Results for 'Gijs Smit'

220 found
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  1.  33
    Butterfly Eyespot Patterns: Evidence for Specification by a Morphogen Diffusion Gradient.Antónia Monteiro, Vernon French, Gijs Smit, Paul M. Brakefield & Johan A. J. Metz - 2001 - Acta Biotheoretica 49 (2):77-88.
    In this paper we describe a test for Nijhout's hypothesis that the eyespot patterns on butterfly wings are the result of a threshold reaction of the epidermal cells to a concentration gradient of a diffusing degradable morphogen produced by focal cells at the centre of the future eyespot. The wings of the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, have a series of eyespots, each composed of a white pupil, a black disc and a gold outer ring. In earlier extirpation and transplantation experiments (...)
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  2.  71
    Developing the Incentivized Action View of Institutional Reality.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8).
    Contemporary discussion concerning institutions focus on, and mostly accept, the Searlean view that institutional objects, i.e. money, borders and the like, exist in virtue of the fact that we collectively represent them as existing. A dissenting note has been sounded by Smit et al. (Econ Philos 27:1–22, 2011), who proposed the incentivized action view of institutional objects. On the incentivized action view, understanding a specific institution is a matter of understanding the specific actions that are associated with the institution (...)
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  3.  4
    The ‘Real-World Approach’ and Its Problems: A Critique of the Term Ecological Validity.Gijs A. Holleman, Ignace T. C. Hooge, Chantal Kemner & Roy S. Hessels - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  4. What Is Money? An Alternative To Searle's Institutional Facts.J. P. Smit, Filip Buekens & Stan du Plessis - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (1):1-22.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle develops a theory of institutional facts and objects, of which money, borders and property are presented as prime examples. These objects are the result of us collectively intending certain natural objects to have a certain status, i.e. to ‘count as’ being certain social objects. This view renders such objects irreducible to natural objects. In this paper we propose a radically different approach that is more compatible with standard economic theory. We claim that (...)
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  5. Kant on Marks and the Immediacy of Intuition.Houston Smit - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):235-266.
    The distinction between concept and intuition is of the utmost importance for understanding Kant’s critical philosophy. For, as Kant himself claimed, all the distinctive claims of this philosophy rest on, and develop out of, a detailed account of the way all our cognition of things requires both intuitions and concepts.
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  6. Inclusive Fitness Theory and the Evolution of Mind and Language.Harry Smit - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (2):287-314.
    Philosophers have shown that the Aristotelian conception of mind and body is capable of resolving the problems confronting dualism. In this paper the resolution of the mind–body problem is extended with a scientific solution by integrating the Aristotelian framework with evolutionary theory. It is discussed how the theories of Fisher and Hamilton enable us to construct and solve hypotheses about how the mind evolved out of matter. These hypotheses are illustrated by two examples: the evolutionary transition from cells to multicellular (...)
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  7.  13
    The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations.Christian Reus-Smit - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
  8.  88
    Kant’s “I Think” and the Agential Approach to Self-Knowledge.Houston Smit - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (7):980-1011.
    ABSTRACTThis paper relates Kant’s account of pure apperception to the agential approach to self-knowledge. It argues that his famous claim ‘The I think must be able to accompany all of my represent...
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  9. Seven Misconceptions About the Mereological Fallacy: A Compilation for the Perplexed.Harry Smit & Peter M. S. Hacker - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (5):1077-1097.
    If someone commits the mereological fallacy, then he ascribes psychological predicates to parts of an animal that apply only to the (behaving) animal as a whole. This incoherence is not strictly speaking a fallacy, i.e. an invalid argument, since it is not an argument but an illicit predication. However, it leads to invalid inferences and arguments, and so can loosely be called a fallacy. However, discussions of this particular illicit predication, the mereological fallacy, show that it is often misunderstood. Many (...)
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  10. The Transition From Animal to Linguistic Communication.Harry Smit - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (3):158-172.
    Darwin’s theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication. However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. It is discussed that language evolved (...)
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  11.  25
    Perception of Time in Articulated Visual Events.Gijs Plomp, Cees van Leeuwen & Sergei Gepshtein - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  12. Individual Rights and the Making of the International System.Christian Reus-Smit - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    We live today in the first global system of sovereign states in history, encompassing all of the world's polities, peoples, religions and civilizations. Christian Reus-Smit presents a new account of how this system came to be, one in which struggles for individual rights play a central role. The international system expanded from its original European core in five great waves, each involving the fragmentation of one or more empires into a host of successor sovereign states. In the most important, (...)
     
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  13. Artificial Morality: Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Hybrid Approaches. [REVIEW]Colin Allen, Iva Smit & Wendell Wallach - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):149-155.
    A principal goal of the discipline of artificial morality is to design artificial agents to act as if they are moral agents. Intermediate goals of artificial morality are directed at building into AI systems sensitivity to the values, ethics, and legality of activities. The development of an effective foundation for the field of artificial morality involves exploring the technological and philosophical issues involved in making computers into explicit moral reasoners. The goal of this paper is to discuss strategies for implementing (...)
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  14.  59
    The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income.Gijs Van Donselaar - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    This book explores how traditional theories of economic justice, both from the libertarian right and the egalitarian left, have failed to appreciate the objection against exploitative behavior that would be possible through the exercise of property rights. This failure also underlies the recent plea for a so-called unconditional basic income.
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  15.  73
    Cigarettes, Dollars and Bitcoins – an Essay on the Ontology of Money.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2016 - Journal of Institutional Economics 12 (2):327 - 347.
    What does being money consist in? We argue that something is money if, and only if, it is typically acquired in order to realise the reduction in transaction costs that accrues in virtue of agents coordinating on acquiring the same thing when deciding what thing to acquire in order to exchange. What kinds of things can be money? We argue against the common view that a variety of things (notes, coins, gold, cigarettes, etc.) can be money. All monetary systems are (...)
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  16.  69
    The Moral Significance of Gratitude in Kant's Ethics.Houston Smit & Mark Timmons - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (4):295-320.
    In this essay, we examine the grounds, nature and content, status, acquisition and role, and justification of gratitude in Kant's ethical system, making use of student notes from Kant's lectures on ethics. We are especially interested in questions about the significance of gratitude in Kant's ethics. We examine Kant's claim that gratitude is a sacred duty, because it cannot be discharged, and explain how this claim is consistent with his insistence that “ought” implies “can.” We argue that for Kant a (...)
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  17. Popper and Wittgenstein on the Metaphysics of Experience.Harry Smit - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):319-336.
    In the Tractatus Wittgenstein argued that there are metaphysical truths. But these are ineffable, for metaphysical sentences try to say what can only be shown. Accordingly, they are pseudo-propositions because they are ill-formed. In the Investigations he no longer thought that metaphysical propositions are pseudo-propositions, but argued that they are either nonsense or norms of descriptions. Popper criticized Wittgenstein’s ideas and argued that metaphysical truths are effable. Yet it is by now clear that he misunderstood Wittgenstein’s arguments and misguidedly thought (...)
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  18. A Conceptual Contribution to Battles in the Brain.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):803-821.
    Badcock and Crespi have advanced the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia are caused by imbalanced imprinting in the brain. They argue that an imbalance between the effects of paternally and maternally expressed genes on brain development results in either an extreme paternal (autism) or maternal brain (schizophrenia). In this paper their conceptual model is discussed and criticized since it presupposes an incoherent distinction between observable physical and hidden mental phenomena. An alternative model is discussed that may be more fruitful for (...)
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  19. Kant on Apriority and the Spontaneity of Cognition.Houston Smit - 2009 - In Samuel Newlands & Larry M. Jorgensen (eds.), Metaphysics and the Good: Themes From the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams. Oxford University Press.
  20. Effects of Imprinted Genes on the Development of Communicative Behavior: A Hypothesis. [REVIEW]Harry Smit - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):247-255.
    The kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts that imprinted genes affect parent–child and child–child interactions. During prenatal and neonatal stages, patrigenes promote selfish and matrigenes altruistic behavior. Models predict that this imprinted gene expression pattern is reversed starting with the juvenile stage. This article explores possible effects of imprinted genes on nonverbal and simple and complex linguistic behaviors before and after the reversal. A hypothesis is discussed that is based on the observation language evolved as a new form of communicative (...)
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  21.  78
    A Machine That Would Go of Itself: Interpassivity and its Impact on Political Life.Gijs van Oenen - 2006 - Theory and Event 9 (2).
  22.  4
    Gaze Allocation in Face-to-Face Communication is Affected Primarily by Task Structure and Social Context, Not Stimulus-Driven Factors.Roy S. Hessels, Gijs A. Holleman, Alan Kingstone, Ignace T. C. Hooge & Chantal Kemner - 2019 - Cognition 184:28-43.
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  23. The Incentivized Action View of Institutional Facts as an Alternative to the Searlean View: A Response to Butchard and D’Amico.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (1):44-55.
    In our earlier work, we argued, contra Searle, that institutional facts can be understood in terms of non-institutional facts about actions and incentives. Butchard and D’Amico claim that we have misinterpreted Searle, that our main argument against him has no merit and that our positive view cannot account for institutional facts created via joint action. We deny all three charges.
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  24.  41
    How to Do Things Without Words - A Theory of Declarations.J. P. Smit & Filip Buekens - 2017 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 47 (3):235-254.
    Declarations like “this meeting is adjourned” make certain facts the case by representing them as being the case. Yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the mechanism whereby the utterance of a declaration can bring about a new state of affairs. In this paper, we use the incentivization account of institutional facts to address this issue. We argue that declarations can serve to bring about new states of affairs as their utterance have game theoretical import, typically in virtue of (...)
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  25.  73
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
    A problem that has troubled both neo-Darwinists and neo-Lamarckians is whether instincts involve knowledge. This paper discusses the contributions to this problem of the evolutionary biologist August Weismann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Weismann discussed an empirical homunculus fallacy: Lamarck’s theory mistakenly presupposes a homunculus in the germ cells. Wittgenstein discussed a conceptual homunculus fallacy which applies to Lamarck’s theory: it is mistaken to suppose that knowledge is stored in the brain or DNA. The upshot of these two fallacies is (...)
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  26.  8
    Real Freedom for All. What Can Justify Capitalism?Gijs van Donselaar - 1995 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (1):127-128.
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  27.  7
    The Case Against Factorism: On the Labels of $$Otimes$$ ⊗ -Factor Hilbert-Spaces of Similar Particles in Quantum Mechanics.F. A. Muller & Gijs Leegwater - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-16.
    We discuss the case against Factorism, which is the standard assumption in quantum mechanics that the labels of the \-factor Hilbert-spaces in direct-product Hilbert-spaces of composite physical systems of similar particles refer to particles, either directly or descriptively. We distinguish different versions of Factorism and argue for their truth or falsehood. In particular, by introducing the concepts of snapshot Hilbert-space and Schrödinger-movie, we demonstrate that there are Hilbert-spaces and \-factorisations where the labels do refer, even descriptively, to similar particles, which (...)
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  28. The Role of Reflection in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Houston Smit - 1999 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (2):203–223.
    There are two prevailing interpretations of the status which Kant accorded his claims in the Critique of Pure Reason: 1) he is analyzing our concepts of cognition and experience; 2) he is making empirical claims about our cognitive faculties. I argue for a third alternative: on Kant's account, all cognition consists in a reflective consciousness of our cognitive faculties, and in critique we analyze the content of this consciousness. Since Strawson raises a famous charge of incoherence against such a position, (...)
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  29. Can False Memories Be Created Through Nonconscious Processes?René Zeelenberg, Gijs Plomp & Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):403-412.
    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by . Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the 2000-ms condition. However, in the conditions with shorter presentation times (20 (...)
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  30.  17
    The Ordered Apology.Gijs van Dijck - 2017 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 37 (3):562-587.
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  31.  35
    Responsible Leadership Development Through Management Education: A Business Ethics Perspective.Arnold Smit - 2013 - African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):45.
    Whilst business has contributed hugely to human development and economic progress, there is, at the same time, an intensifying debate about its complicity in aggravating the sustainability risks that society is currently facing. This debate also has a bearing on the role of management education in shaping the ethical and functional paradigms in the light of which businesses are created, developed and managed, as well as the parameters in the light of which they are evaluated and rated to be successful (...)
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  32.  75
    Internalism and the Origin of Rational Motivation.Houston Smit - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 7 (2):183-231.
    What makes a subject''s motivationrational is its originating in her practicalreasoning. I explain the appeal of this thesisabout rational motivation, and explore itsrelation to recent discussions of internalismabout reasons for action. I do so in theservice of clarifying an important meta-ethicaldebate between Humean motivational skeptics andtheir Kantian opponents. This debate is oneover whether, as this skeptic contends andKantians deny, considerations about ourmotivational capacities, together withinternalism, restrict genuine reasons foraction to merely instrumental ones. I arguethat properly adjudicating this debate requiresidentifying one (...)
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  33.  16
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
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  34.  82
    Why Bare Demonstratives Need Not Semantically Refer.J. P. Smit - 2012 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (1):43-66.
    I-theories of bare demonstratives take the semantic referent of a demonstrative to be determined by an inner state of the utterer. E-theories take the referent to be determined by factors external to the utterer. I argue that, on the Standard view of communication, neither of these theories can be right. Firstly, both are committed to the existence of conventions with superfluous content. Secondly, any claim to the effect that a speaker employs the conventions associated with these theories cannot have any (...)
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  35.  63
    Sticks or Carrots? The Emergence of Self-Ownership.Gijs van Donselaar - 2013 - Ethics 123 (4):700-716.
  36.  19
    Reuniting Ethics and Social Science: The Oxford Handbook of International Relations.Christian Reus-Smit & Duncan Snidal - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (3):261-271.
    The quality of our theoretical argumentation, the diversity and insights of our methods, and our general level of understanding are markedly better than a generation ago. However, this progress has been driven by a division of labor with increased specialization that has led each part of the field to become narrower.
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  37.  33
    The Development of Altruistic Behavior Out of Reactive Crying.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):79-86.
    Reactive crying, displayed by children as a response to the distress of another, is described as a precursor of helping and caring. There are several stages during the transition from the innate, reactive cry to the intentional response. Children at the age of 6–14 months are able to control their reactive distress response, yet still respond to the distress of others by displaying distress behavior themselves. Two explanations are discussed. According to one explanation, children are confused about what happens to (...)
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  38.  9
    An Evaluation of the Reporting on Ethics and Integrity of Selected Listed Motor Vehicle Companies.Anet Magdalena Smit & Elizabeth J. Bierman - 2017 - African Journal of Business Ethics 11 (1).
    Transparency in reporting has become very important and various stakeholders expect companies to disclose sensitive information, such as ethical aspects, integrity and anti-corruption information. Any indication of corruption can be detrimental when trying to attract foreign investors to invest in a country. These disclosure practices could place remarkable pressure on a company that needs to portray a positive image to their stakeholders. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the reporting on ethics, integrity and anti-corruption of companies in (...)
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  39.  57
    Darwin’s Rehabilitation of Teleology Versus Williams’ Replacement of Teleology by Natural Selection.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):357-365.
    Williams argued that Darwin replaced teleology by natural selection. This article argues that this idea is based on a misunderstanding of Darwin’s critique of the argument from design. Darwin did not replace teleology by evolutionary explanations but showed that we can understand teleology without referring to a Designer. He eliminated the concept of design and rehabilitated Aristotelian teleological explanations. The implication is that adaptations should not be investigated as if designed, but with the help of both teleological and evolutionary explanations. (...)
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  40.  20
    Strategies and Motives for Resistance to Persuasion: An Integrative Framework.Marieke L. Fransen, Edith G. Smit & Peeter W. J. Verlegh - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  41. Machine Morality: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches for Modelling Human Moral Faculties. [REVIEW]Wendell Wallach, Colin Allen & Iva Smit - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (4):565-582.
    The implementation of moral decision making abilities in artificial intelligence (AI) is a natural and necessary extension to the social mechanisms of autonomous software agents and robots. Engineers exploring design strategies for systems sensitive to moral considerations in their choices and actions will need to determine what role ethical theory should play in defining control architectures for such systems. The architectures for morally intelligent agents fall within two broad approaches: the top-down imposition of ethical theories, and the bottom-up building of (...)
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  42. Anaphora and Semantic Innocence.J. P. Smit & A. Steglich-Petersen - 2010 - Journal of Semantics 27 (1):119-124.
    Semantic theories that violate semantic innocence, i.e. require reference-shifts when terms are embedded in ‘that’ clauses and the like, are often challenged by producing sentences where an anaphoric expression, while not itself embedded in a context in which reference shifts, is anaphoric on an antecedent expression that is embedded in such a context. This, in conjunction with a widely accepted principle concerning unproblematic anaphora, is used to show that such reference shifting has absurd consequences. We show that it is the (...)
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  43.  23
    EEG Resting State Functional Connectivity in Adult Dyslexics Using Phase Lag Index and Graph Analysis.Gorka Fraga González, Dirk J. A. Smit, Melle J. W. van der Molen, Jurgen Tijms, Cornelis Jan Stam, Eco J. C. de Geus & Maurits W. van der Molen - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  44. Apriority, Reason, and Induction in Hume.Houston Smit - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (3):313-343.
    In what follows, I argue that Hume works with a notion of the a priori that, though unfamiliar today, was standard in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On this notion of the a priori, to know (consider, prove) something a priori is to know (consider, prove) it from the grounds that make it true. I will refer to this as the "from-grounds" notion of the a priori, and to the now-familiar and dominant notion—on which to know something a priori is (...)
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  45.  19
    Institutions and the Artworld – A Critical Note.Buekens Filip & J. P. Smit - 2018 - Journal of Social Ontology 4 (1):53-66.
    Contemporary theories of institutions as clusters of stable solutions to recurrent coordination problems can illuminate and explain some unresolved difficulties and problems adhering to institutional definitions of art initiated by George Dickie and Arthur Danto. Their account of what confers upon objects their institutional character does not fit well with current work on institutions and social ontology. The claim that “the artworld” confers the status of “art” onto objects remains utterly mysterious. The “artworld” is a generic notion that designates a (...)
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  46.  13
    Aquinas’s Abstractionism.Houston Smit - 2001 - Medieval Philosophy and Theology 10 (1):85-118.
  47.  22
    Darwin’s Rehabilitation of Teleology Versus Williams’ Replacement of Teleology by Natural Selection.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):357-365.
    Williams argued that Darwin replaced teleology by natural selection. This article argues that this idea is based on a misunderstanding of Darwin’s critique of the argument from design. Darwin did not replace teleology by evolutionary explanations but showed that we can understand teleology without referring to a Designer. He eliminated the concept of design and rehabilitated Aristotelian teleological explanations. The implication is that adaptations should not be investigated as if designed, but with the help of both teleological and evolutionary explanations. (...)
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  48.  61
    Subjective Probability Weighting and the Discovered Preference Hypothesis.Gijs van de Kuilen - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (1):1-22.
    Numerous studies have convincingly shown that prospect theory can better describe risky choice behavior than the classical expected utility model because it makes the plausible assumption that risk aversion is driven not only by the degree of sensitivity toward outcomes, but also by the degree of sensitivity toward probabilities. This article presents the results of an experiment aimed at testing whether agents become more sensitive toward probabilities over time when they repeatedly face similar decisions, receive feedback on the consequences of (...)
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  49.  10
    ‘Covenanting for Justice’? On the Accra Document, Reformed Theology and Reformed Ecclesiology.Dirkie J. Smit - 2009 - HTS Theological Studies 65 (1).
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  50. Interpassivity Revisited: A Critical and Historical Reappraisal of Interpassive Phenomena.Gijs Van Oenen - 2008 - International Journal of Žižek Studies 2 (2):1-16.
    The concept of interpassivity, coined by Žižek and Robert Pfaller in the nineties, delineates an original and fruitful field of research that deserves to be developed further. First, interpassivity should be understood in a historical way, as originating with modernity. Second, interpassivity should thus be identified with modernity, in that it expresses modernity’s preoccuption with activity. This explains why interpassivity should be understood as the delegation or ‘outsourcing’ of passivity, in order to become even more active, as Pfaller and Žižek (...)
     
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