Twelve retired nurses were asked to narrate a care situation in which it had been difficult for them as nurses to know what was the right and good thing to do. The transcribed interviews were examined by content analyses. Physicians were the central coactors in the nurses’ stories. Colleagues were seldom mentioned. Other ward staff were mainly called ‘the girls’. The patient was central and referred to with respect. All the nurses focused on experiential learning. Guiding ethical principles are listed.
This study is part of a comprehensive investigation of ethical thinking among male and female physicians and nurses. Nine women physicians with different levels of expertise, working in various wards in paediatric clinics at two of the university hospitals in Norway, narrated 37 stories about their experience of being in ethically difficult care situations. All of the interviewees’ narrations were concerned with problems relating to both action ethics and relation ethics. The main focus was on problems in a relation ethics (...) perspective. The most common themes in an action ethics perspective were overtreatment and withholding treatment. The more experienced physicians reasoned differently from the group of less experienced physicians and they coped with pressure in different ways. The less experienced physicians disclosed their professional experience yet seemed uncertain, while putting on an air of certainty, but the more experienced physicians disclosed both their professional and personal experience of caregiving and they seemed to allow themselves to feel uncertain in their certainty. Both groups emphasized a need for deep discussion between colleagues about their being in ethically difficult care situations. (shrink)
Physicians, registered nurses (RNs) and enrolled nurses (ENs) engaged in geriatric (n = 49) and surgical (n = 59) care at a large hospital in Sweden gave 180 accounts of morally difficult care episodes. In total, the ENs (n = 40) gave 78, the RNs (n = 38) 55 and the physicians (n = 30) 47 accounts; there were 83 from geriatric care and 97 from surgical care. Forty-nine participants were male, and 59 were female; there were no differences in (...) gender in the form and content of the moral reasoning disclosed in either morally difficult care episodes or in the complete interviews when coded as mainly narrative or propositional, or as showing a care or a justice orientation. The ENs showed a care orientation, while RNs and physicians, to an equal degree, showed both a justice and a care orientation. The ENs also used narrative reasoning more often than RNs and physicians. No differences were seen between the two health care specialties. (shrink)
The essay presents Giorgio Agamben’s theory of the paradigm in the first chapter of The Signature of All Things. On Method in order to better understand the well-known use of references to and qoutations from literature in philosophical reasoning and theory. Agamben’s uncommented reference to two short stanzas from Wallace Stevens’ poem “Description without Place”, which he consider the best definition of a paradigmatic ontology, is briefly commented. A gathering of three ‘literary singularities’ from Friedrich Hölderlin/Sophocles, James Joyce, and Samuel (...) Beckett in a suggested paradigm on time is presented as an example of a solely literary way of philosophical thinking. (shrink)
Med afsæt i Niklas Luhmanns systemteori og med eksempler inden for videnskab, kunst, økonomi m.m. argumenterer forfatteren for at der i dag ikke findes et etisk regelsæt som kan fortælle os hvad vi skal gøre og ikke gøre.
Douglas Harper and Patrizia Faccioli: The Italian Way: Food & Social Life Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s10806-012-9379-x Authors Gigi Berardi, Department of Environmental Studies, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, USA Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863.
I denne artikel argumenteres der for, at døden i Phaidon primært skal forstås metaforisk, som sjælens adskillelse fra kroppen i den rene tænkning. Artiklens hovedtese er, at de fire argumenter for sjælens udødelighed, der findes i dialogen, skal læses som en fremadskridende afklaring af, hvilken væremåde sjælen har, når den isolerer sig fra kroppen, snarere end at læses bogstaveligt som beviser for, at sjælen er udødelig. Tillige argumenteres der for, at den såkaldt anden sejlads – Sokrates’ beskrivelse af, hvorledes han (...) for at forstå virkeligheden søgte tilflugt i argumenter og ideer snarere end i sanserne – skal forstås som et forsvar for en bestemt opfattelse af menneskelig frihed. Når Sokrates indfører ideerne som årsager i løbet af Phaidon, skal dette først og fremmest ses som en forklaring på, hvordan den rene tænkning kan erkende virkeligheden og derigennem kontrollere vores umiddelbare tilbøjeligheder. Det er mulighedsbetingelsen for menneskelig frihed som Platons Sokrates forstår den. Frihed skal da primært forstås som mulighed, nemlig mulighed til at handle i overensstemmelse med det, den fornuftsbestemte indsigt tilsiger en, at man skal gøre, uden hensyntagen til umiddelbare, kropsligt bestemte tilbøjeligheder, herunder tilbøjeligheden til selvopretholdelse for enhver pris. Den foreslåede læsning peger dermed på en politisk dimension af Phaidon, der ofte overses som følge af, at argumenterne for sjælens udødelighed tages for bogstaveligt. (shrink)
Should a debate of the choice between metaphorical investigation and epistemological realism in organizational research be prioritized as Willy McCourt called for in Organization Studies? We argue here against doing any such thing — a ‘realism’ debate in organizational theory would merely be a ‘red herring’. Theoretical investigation from Ricoeur to Derrida has liberated us from the need to re-visit the theme, but examination of Gareth Morgan's intellectual development, as begun by McCourt, is of interest because it reveals two very (...) different ‘realisms’. What is of interest about ‘realism’ is not an eitherlor of either ‘realism’ or ‘constructivism’, but a polyphony of the many voices of research. (shrink)
CRISPR, a recently developed gene-editing tool, has become synonymous with rapid biological advancement. While gene editing had been performed in life sciences research for decades, genetic engineering with CRISPR is much more straightforward, faster, and less expensive—and thus, the technology has been rapidly democratized. CRISPR was built on a natural mechanism, the method by which bacteria resist infections from viruses called bacteriophage. Once infected, bacteria may recognize specific genetic sequences of the invading bacteriophage virus and chop its genetic material into (...) pieces. This bacterial immune response, discovered through basic research, has been exploited by scientists to develop a gene-editing tool... (shrink)
In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of religion to the field of the clinical psychologist. Clinical psychology of religion can be defined as that part of the psychology of religion dealing with the relation between religion, worldview and mental health. Like the (...) clinical psychologist, the clinical psychologist of religion deals with psychodiagnostics and psychotherapy, but concentrates on the role religion or worldview plays in mental health problems. The relation between religion and mental health has been a subject for study since the start of the psychology of religion at the end of the last century. A number of authors have elaborated on the ways in which religion can be beneficial or detrimental to psychological health. In recent research we have found that there is a great need among psychotherapists to become better equipped in this field. (shrink)
_ Source: _Page Count 22 This article addresses the research question: “How do Dutch highly educated Muslim women of Moroccan descent use prayer in dealing with problems?” The theoretical framework was mainly based on the work of Pargament et al. regarding religious coping. The empirical part of the study consisted of a quantitative and a qualitative part. This article presents results of the quantitative part. For the quantitative part of our research, 177 questionnaires were collected using snowball sampling. We asked (...) respondents about their praying practices and their ways of religious coping, using the Brief RCOPE. The connection and communication in their prayer with a loving, caring, benevolent God is the main religious way in which these Muslim women of Moroccan descent cope with all kinds of problems. This use of prayer as a way of coping can be clarified through the psychological functions of religiosity and prayer that are suggested by Pargament, Koenig, and Perez. Prayer could help them in: finding meaning, being master over their circumstances and controlling their emotions, finding comfort and closeness to God, experiencing intimacy with others and closeness to God, and transforming their way of life. We did find few negative religious coping strategies, such as negative feelings towards God or alienation. This is in line with research results of Abu Raiya and Pargament. As Islam implies surrender to God, it may be difficult for Muslims to admit their religious distress, doubts, and struggles. (shrink)
This article reports on a study of the relationship between narcissism, as an important personality trait in individualistic societies, and religious styles of coping. We distinguish between two dimensions of narcissism: overt and covert narcissism, and four different styles of religious coping: self-directing, collaborative, deferring and receptive. The study was carried out by inviting 116 students to complete questionnaires about narcissism and religious coping. It revealed a positive correlation between covert narcissism and the collaborative, deferring and receptive styles of religious (...) coping, and a negative correlation between covert narcissism and the self-directing style. Overt narcissism only had a positive correlation with the receptive style. The article discusses in detail the significance of the relationships between narcissism and styles of religious coping. (shrink)
This article presents the results of a study in The Netherlands among two groups of religious people: i.e., 165 Christian outpatients and 171 parishioners. In this study, we focused on the following main questions. To what degree did these two groups of Christians practice positive religious coping, negative religious coping and receptive coping? What are the relationships between these three coping strategies? To what degree were positive religious, negative religious and receptive coping activities related to the well-being of the respondents (...) ? What are the best predictors of well-being: positive religious, negative religious or receptive coping? The results showed that positive religious, negative religious and receptive coping were three independent predictors of well-being, with negative religious coping being the best predictor. (shrink)
This paper presents the results of an empirical study among two groups of psychotherapists in the Netherlands. One group works in a mental health institution based on religious principles , and the other group in a general mental health institution . The investigation starts with an overview of the religious background and religious practices of the therapists. Some equations with the average Dutch citizen are made. The next part of the study deals with the perception by psychotherapists of religious issues (...) connected with psycho-social problems. How often in their opinion is there a relation and what kind of relation is at issue? The third part of the study considers the way in which psychotherapists treat these religious issues. Do they attend to them and what kind of interventions are used? Special attention is given to the question of whether there are contacts with the clergy. We conclude that religion should be given a more pronounced place in general mental health care and that Riagg psychotherapists, in particular, should become better equipped to deal with religious issues. (shrink)
In this paper, we will present some results of a study among patients in a forensic psychiatric hospital in The Netherlands. We will focus on the following issues: the patients' general religious beliefs and activities; the patients' religious coping activities; the patients' well-being; the relationship between general religious beliefs and activities, religious coping activities and well-being. We will compare the results among this population with the results of our earlier research in various other psychiatric settings.