014 - In Joshua Knobe, Tania Lombrozo & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy, Volume 1. Oxford University Press.
    Traditionally, moral philosophers have distinguished between doing and allowing harm, and have normally proceeded as if this bipartite distinction can exhaustively characterize all cases of human conduct involving harm. By contrast, cognitive scientists and psychologists studying causal judgment have investigated the concept ‘enable’ as distinct from the concept ‘cause’ and other causal terms. Empirical work on ‘enable’ and its employment has generally not focused on cases where human agents enable harm. In this paper, we present new empirical evidence to support (...)
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  3.  67
    Poverty and the Moral Significance of Contribution.Gerhard Øverland - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (3):299-315.
    The main thesis of the article is that one’s responsibility to render assistance is not affected by having contributed to the situation by causing harm. I examine ways in which contribution to need is morally significant. Although contribution is relevant with regard to certain features, such as questions of blame, compensation, and fair distribution of the cost of assistance, I argue that contribution should carry no weight when assessing our duty to assist people in severe need if we can do (...)
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  4.  28
    Killing Soldiers.Gerhard Øverland - 2006 - Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4):455–475.
    A riddle in the ethics of war concerns whether lethal defensive force may be justifiably used against aggressing soldiers who are morally innocent.
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  5.  69
    Moral Obstacles: An Alternative to the Doctrine of Double Effect.Gerhard Øverland - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):481-506.
    The constraint against harming people in order to save yourself and others seems stronger than the constraint against harming people as a consequence of saving yourself and others. The reduced constraint against acting in one type of case is often justified with reference to the intentions of the agent or to the fact that she does not use the people she harms as a means. In this article I offer a victim-centered account. I argue that the circumstances in which the (...)
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  6.  61
    Dividing Harm.Gerhard Øverland - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (4):547-566.
    In this paper I argue that mere causal contribution to harm is morally significant on two counts: a) innocent aggressors have a duty to bear additional costs to help protect their potential victims, as compared to the duty innocent bystanders are expected to bear, and correspondingly; b) it is permissible to use more force against innocent aggressors, as used in self-defense and defense of others, than innocent bystanders. The paper has two parts. First I aim to demonstrate the intuitive plausibility (...)
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  7.  58
    Conditional Threats.Gerhard Øverland - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):334-345.
    In this paper I ponder the moral status of conditional threats, in particular the extent to which a threatened party would be permitted to use (lethal) defensive force. I first investigate a mugger case before turning briefly to the more complicated issue of national defence in the face of an invading army. One should not exaggerate the level of protection people under threat owe their conditioned killers simply because what is extorted is of little value. After all, either the conditional (...)
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  8.  33
    Pogge on Poverty: Contribution or Exploitation?Gerhard Øverland - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):319-333.
    Thomas Pogge argues that affluent people in the developing world have contribution-based duties to help protect the poor. And it follows from Pogge's most general thesis that affluent people are contributing to most, if not all, instances of global poverty. In this article I explore two problems with Pogge's general thesis. First, I investigate a typical way in which affluent people would be contributing to global poverty according to Pogge: that affluent countries use their superior bargaining power to get poor (...)
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  9.  37
    Contractual Killing.Gerhard Øverland - 2005 - Ethics 115 (4):692-720.
  10.  49
    Self-Defence Among Innocent People.Gerhard Øverland - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2):127-146.
    I explain the asymmetry between innocent aggressors and their victims, and attempt to separate justified and unjustified defensive force when both parties are innocent. I propose the principle of initiating behaviour, which states that: ‘In order for one person to be justified in using defensive force the other party must initiate the apparently threatening behaviour, but the defendant’s interpretation of that behaviour, as being threatening, would have to be reasonable.’ We can thereby maintain the view that there is a significant (...)
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  11.  31
    The Normative Implications of Benefiting From Injustice.Bashshar Haydar & Gerhard Øverland - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (4):349-362.
    In this article we investigate whether non-culpably benefiting from wrongdoing or injustice generates a moral requirement to disgorge these benefits in order to compensate the victims. We argue that a strong requirement to disgorge such benefits is generated only if other conditions or factors are present. We identify three such factors and claim that their presence would explain why the normative features of certain types of cases of benefiting from wrongdoing differ from cases of benefiting from simple misfortune or bad (...)
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  12.  46
    602 and One Dead: On Contribution to Global Poverty and Liability to Defensive Force.Gerhard Øverland - 2013 - European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):279-299.
    : When suggesting that we—the affluent in the developed world—are legitimate targets of defensive force due to our contribution to global poverty one is likely to be countered by one of two strategies. The first denies that we contribute to global poverty. The second seems to affirm that we contribute, and even that we have stringent contribution-based duties to address this poverty, but denies that such contribution makes forcible resistance permissible. Those in this second group employ several argumentative strategies. In (...)
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  13.  86
    Do Democratic Societies Have a Right to Do Wrong?Gerhard Øverland & Christian Barry - 2011 - Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (2):111-131.
    Do members of democratic societies have a moral right that others not actively prevent them from engaging in wrongdoing? Many political theorists think that they do. “It is a feature of democratic government,” Michael Walzer writes, “that the people have a right to act wrongly—in much the same way that they have a right to act stupidly”. Of course, advocates of a democratic right to do wrong may believe that the scope of this right is limited. A majority in a (...)
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  14.  51
    The Right to Do Wrong.Gerhard Øverland - 2007 - Law and Philosophy 26 (4):377-404.
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  15.  61
    Moral Taint: On the Transfer of the Implications of Moral Culpability.Gerhard Øverland - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):122-136.
    Suppose two people are about to drown. We are in a position to save only one, so the other will have to die. One of the two has just culpably killed an innocent person, but has no intention of killing anybody else and there is no reason to expect that he will. Everything else being equal, should we give them an equal chance of being saved by flipping a coin? In this paper I argue that we should not. I argue (...)
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  16.  53
    On Disproportionate Force and Fighting in Vain.Gerhard Øverland - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):235-261.
    Two conditions guiding permissible use of force in self-defence are proportionality and success. According to the proportionality condition the means used to prevent an attack can be permissible only if they are proportional to the interest at stake.1 According to the success condition, otherwise impermissible acts can be justified under the right to self-defence only if they are likely to succeed in preventing the perceived threat.2 These requirements should not always be interpreted narrowly. Sometimes people are permitted to kill culpable (...)
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  17.  48
    Forced Assistance.Gerhard Øverland - 2009 - Law and Philosophy 28 (2):203 - 232.
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  18.  32
    Profiting From Poverty.Ole Koksvik & Gerhard Øverland - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (3):341-367.
    ABSTRACTWe consider whether and under what conditions it is morally illicit to profit from poverty. We argue that when profit counterfactually depends on poverty, the agent making the profit is morally obliged to relinquish it. Finally, we argue that the people to whom the profit should be redirected are those on whom it counterfactually depends.
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  19.  20
    The Illegal Way in and the Moral Way Out.Gerhard Øverland - 2007 - European Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):186–203.
    At the heart of the current debate about immigration we find a conflict of convictions. Many people seem to believe that a country has a right to decide who to let in and who to keep out, but quite often they appear equally committed to the view that it is morally wrong to expel someone from within the borders of their country if that would seriously jeopardise the person in question. While the first conviction leads to stricter border controls in (...)
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  20.  36
    Hypocrisy, Poverty Alleviation, and Two Types of Emergencies.Bashshar Haydar & Gerhard Øverland - 2019 - The Journal of Ethics 23 (1):3-17.
    Peter Singer is well known to have argued for our responsibilities to address global poverty based on an analogy with saving a drowning child. Just as the passerby has a duty to save that child, we have a duty to save children ‘drowning’ in poverty. Since its publication, more four decades ago, there have been numerous attempts to grapple with the inescapable moral challenge posed by Singer’s analogy. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the Singerian challenge, through (...)
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  21. How Much for the Child?Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):189-204.
    In this paper we explore what sacrifices you are morally required to make to save a child who is about to die in front of you. It has been argued that you would have very demanding duties to save such a child (or any adult who is in similar circumstance through no fault of their own, for that matter), and some examples have been presented to make this claim seem intuitively correct. Against this, we argue that you do not in (...)
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  22. Individual Responsibility for Carbon Emissions: Is There Anything Wrong with Overdetermining Harm?Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2015 - In Jeremy Moss (ed.), Climate Change and Justice. Cambridge University Press.
    Climate change and other harmful large-scale processes challenge our understandings of individual responsibility. People throughout the world suffer harms—severe shortfalls in health, civic status, or standard of living relative to the vital needs of human beings—as a result of physical processes to which many people appear to contribute. Climate change, polluted air and water, and the erosion of grasslands, for example, occur because a great many people emit carbon and pollutants, build excessively, enable their flocks to overgraze, or otherwise stress (...)
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  23. The Implications of Failing to Assist.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (4):570-590.
    In this essay we argue that an agent’s failure to assist someone in need at one time can change the cost she can be morally required to take on to assist that same person at a later time. In particular, we show that the cost the agent can subsequently be required to take on to help the person in need can increase quite significantly, and can be enforced through the proportionate use of force. We explore the implications of this argument (...)
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  24. Responding to Global Poverty: Harm, Responsibility, and Agency.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the nature of moral responsibilities of affluent individuals in the developed world, addressing global poverty and arguments that philosophers have offered for having these responsibilities. The first type of argument grounds responsibilities in the ability to avert serious suffering by taking on some cost. The second argument seeks to ground responsibilities in the fact that the affluent are contributing to such poverty. The authors criticise many of the claims advanced by those who seek to ground stringent responsibilities (...)
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  25.  8
    The Illegal Way In and The Moral Way Out.Gerhard Øverland - 2007 - European Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):186-203.
    At the heart of the current debate about immigration we find a conflict of convictions. Many people seem to believe that a country has a right to decide who to let in and who to keep out, but quite often they appear equally committed to the view that it is morally wrong to expel someone from within the borders of their country if that would seriously jeopardise the person in question. While the first conviction leads to stricter border controls in (...)
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  26. 2.“Doing and Allowing” and Doing and Allowing “Doing and Allowing” and Doing and Allowing (Pp. 799-808).William J. FitzPatrick, Gerhard Øverland, Talbot Brewer, David Enoch & Philip Stratton‐Lake - 2005 - Ethics 115 (4).
     
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  27. Are Trade Subsidies and Tariffs Killing the Global Poor?Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2012 - Social Research: An International Quarterly (4):865-896.
    In recent years it has often been claimed that policies such as subsidies paid to domestic producers by affluent countries and tariffs on goods produced by foreign producers in poorer countries violate important moral requirements because they do severe harm to poor people, even kill them. Such claims involve an empirical aspect—such policies are on balance very bad for the global poor—and a philosophical aspect—that the causal influence of these policies can fairly be characterized as doing severe harm and killing. (...)
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  28.  3
    On Disproportionate Force and Fighting in Vain.Gerhard Øverland - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):235-261.
    Two conditions guiding permissible use of force in self-defence are proportionality and success. According to the proportionality condition the means used to prevent an attack can be permissible only if they are proportional to the interest at stake. According to the success condition, otherwise impermissible acts can be justified under the right to self-defence only if they are likely to succeed in preventing the perceived threat. These requirements should not always be interpreted narrowly. Sometimes people are permitted to kill culpable (...)
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  29. Responding to Global Poverty: Review Essay of Peter Singer, the Life You Can Save.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):239-247.
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  30. Why Remittances to Poor Countries Should Not Be Taxed.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2010 - NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 42 (1):1180-1207.
    Remittances are private financial transfers from migrant workers back to their countries of origin. These are typically intra-household transfers from members of a family who have emigrated to those who have remained behind. The scale of such transfers throughout the world is very large, reaching $338 billion U.S. in 20081—several times the size of overseas development assistance (ODA) and larger even than foreign direct investment (FDI). The data on migration and remittances is too poor to warrant very firm conclusions about (...)
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  31.  41
    Why Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility Cannot Save the Doctrine of Double Effect.Gerhard Øverland - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):286-296.
    The DDE yields counterintuitive verdicts about certain cases: it may deem it permissible to kill a certain number of people when they are not used as means and their death is not intended, but deny that killing fewer of these people is permissible if that requires intending their death, or using them as means. To accommodate the judgement that we may kill the lesser number in such cases, supporters of the DDE may appeal to Frances Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility. (...)
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  32.  70
    Barry and Øverland on Doing, Allowing, and Enabling Harm.Fiona Woollard - 2019 - Ethics and Global Politics 12 (1):43-51.
    In Responding to Global Poverty: Harm, Responsibility, and Agency, Christian Barry and Gerhard Øverland address the two types of argument that have dominated discussion of the responsibilities of the affluent to respond to global poverty. The second type of argument appeals to ‘contribution-based responsibilities’: the affluent have a duty to do something about the plight of the global poor because they have contributed to that plight. Barry and Øverland rightly recognize that to assess contribution-based responsibility for global poverty, we (...)
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  33.  7
    Brill Online Books and Journals.Gerhard Øverland - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2).
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  34.  3
    Just Adjustments.Gerhard Øverland - 2004 - Public Affairs Quarterly 18 (4):387-408.
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  35.  53
    Self-Defense and Giving Rise to Cost: On Innocent Bystanders, Threats, Obstructors, and Obstacles, and the Permissibility to Harm Them.Gerhard Øverland - 2016 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (4):831-847.
    Philosophers have had trouble defending the common sense view that it is permissible to impose significant cost on an innocent person who is about to harm you to prevent the harm from occurring. In this paper, I argue that such harm can be justified if one pays attention to the moral significance of imposing a cost on others. The constraint against harming people who give rise to cost by their presence or movements is weaker than the constraint against harming bystanders. (...)
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  36.  42
    Survival Lotteries Reconsidered.Gerhard Øverland - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (7):355–363.
  37. Who Owns It? Three Arguments for Land Claims in Latin America.Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland - 2017 - Revista de Ciencia Politica 37 (3):713-736.
    Indigenous and non-indigenous communities in Latin America make land claims and support them with a variety of arguments. Some, such as Zapatistas and the Mapuche, have appealed to the “ancestral” or “historical” connections between specific communities and the land. Other groups, such as MST in Brazil, have appealed to the extremely unequal distribution of the land and the effects of this on the poor; the land in this case is seen mainly as a means for securing a decent standard of (...)
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  38.  17
    A Critique of Some Recent Victim-Centered Theories of Nonconsequentialism.S. Matthew Liao & Christian Barry - 2020 - Law and Philosophy 39 (5):503-526.
    Recently, Gerhard Øverland and Alec Walen have developed novel and interesting theories of nonconsequentialism. Unlike other nonconsequentialist theories such as the Doctrine of Double Effect, each of their theories denies that an agent’s mental states are relevant for determining how stringent their moral reasons are against harming others. Instead, Øverland and Walen seek to distinguish morally between instances of harming in terms of the circumstances of the people who will be harmed, rather than in features of the agent doing (...)
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  39.  26
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Deontology and the Criminal Law.Alec Walen - 2016 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (4):741-743.
    Deontology holds that the rules or principles that govern the permissibility of actions cannot be derived simply from the goal of promoting good consequences. The definition has to be given negatively because there is still much disagreement about what positively grounds these rules or principles. The articles in this special issue—collected mostly from papers presented at a conference sponsored by the Institute for Law and Philosophy at Rutgers UniversityOne paper in this issue, from Gerhard Øverland, was not presented at (...)
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  40. Introduction.Christian Barry & Holly Lawford-Smith - 2012 - In Christian Barry & Holly Lawford-Smith (eds.), Global Justice. Ashgate.
    This volume brings together a range of influential essays by distinguished philosophers and political theorists on the issue of global justice. Global justice concerns the search for ethical norms that should govern interactions between people, states, corporations and other agents acting in the global arena, as well as the design of social institutions that link them together. The volume includes articles that engage with major theoretical questions such as the applicability of the ideals of social and economic equality to the (...)
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  41.  93
    The Collected Papers of Gerhard Gentzen.Gerhard Gentzen - 1969 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
  42.  1
    Twelve Great Papers: Comments and Replies. Response to a Special Issue on Logical Perspectives on Science and Cognition—The Philosophy of Gerhard Schurz.Gerhard Schurz - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1661-1695.
    This is a response to the papers in the special issue Logical Perspectives on Science and Cognition—The Philosophy of Gerhard Schurz.
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  43.  25
    Morality and Determinism: Gerhard D. Wassermann.Gerhard D. Wassermann - 1988 - Philosophy 63 (244):211-230.
    This paper is intended as a contribution to a recent vigorous debate in The Times , between the distinguished journalist Bernard Levin, the eminent Oxford economist Wilfred Beckerman and the Archbishop of York, John Habgood, among others. The debate concerns morality, ‘free will’ and determinism. As a former German Jew, who lost close relatives at Auschwitz and who suffered personally severely in my youth under daily virulent Nazi persecution , I obviously cannot remain strictly detached and neutral. Yet, I shall (...)
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  44.  16
    Nachruf auf Hariolf Oberer : von Gerhard Seel.Gerhard Seel - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (1):1-8.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-8.
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  45.  49
    Words, Texts, and Concepts Cruising the Mediterranean Sea: Studies on the Sources, Contents and Influences of Islamic Civilization and Arabic Philosophy and Science: Dedicated to Gerhard Endress on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday.Gerhard Endress, Rüdiger Arnzen & J. Thielmann (eds.) - 2004 - Peeters.
    This statement by the late Franz Rosenthal is, in a sense, the uniting theme of the present volume's 35 articles by renowned scholars of Islamic Studies, Middle ...
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  46. Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism: New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics.Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    "This book represents a continuation of the research project in philosophy of language and semantics represented in the journal "Protosociology" at the J. W. ...
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  47. Hennemann, Gerhard, Das Verhältnis der Quantenmechanik zur klass. Physik. [REVIEW]Gerhard Stammler - 1948 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 3:306.
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  48. Der Mensch als Mit-Mensch. Aufsätze zur Gestalttheorie in Forschung, Anwendung und Dialog - herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Gerhard Stemberger.Giuseppe Galli & Gerhard Stemberger - 2017 - Wien, Österreich: Verlag Wolfgang Krammer.
    Giuseppe Gallis konsequentes Streben nach einer angemessenen Berücksichtigung beider Pole, des Subjektpols ebenso wie des Objektpols, sowohl in der Forschung als auch in allen Bereichen des menschlichen Lebens kommt im vorliegenden Sammelband in allen Arbeiten zum Tragen. Galli eröffnet damit auch neue Felder f8r die gestalttheoretische Forschungs- und Anwendungspraxis. Er erschließt Themen, die nicht zuletzt auch f8r die medizinischen, philosophischen, psychologischen und psychotherapeutischen Aufgabenstellungen zentral sind. Er plädiert nicht nur allgemein für einen dialogischen Ansatz in der zwischenmenschlichen Begegnung, er führt (...)
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  49. Gerhard Leibholz.Gerhard Leibholz - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--283.
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  50. Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth.Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    In epistemology and in philosophy of language there is fierce debate about the role of context in knowledge, understanding, and meaning. Many contemporary epistemologists take seriously the thesis that epistemic vocabulary is context-sensitive. This thesis is of course a semantic claim, so it has brought epistemologists into contact with work on context in semantics by philosophers of language. This volume brings together the debates, in a set of twelve specially written essays representing the latest work by leading figures in the (...)
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