Assisted Reproductive Technologies, as a solution to the issues of human infertility, have been developed since the mid-twentieth century. The development of these techniques, their progress and results have occurred simultaneously with two events related to ART: the establishment of new rights that have contributed to their endorsement, and the birth of bioethics that have allowed the recognition of their limits. The cultural change due to the coming of ART is characterized by three topics that are discussed in this article (...) and which are all included in the so-called gender ideology: the concept of woman and the control of her body, kinship and parentage, and the idea of autonomy. Some considerations on these topics are presented as well as some alternatives to ART, which include learning to redirect their work based on criteria pointed out by bioethical reflection. Such criteria reveal the profound meaning of preserving the dignity of every single person within a true human framework. (shrink)
Research Ethics Committees have the responsibility to protect the participants involved in researches and to guarantee the ethical behavior of researchers. In some institutions, such committees also review scientific projects of non-pharmaceutical areas, Public Health and Health Economics. Within this framework, the article analyzes what it means to be part of a Research Ethics Committee in a hospital or university based on personal experience as a community representative. By means of the convenience sampling technique, implemented in four Colombian cities that (...) have GCP-certified committees by INVIMA –National Institute for the Control of Medications and Food–, and by means of content analysis, based on fixed and emergent categories; the experience, perception, participation, representation, and ethical aspects are described as well as the learning process and personal contributions. Findings prove that representatives interviewed have been benefited by learning clinic and epidemiological aspects without necessarily being “experts in the community”. However, they seem not to recognize clearly the population they represent, which might lead these communities to being affected by certain particular studies. The article suggests to work on the minimal common elements that a community representative should possess to appropriately protect participants. (shrink)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights anniversary: More shame than glory? Aniversário da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos: mais pena que glória? Para citar esta editorial / to reference this editorial / para citar esta editorial Gamboa-Bernal GA. Aniversario de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos: ¿más pena que gloria?. Pers Bioet. 2019; 23: 6-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/pebi.2019.23.1.1.
_Historic and Scientific Assertion of the Humanae Vitae, Fifty Years Later_ _Reivindicação histórica e científica da humanae vitae, cinquenta anos depois_ Muchas veces se ha dicho que mayo de 1968 fue un hito en la cultura contemporánea. Esa revolución, que no fue nada silenciosa, no se extinguió espontáneamente sino que sus efectos se siguen cosechando, aún en el siglo XXI.
doi: 10.5294/pebi.2015.19.2.1 Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio pierden vigencia en el 2015. La ONU ya tiene preparado el paso siguiente: los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, que adoptó en su Asamblea General en cuya apertura estuvo como invitado el papa Francisco...
El presente trabajo recupera, caracteriza y evalúa el marco antropológico subyacente en la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos de 1948. Para este propósito, se utilizó como metodología el análisis del discurso y una evaluación antropológica de su contenido en relación directa con la Bioética contemporánea y sus problemas más sobresalientes. doi: 10.5294/pebi.2015.19.2.4.
The phenomenal properties of conscious mental states happen to be exclusively accessible from the first-person perspective. Consequently, some philosophers consider their existence to be incompatible with materialist metaphysics. In this paper I criticise one particular argument that is based on the idea that for something to be real it must (at least in principle) be accessible from an intersubjective perspective. I argue that the exclusively subjective access to phenomenal contents can be explained by the very particular nature of the epistemological (...) relation holding between a subject and his own mental states. Accordingly, this subjectivity does not compel us to deny the possibility that phenomenal contents are ontologically objective properties. First, I present the general form of the argument that I will discuss. Second, I show that this argument makes use of a criterion of reality that is not applicable to the case of subjective experience. Third, I discuss a plausible objection and give an argument for rejecting observation models of self-knowledge of phenomenal contents. These models fall prey to the homunculus illusion. (shrink)
Background: Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents.DiscussionIn some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as a (...) group that can come from appropriately conducted studies. However, the criteria of ensuring minimal risk can be difficult to define and apply and a distinction between harm and discomfort is reviewed. Waiving active parental permission could be acceptable when the risk of harm is minimal; when the research questions are related to an activity for which adolescents are not legally considered to be children; when the risk of harm or discomfort may increase if parental permission is required; and when risk of discomfort is low because the questionnaire is not potentially offensive for some adolescents and/or for some parents.SummaryStringent rules concerning parental permission in some studies could be detrimental to adolescents. A framework and a decision tree guide are proposed to help researchers and Research Ethics Committees in their decisions on whether active parental permission must be obtained. (shrink)
There is general agreement that from the first few months of life, our apprehension of physical objects accords, in some sense, with certain principles. In one philosopher's locution, we are 'perceptually sensitive' to physical principles describing the behavior of objects. But in what does this accordance or sensitivity consist? Are these principles explicitly represented or merely 'implemented'? And what sort of explanation do we accomplish in claiming that our object perception accords with these principles? My main goal here is to (...) suggest answers to these questions. I argue that the object principles are not explicitly represented, first addressing some confusion in the debate about what that means. On the positive side, I conclude that the principles supply a competence account, at Marr's computational level, and that they function like natural constraints in vision. These are among their considerable explanatory benefits - benefits endowed by rules and principles in other cognitive domains as well. Characterizing the explanatory role of the object principles is my main project here, but in pursuing certain sub-goals I am led to other conclusions of interest in their own right. I address an argument that the object principles are explicitly represented which assumes that object perception is substantially thought-like. This provokes a jaunt off the main path which leads to interesting territory: the boundary between thought and perception. I argue that object apprehension is much closer to perception than to thought on the spectrum between the two. (shrink)
The Totonac homegarden is a traditionally designed agroecosystem mixing different elements, such as cultivated and wild plants, and livestock. Our objective was to understand the role and importance of homegardens as a strategy for subsistence and natural resources management. Anthropological fieldwork was carried out in Coxquihui, Veracruz, Mexico, a Totonac community. Conventional sampling using a questionnaire yielded a sample of 40 individuals, each representing a family group. Personal interviews, life stories, observations, and field transects enriched survey information. Fieldwork permitted identification (...) of four types of Totonac homegardens: backyards, cropping fields, acahuales or fallow fields, and fences or field edges. Each of these gardens yields an array of products and services important for several cultural roles and natural resource management aims. Totonacs see land as the dominant and most critical resource. A great deal of terrain is steeply sloped and soils are poor. Homegardens play a key role in a production system that minimizes these site limitations, striking a balance between resource maintenance and subsistence needs. Their functions are ecological, to foster a multistrata vegetation cover, and a continuous supply of organic matter to the soil; economic, serving as living storehouses where diverse products (food, timber, firewood, forage, animals, ceremonial supplies, medicinal products), are kept through the annual cycle; and social, performing various social roles such as growing medicinal, ritual, and edible plants, thus supporting beliefs and culture continuity. Studies like this contribute to a better understanding of Totonac culture and native ecology, and give ideas for a better land management. (shrink)
Ideal rods and clocks are defined as an infinitesimal symmetry of the spacetime, at least in the non-quantum case. Since no a priori geometric structure is considered, all the possible models of spacetime are obtained.
Since Stalbaum’s 1838 translation revived interest in Plato’s Timaeus, commentators have tended to bracket the discourse on Necessity, reading it as either mythical or mystical. This essay offers an interpretation of Necessity that is also an assertion of its importance for understanding the philosophically important conception of chora-space found therein. Beginning with throwing ourselves back into the Presocratic milieu, I examine what remains of Presocratic notions of kreon and ananke (necessity) in order to move forward a more robust interpretation of (...) the discourse on Necessity and chora-space. (shrink)
As third wave feminist philosophers attending graduate schools in different parts of the country, we decided to use our e-mail discussion as the format for presenting our thinking on the subject of third wave feminism. Our dialogue takes us through the subjects of postmodernism, the relationship between theory and practice, the generation gap, and the power relations associated with feminist philosophy as an established part of the academy.
In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...) purposes, we provide an example from population genetics, the Wright-Fisher Model. (shrink)
Se analiza el papel del pathos como condición de emergencia tanto del logos como de la episteme, lo cual nos lleva reconocer que a la par de una concepción “intelectualista” de la teoría platónica del conocimiento, en la que es necesaria la supresión de todos los elementos irracionales que nublan el juicio, existe otra perspectiva, sobre todo sustentada en el Fedro, en la cual el pathos, expresado como manía amorosa, no es solamente una etapa a superar para acceder a la (...) intuición de las Formas, sino que ella misma se convierte en una experiencia cognitiva que devuelve al conocimiento su carácter humano.We analyze the role of pathos as emergency condition for both, logos and episteme, which leads us to recognize that along with an intellectual conception of the Platonic theory of knowledge, that demands to abolish all irrational elements that cloud the judgment, there is another perspective, especially supported by the Phaedrus, in which pathos, understood as love like madness, is not just a stage to overcome in order to arrive at the intuition of Forms, but it becomes itself a cognitive experience that gives back to knowledge its human nature. (shrink)
Advance directives are useful ways to express one's wishes about end of life care, but even now most people have not completed one of the documents. David Doukas and William Reichel strongly encourage planning for end of life care. Although Planning for Uncertainty is at times fairly abstract for the general reader, it does provide useful background and practical steps.
El presente artículo se basa en una investigación llevada a cabo por profesores de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, adscritos al Grupo de Investigación de Trabajo Social y Políticas Sociales (Plan Andaluz de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación -Ciencias Sociales, Económicas y Jurídicas (PAIDI, SEJ-452), a lo largo de dos años y dentro del marco de colaboración con la Fundación Mercasevilla. El objeto de dicha investigación ha sido el análisis de la sociabilidad de las personas mayores en el medio (...) urbano desde la sociabilidad a la dependencia. El estudio pone de manifiesto las diferencias existentes en el uso de los espacios según la edad de la población, los déficits que esos espacios muestran, y su relación con la situación de dependencia de las personas mayores. En relación a los datos obtenidos, se plantean conclusiones y orientaciones que pueden resultar de interés a técnicos, investigadores, planificadores del territorio y para aquellos que pueden decidir acerca de políticas que modifiquen el espacio urbano. El equipo de investigación establece una relación directa entre la integración social del colectivo de mayores, con el grado de participación en la sociedad en la que se encuentran, y por tanto, con el uso y acceso a los distintos espacios de sociabilidad, que es en definitiva donde ejercen esta participación social. (shrink)
Hysterectomy (or hysterectomy with oophorectomy) is the most frequently performed major surgery in the United States, affecting approximately 700,000 women each year (Easterday, 1983). There has long been interest in the psychological effects of these surgeries. However, apart from the concern that some hysterectomies may be unnecessary (Pearse, 1976), there has been little attention to bioethical issues relating to hysterectomy. Physicians and nurses are ethically obligated to respect the woman who may have a hysterectomy by treating her as an autonomous (...) agent. Informed consent within the context of a decision for hysterectomy should include balanced information and supportive exploration of the woman's values, goals, and life plan. Care of the patient should assist her adjustment, thereby also promoting her autonomy. Physician attitudes toward hysterectomy and the hysterectomy patient can have a major influence on patient self-determination. (shrink)