Results for 'Glen Sanford'

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  1.  22
    Science at the Frontiers: Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Science.Adam D. Roth, Anya Plutynski, Bridget Buxton, Steven C. Hatch, Sharyn Clough, Brian L. Keeley, Yuri Yamamoto, Lawrence Souder, Evelyn Brister, Kristen Intemann, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Glen Sanford - 2011 - Lexington Books.
    Compiled by an archaeologist and philosopher of science, Science at the Frontiers: Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Science supplements current literature in the history and philosophy of science with essays approaching the traditional problems of the field from new perspectives and highlighting disciplines usually overlooked by the canon. William H. Krieger brings together scientists from a number of disciplines to answer these questions and more in a volume appropriate for both students and academics in the field.
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  2.  19
    Causal Dependence and Multiplicity: David H. Sanford.David H. Sanford - 1985 - Philosophy 60 (232):215-230.
    Ted Honderich's ‘Causes and If p, even if x, still q ’ contains many good points I shall not discuss. My discussion is restricted to some of the points Honderich makes about causal priority in the final two sections of his paper. He considers several proposals, new and old, for accounting for causal priority before he presents a tentativeproposal of his own. He thinks that some of these proposals, besides having difficulties peculiar to themselves, share the deficiency of lacking the (...)
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  3.  8
    Causation and Intelligibility: David H. Sanford.David H. Sanford - 1994 - Philosophy 69 (267):55-67.
    I shall venture to affirm, as a general proposition which admits of no exception, that the knowledge of this relation is not, in any instance, attained by reasonings a priori, but arises entirely from experience, when we find that any particular objects are constantly conjoined with each other.
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  4.  11
    Begging the Question as Involving Actual Belief and Inconceivable Without It.David H. Sanford - 1988 - Metaphilosophy 19 (1):32–37.
    This article answers John Biro's "Knowability, Believability, and Begging the Question: a Reply to Sanford" in "Metaphilosophy" 15 (1984). Biro and I agree that of two argument instances with the same form and content, one but not the other can beg the question, depending on other factors. These factors include actual beliefs, or so I maintain (against Biro) with the help of some analysed examples. Brief selections from Archbishop Whatley and J S Mill suggest that they also regard reference (...)
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  5.  39
    Psychological Studies of Quantifiers.Anthony J. Sanford, Linda M. Moxey & Kevin Paterson - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (3):153-170.
    In this paper we present a summary review of recent psychological studies which make a contribution to an understanding of how quantifiers are used. Until relatively recently, the contribution which psychology has made has been somewhat restricted. For example, the approach which has enjoyed the greatest popularity in psychology is explaining quantifiers as expressions which have fuzzy or vague projections on to mental scales of amount. Following Moxey & Sanford (1993a), this view is questioned. Experimental work is summarized showing (...)
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  6.  21
    Pronouns Without Explicit Antecedents?A. J. Sanford, S. Garrod, A. Lucas & R. Henderson - 1983 - Journal of Semantics 2 (3-4):303-318.
    Yule (1982) has argued that examples from speech show that pronouns may be interpreted nonreferentially. In the present paper, it is argued that pronouns elicit procedures for the identification of referents which are in explicit focus (Sanford and Garrod, 1981). Three experiments are offered in support of this view. The discussion centres on the need for carefully assessing the knowledge-states of listeners when pronouns are used in the absence of antecedents. It is proposed that felicitous use of pronouns without (...)
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  7.  9
    The Control of Attributional Patterns by the Focusing Properties of Quantifying Expressions.S. B. Barton & A. J. Sanford - 1990 - Journal of Semantics 7 (1):81-92.
    Recent evidence has shown that certain quantifiers (few, only a few) and quantifying adverbs (seldom, rarely) when used tend to make people think of reasons for the small proportions or low frequencies which they denote. Other expressions single out small proportions or low frequences, but do not lead to a focus on reasons (e. g. a few; occasionally). In the present paper, these observations are applied to the attribution of cause in short two–line vignettes which make reference to situations, and (...)
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  8.  12
    Real Time.David H. Sanford & D. H. Mellor - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (2):289.
  9.  62
    Depth of Processing in Language Comprehension: Not Noticing the Evidence.Anthony J. Sanford & Patrick Sturt - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (9):382-386.
  10.  38
    Perceiving Affect From Arm Movement.Frank E. Pollick, Helena M. Paterson, Armin Bruderlin & Anthony J. Sanford - 2001 - Cognition 82 (2):B51-B61.
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  11. The Problem of the Many, Many Composition Questions, and Naive Mereology.David H. Sanford - 1993 - Noûs 27 (2):219-228.
    Naive mereology studies ordinary, common-sense beliefs about part and whole. Some of the speculations in this article on naive mereology do not bear directly on Peter van Inwagen's "Material Beings". The other topics, (1) and (2), both do. (1) Here is an example of Peter Unger's "Problem of the Many". How can a table be a collection of atoms when many collections of atoms have equally strong claims to be that table? Van Inwagen invokes fuzzy sets to solve this problem. (...)
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  12.  67
    Determinates Vs. Determinables.David H. Sanford - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Everything red is colored, and all squares are polygons. A square is distinguished from other polygons by being four-sided, equilateral, and equiangular. What distinguishes red things from other colored things? This has been understood as a conceptual rather than scientific question. Theories of wavelengths and reflectance and sensory processing are not considered. Given just our ordinary understanding of color, it seems that what differentiates red from other colors is only redness itself. The Cambridge logician W. E. Johnson introduced the terms (...)
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  13. Fusion Confusion.David H. Sanford - 2003 - Analysis 63 (1):1–4.
    Two fusions can be in the same place at the same time. So long as a house made of Tinkertoys is intact, the fusion of all its Tinkertoys parts coincides with the fusion of it walls and its roof. If none of the Tinkertoys is destroyed, their fusion persists through the complete disassembly of the house. (So the house is not a fusion of its Tinkertoy parts.) The fusion of the walls and roof does not persist through the complete disassembly (...)
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  14. Begging the Question.David H. Sanford - 1972 - Analysis 32 (6):197-199.
    A primary purpose of argument is to increase the degree of reasonable confidence that one has in the truth of the conclusion. A question begging argument fails this purpose because it violates what W. E. Johnson called an epistemic condition of inference. Although an argument of the sort characterized by Robert Hoffman in his response (Analysis 32.2, Dec 71) to Richard Robinson (Analysis 31.4, March 71) begs the question in all circumstances, we usually understand the charge that an argument is (...)
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  15.  32
    Communicating Quantities: A Psychological Perspective (Essays in Cognitive Psychology).Linda M. Moxey & Anthony J. Sanford - 1993 - Psychology Press.
  16.  20
    Memory Bias for Emotional Facial Expressions in Major Depression.Nathan Ridout, Arlene Astell, Ian Reid, Tom Glen & Ronan O'Carroll - 2003 - Cognition and Emotion 17 (1):101-122.
  17. The Direction of Causation and the Direction of Conditionship.David H. Sanford - 1976 - Journal of Philosophy 73 (8):193-207.
    I criticize and emend J L Mackie's account of causal priority by replacing ‘fixity’ in its central clause by 'x is a causal condition of y, but y is not a causal condition of x'. This replacement works only if 'is a causal condition of' is not a symmetric relation. Even apart from our desire to account for causal priority, it is desirable to have an account of nonsymmetric conditionship. Truth, for example, is a condition of knowledge, but knowledge is (...)
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  18.  10
    Fusion Confusion.D. H. Sanford - 2003 - Analysis 63 (1):1-4.
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  19.  13
    Distinctness and Non-Identity.D. H. Sanford - 2005 - Analysis 65 (4):269-274.
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  20. Infinite Regress Arguments.David Sanford - 1984 - In James H. Fetzer (ed.), Principles of Philosophical Reasoning. Rowman & Allanheld. pp. 93--117.
     
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  21.  18
    Superfluous Information, Epistemic Conditions of Inference, and Begging the Question.DavidH Sanford - 1981 - Metaphilosophy 12 (2):145–158.
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  22.  28
    If P, Then Q: Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning.David Sanford - 1992 - Routledge.
    This new edition includes three new chapters, updating the book to take into account developments in the field over the past fifteen years.
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  23. Causal Necessity and Logical Necessity.David H. Sanford - 1975 - Philosophical Studies 28 (2):185 - 194.
    Myles Brand and Marshall Swain advocate the principle that if A is the set of conditions individually necessary and jointly sufficient for the occurrence of B, then if C is a set of conditions individually necessary for the occurrence of B, every member of C is a member of A. I agree with John Barker and Risto Hilpinen who each argue that this principle is not true for causal necessity and sufficiency, but I disagree with their claim that it is (...)
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  24.  43
    Negative Terms.David Sanford - 1967 - Erkenntnis 27 (6):201.
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  25. Red, Green, and Absolute Determinacy.David Sanford - 1966 - Philosophical Quarterly 16 (65):356-358.
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  26. Contraries and Subcontraries.David H. Sanford - 1968 - Noûs 2 (1):95-96.
    If two statements are contraries if and only if they cannot both be true, but can both be false, then some corresponding A and E categorical statements are not contraries, even on the presupposition that something exists which satisfies the subject term. For some such statements are necessarily true and thus cannot be false. There is a similar problem with subcontraries.
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  27. Distinctness and Non-Identity.David H. Sanford - 2005 - Analysis 65 (4):269–274.
    The following statement (A) is usually abbreviated with symbols: (A) There are items X and Y, each is F, X is not identical to Y, and everything F is identical to X or is identical to Y. (A) is neither necessary nor sufficient for the existence of exactly two distinct things that are F. Some things are neither identical nor distinct. The difference between distinctness and nonidentity makes a difference in asking questions about counting, constitution, and persistence.
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  28. Causal Necessity and Logical Necessity.David H. Sanford - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 33 (2):185 - 194.
    Hume's arguments for the contention that causal necessity precludes logical necessity depend on the questionable principle that a cause must precede its effect. Hobbes' definition of entire cause, although it fails to account for causal priority, is not refuted by Hume. The objections of Myles Brand and Marshall Swain (Philosophical Studies, 1976) to my counterexample against Hume (Philosophical Studies, 1975) are ineffective. Their other objections to my criticisms of their argument against defining causation in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions (...)
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  29. The Primary Objects of Perception.David H. Sanford - 1976 - Mind 85 (April):189-208.
    The primary objects of hearing are sounds: everything we hear we hear by hearing a sound. (This claim differs from Berkeley’s that we hear only sounds and from Aristotle’s that we only hear sounds.) Colored regions are primary objects of sight, and pressure resistant regions are primary objects of perception by touch. By definition, the primary objects of perception are physical. The properties of the primary objects of perception are exactly the properties sense-datum theories attribute to sense-data. Indirect Realism holds (...)
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  30.  41
    The possibility of transparent white.David H. Sanford - 1986 - Analysis 46 (4):212.
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  31. Chisholm on Brentano's Thesis.David H. Sanford - 1997 - In Lewis Edwin Hahn (ed.), The Philosophy of Roderick M. Chisholm. Chicago: Open Court. pp. 25--201.
    Roderick Chisholm provides, in different places, two formulations of Brentano's thesis about the relation between the psychological and the intentional: (1) all and only psychological sentences are intentional; (2) no psychological intentional sentence is equivalent to a nonintentional sentence. Chisholm also presents several definitions of intentionality. Some of these allow that a sentence is intentional while its negation is nonintentional, which ruins the prospects of defending the more plausible and interesting thesis (2). A generalization of the notion of logical independence (...)
     
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  32. Can a Sum Change its Parts?D. H. Sanford - 2011 - Analysis 71 (2):235-239.
  33.  8
    Quantifiers and Focus.Linda M. Moxey & Anthony J. Sanford - 1986 - Journal of Semantics 5 (3):189-206.
    This paper concerns a neglected but potentially important aspect of natural language quantifiers. Certain quantifiers serve to identify various proportions of sets. Thus few, for example, identifies a smaller proportion of a set than many. However, different quantifiers may serve to identify similar proportions, yet produce somewhat different representations when they are used. The distinction between few and a few is considered in some detail, along with related expressions. It is claimed that these expressions serve to put into focus different (...)
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  34.  47
    Infinity and Vagueness.David H. Sanford - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (4):520-535.
    Many philosophic arguments concerned with infinite series depend on the mutual inconsistency of statements of the following five forms: (1) something exists which has R to something; (2) R is asymmetric; (3) R is transitive; (4) for any x which has R to something, there is something which has R to x; (5) only finitely many things are related by R. Such arguments are suspect if the two-place relation R in question involves any conceptual vagueness or inexactness. Traditional sorites arguments (...)
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  35.  94
    Are You Man Enough? Aristotle and Courage.Jonathan J. Sanford - 2010 - International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):431-445.
    There are four features to Aristotle’s account of courage that appear peculiar when compared to our own intuitions about this virtue: his account of courage seems not, on its surface, to fit a eudaimonist model, courage is restricted to a surprisingly small number of actions, this restriction, among other things, excludes women and non-combatant men from ever exercising this virtue, and courage is counted as virtuous because of its nobility and beauty. In this paper I explore Aristotle’s account of courage (...)
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  36. Classical Logic and Inexact Predicates.David H. Sanford - 1974 - Mind 83 (329):112-113.
  37.  61
    Locke, Leibniz, and Wiggins on Being in the Same Place at the Same Time.David H. Sanford - 1970 - Philosophical Review 79 (1):75-82.
    Locke thought it was a necessary truth that no two material bodies could be in the same place at the same time. Leibniz wasn't so sure. This paper sides with Leibniz. I examine the arguments of David Wiggins in defense of Locke on this point (Philosophical Review, January 1968). Wiggins’ arguments are ineffective.
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  38. Durer's Role in the "Herzensergiessungen".David B. Sanford - 1972 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 30 (4):441-448.
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  39.  29
    Borderline Logic.David H. Sanford - 1975 - American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (1):29-39.
    To accommodate vague statements and predicates, I propose an infinite-valued, non-truth-functional interpretation of logic on which the tautologies are exactly the tautologies of classical two-valued logic. iI introduce a determinacy operator, analogous to the necessity operator in alethic modal logic, to allow the definition of first-order and higher-order borderline cases. On the interpretation proposed for determinacy, every statement corresponding to a theorem of modal system T is a logical truth, and I conjecture that every logical truth on the interpretation corresponds (...)
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  40. Temporal Parts. Temporal Portions, and Temporal Slices: An Exercise in Naive Mereology.David H. Sanford - 1996 - Acta Analytica 15:21-33.
    Naive mereology studies ordinary conceptions of part and whole. Parts, unlike portions, have objective boundaries and many things, such as dances and sermons have temporal parts. In order to deal with Mark Heller's claim that temporal parts "are ontologically no more or less basic than the wholes that they compose," we retell the story of Laplace's Genius, here named "Swifty." Although Swifty processes lots of information very quickly, his conceptual repertoire need not extend beyond fundamental physics. So we attempt to (...)
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  41.  7
    Doubt and Dogmatism: Studies in Hellenistic Epistemology. [REVIEW]Paul Sanford & M. Schofield - 1983 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 103:191-191.
  42.  5
    Truth, Love and Immortality: An Introduction to McTaggart's Philosophy.David H. Sanford & P. T. Geach - 1982 - Philosophical Review 91 (3):445.
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  43. If P Then Q Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning.David Sanford - 1991 - Behavior and Philosophy 19 (2):103-107.
     
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  44.  28
    The Mental Representation of Discourse in a Focussed Memory System: Implications for the Interpretation of Anaphoric Noun Phrases.S. C. Garrod & A. J. Sanford - 1982 - Journal of Semantics 1 (1):21-41.
    To a cognitive psychologist discourse comprehension poses a number of interesting problems both in terms of mental representation and mental operations. In this paper we suggest that certain of these problems can be brought into clear focus by employing a procedural approach to discourse description. In line with this approach a general framework for the mental representation of discourse is discussed in which distinctions between different types of memory partitions are proposed. It is argued that one needs to distinguish both (...)
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  45. Begging the question.David H. Sanford - 1972 - Erkenntnis 32 (6):197.
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  46.  20
    The Fallacy of Begging the Question: A Reply to Barker.David H. Sanford - 1977 - Dialogue 16 (3):485-498.
    According to John A Barker, whether an argument begs the question is purely a matter of logical form. According to me, it is also a matter of epistemic conditions; some arguments which beg the question in some contexts need not beg the question in every context. I point out difficulties in Barker's treatment and defend my own views against some of his criticisms. In the concluding section, "Alleged difficulties with disjunctive syllogism," I defend the validity of disjunctive syllogism against the (...)
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  47.  5
    Educating for Interprofessional Collaboration: Teaching About Values.Sally Glen - 1999 - Nursing Ethics 6 (3):202-213.
    Effective interprofessional collaboration depends upon establishing understanding that respects differences in values and beliefs, and thus differences in response to the multiplicity of patient/client/user needs. To facilitate the latter, this article suggests that health and social care students need a formal knowledge of the meaning of values and the varieties of systems within which values are expressed. Students need especially to understand the genesis of their own professional value system and to recognize the gap that inevitably develops between the values (...)
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  48.  62
    Nostalgia for the Ordinary: Comments on Papers by Unger and Wheeler.David H. Sanford - 1979 - Synthese 41 (2):175 - 184.
    Unger claims that we can block sorites arguments for the conclusion that there are no ordinary things only by invoking some kind of miracle, but no such miracle is needed if we reject the principle that every statement has a truth value. Wheeler's argument for the nonexistence of ordinary things depends on the assumptions that if ordinary things exist, they comprise real kinds, and that if ordinary predicates really apply to things, the predicates refer to real properties. If we accept (...)
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  49.  31
    Ethics, Narrative, and Agriculture: Transforming Agricultural Practice Through Ecological Imagination. [REVIEW]A. Whitney Sanford - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (3):283-303.
    The environmental degradation caused by industrial agriculture, as well as the resulting social and health consequences, creates an urgency to rethink food production by expanding the moral imagination to include agricultural practices. Agricultural practices presume human use of the earth and acknowledge human dependence on the biotic community, and these relations mean that agriculture presents a separate set of considerations in the broader field of environmental ethics. Many scholars and activists have argued persuasively that we need new stories to rethink (...)
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  50.  25
    Discourse Models as Interfaces Between Language and the Spatial World.Simon C. Garrod & Anthony J. Sanford - 1988 - Journal of Semantics 6 (1):147-160.
    This paper outlines an argument that the meaning of spatial terms depends critically upon our mental models of space. We argue that such models capture the functional geometry of spatial scenes to represent various control relations between the objects in the scene. The discussion centres around two analyses. First, an analysis of the spatial descriptions taken from task oriented dialogue, which seem to reflect a number of distinct mental models of the same visual scene, and secondly an analysis of simple (...)
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