Results for 'Gordon Douglas Menzies'

987 found
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  1.  39
    Conflicting evidence and decisions by agency professionals: an experimental test in the context of merger regulation.Bruce Lyons, Gordon Douglas Menzies & Daniel John Zizzo - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):465-499.
    Many important regulatory decisions are taken by professionals employing limited and conflicting evidence. We conduct an experiment in a merger regulation setting, identifying the role of different standards of proof, volumes of evidence, cost of error and professional or lay decision making. The experiment was conducted on current practitioners from 11 different jurisdictions, in addition to student subjects. Legal standards of proof significantly affect decisions. There are specific differences because of professional judgment, including in how error costs and volume of (...)
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  2.  6
    Ugarit in Retrospect: Fifty Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic.Stan Rummel & Gordon Douglas Young - 1983 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (2):474.
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  3.  42
    Formalizing Informal Logic.Douglas Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (4):508-538.
    This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
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  4.  14
    The Carneades model of argument invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  5.  46
    Applying Recent Argumentation Methods to Some Ancient Examples of Plausible Reasoning.Douglas Walton, Christopher W. Tindale & Thomas F. Gordon - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (1):85-119.
    Plausible (eikotic) reasoning known from ancient Greek (late Academic) skeptical philosophy is shown to be a clear notion that can be analyzed by argumentation methods, and that is important for argumentation studies. It is shown how there is a continuous thread running from the Sophists to the skeptical philosopher Carneades, through remarks of Locke and Bentham on the subject, to recent research in artificial intelligence. Eleven characteristics of plausible reasoning are specified by analyzing key examples of it recognized as important (...)
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  6.  35
    How Computational Tools Can Help Rhetoric and Informal Logic with Argument Invention.Douglas Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (2):269-295.
    This paper compares the features and methods of the two leading implemented systems that offer a tool for helping a user to find or invent arguments to support or attack a designated conclusion, the Carneades Argumentation System and the IBM Watson Debater tool. The central aim is to contribute to the understanding of scholars in informal logic, rhetoric and argumentation on how these two software systems can be useful for them. One contribution of the paper is to explain to these (...)
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  7.  69
    The Carneades model of argument invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  8.  24
    How to formalize informal logic.Douglas Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - unknown
    This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. Carneades also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
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  9.  22
    Modeling critical questions as additional premises.Douglas Walton, Thomas F. Gordon & Scott F. Aikin - unknown
    This paper shows how the critical questions matching an argumentation scheme can be mod-eled in the Carneades argumentation system as three kinds of premises. Ordinary premises hold only if they are supported by sufficient arguments. Assumptions hold, by default, until they have been questioned. With exceptions the negation holds, by default, until the exception has been supported by sufficient arguments. By “sufficient arguments”, we mean arguments sufficient to satisfy the applicable proof standard.
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  10. Jumping to a Conclusion: Fallacies and Standards of Proof.Douglas Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (2):215-243.
    Five errors that fit under the category of jumping to a conclusion are identified: (1) arguing from premises that are insufficient as evidence to prove a conclusion (2) fallacious argument from ignorance, (3) arguing to a wrong conclusion, (4) using defeasible reasoning without being open to exceptions, and (5) overlooking/suppressing evidence. It is shown that jumping to a conclusion is best seen not as a fallacy itself, but as a more general category of faulty argumentation pattern underlying these errors and (...)
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  11.  58
    The Carneades model of argument and burden of proof.Thomas F. Gordon, Henry Prakken & Douglas Walton - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):875-896.
    We present a formal, mathematical model of argument structure and evaluation, taking seriously the procedural and dialogical aspects of argumentation. The model applies proof standards to determine the acceptability of statements on an issue-by-issue basis. The model uses different types of premises (ordinary premises, assumptions and exceptions) and information about the dialectical status of statements (stated, questioned, accepted or rejected) to allow the burden of proof to be allocated to the proponent or the respondent, as appropriate, for each premise separately. (...)
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  12. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth: A Guide to Understanding the Bible.Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart - 1981
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  13.  23
    Representing argumentation schemes with Constraint Handling Rules.Thomas F. Gordon, Horst Friedrich & Douglas Walton - 2018 - Argument and Computation 9 (2):91-119.
    We present a high-level declarative programming language for representing argumentation schemes, where schemes represented in this language can be easily validated by domain experts, including developers of argumentation schemes in informal logic and philosophy, and serve as executable specifications for automatically constructing arguments, when applied to a set of assumptions. This new rule language for representing argumentation schemes is validated by using it to represent twenty representative argumentation schemes.
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  14.  63
    A Carneades reconstruction of Popov v Hayashi.Thomas F. Gordon & Douglas Walton - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (1):37-56.
    Carneades is an open source argument mapping application and a programming library for building argumentation support tools. In this paper, Carneades’ support for argument reconstruction, evaluation and visualization is illustrated by modeling most of the factual and legal arguments in Popov v Hayashi.
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  15.  19
    Where Relational Commons Take Place: The City and its Social Infrastructure as Sites of Commoning.Christof Brandtner, Gordon C. C. Douglas & Martin Kornberger - 2023 - Journal of Business Ethics 184 (4):917-932.
    Commons enjoy recognition as an alternative to the dichotomy of state and market. In contrast to liberal market theorists who frame the commons as resource-based, we build on alternative and critical conceptions that describe the commons as processual, social, and inherently relational. Our analysis adds to these accounts an articulation of the contemporary commons as “social infrastructure” in the urban spatial conditions where the social processes of commoning take place. We argue that the relational features of urban commons depend on (...)
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  16.  22
    How important is social support in determining patients’ suitability for transplantation? Results from a National Survey of Transplant Clinicians.Keren Ladin, Joanna Emerson, Zeeshan Butt, Elisa J. Gordon, Douglas W. Hanto, Jennifer Perloff, Norman Daniels & Tara A. Lavelle - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (10):666-674.
    BackgroundNational guidelines require programmes use subjective assessments of social support when determining transplant suitability, despite limited evidence linking it to outcomes. We examined how transplant providers weigh the importance of social support for kidney transplantation compared with other factors, and variation by clinical role and personal beliefs.MethodsThe National survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and the Society of Transplant Social Work in 2016. Using a discrete choice approach, respondents compared two hypothetical patient profiles and selected one for transplantation. (...)
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  17. A history of AI and Law in 50 papers: 25 years of the international conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  18.  45
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Steven I. Miller, Frank A. Stone, William K. Medlin, Clinton Collins, W. Robert Morford, Marc Belth, John T. Abrahamson, Albert W. Vogel, J. Don Reeves, Richard D. Heyman, K. Armitage, Stewart E. Fraser, Edward R. Beauchamp, Clark C. Gill, Edward J. Nemeth, Gordon C. Ruscoe, Charles H. Lyons, Douglas N. Jackson, Bemman N. Phillips, Melvin L. Silberman, Charles E. Pascal, Richard E. Ripple, Harold Cook, Morris L. Bigge, Irene Athey, Sandra Gadell, John Gadell, Daniel S. Parkinson, Nyal D. Royse & Isaac Brown - 1972 - Educational Studies 3 (1):1-28.
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  19.  67
    Higher-Order Strategic Maneuvering in Argumentation.Gordon R. Mitchell - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (3):319-335.
    In a critical discussion, interlocutors can strategically maneuver by shading their expressed degree of standpoint commitment for rhetorical effect. When is such strategic shading reasonable, and when does it cross the line and risk fallacious derailment of the discussion? Analysis of President George W. Bush’s 2002–2003 prewar commentary on Iraq provides an occasion to explore this question and revisit Douglas Ehninger’s distinction between argumentation as coercive correction and argumentation as a person-risking enterprise. Points of overlap between Ehninger’s account and (...)
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  20.  14
    Portraits in American Archaeology: Remembrances of Some Distinguished Americanists. Gordon Randolph Willey.Douglas R. Givens - 1991 - Isis 82 (2):409-410.
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  21.  19
    Arguer's position: a pragmatic study of ad hominem attack, criticism, refutation, and fallacy.Douglas Neil Walton - 1985 - Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
    Douglas N. Walton considers the question of whether the conventions of informal conversation can be articulated more precisely than they are at present. Specifically, he addresses the problem of the fallacy of ad hominem argumentation as it occurs in natural settings. Can rules be formulated to determine if criticisms of apparent hypocrisy in an argument are defensible or refutable? Walton suggests that they can, and ultimately defends the thesis that ad hominem reasoning is not fallacious per se. He carries (...)
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  22. The carneades model of argument and burden of proof.Douglas Walton - manuscript
    with Thomas F. Gordon and Henry Prakken. Artificial Intelligence, forthcoming. [Preprint posted.].
     
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  23.  63
    A dialogical theory of presumption.Douglas Walton - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (2):209-243.
    The notions of burden of proof and presumption are central to law, but as noted in McCormick on Evidence, they are also the slipperiest of any of the family of legal terms employed in legal reasoning. However, recent studies of burden of proof and presumption (Prakken et al. 2005; Prakken and Sartor 2006). Gordon et al. (2007) offer formal models that can render them into precise tools useful for legal reasoning. In this paper, the various theories and formal models (...)
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  24.  28
    The Niebuhrian Legacy and the Idea of Responsibility.Douglas F. Ottati - 2009 - Studies in Christian Ethics 22 (4):399-422.
    Reinhold and H. Richard Niebuhr developed different stances in theological ethics as well as contrasting interpretations of important circumstances and events. Despite their differences, however, when it came to the idea of responsibility, they shared a fundamental insight about the situated character of human agency. Their insight points to a substantial if also flexible Niebuhrian legacy in theological ethics, and promising and problematic features of this legacy have continued to engage the critical and constructive energies of diverse thinkers, including James (...)
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  25.  67
    In memoriam Douglas N. Walton: the influence of Doug Walton on AI and law.Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon, Floris Bex, Thomas F. Gordon, Henry Prakken, Giovanni Sartor & Bart Verheij - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (3):281-326.
    Doug Walton, who died in January 2020, was a prolific author whose work in informal logic and argumentation had a profound influence on Artificial Intelligence, including Artificial Intelligence and Law. He was also very interested in interdisciplinary work, and a frequent and generous collaborator. In this paper seven leading researchers in AI and Law, all past programme chairs of the International Conference on AI and Law who have worked with him, describe his influence on their work.
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  26.  17
    The Realist Turn: Repositioning Liberalism.David Gordon - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly 71 (4):pqaa077.
    The Realist Turn: Repositioning Liberalism. By Rasmussen Douglas B., Den Uyl Douglas J..
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  27. Review of Douglas B. Rasmussen and Douglas J. Den Uyl's Liberty and Nature: An Aristotelian Defense of Liberal Order (1991). [REVIEW]David Gordon - 1994 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 11 (1):129-142.
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  28.  5
    Training for Professional Child Care.Beverly Gulley, Jacqueline Eddleman & Douglas Bedient - 1987 - Southern Illinois University Press.
    “Only about 25 percent of the employees in child-care operations around the country have had professional training in dealing with children.”—_Newsweek_ This book is a proven, practical approach to providing that training at a minimum of expense and disruption of services. Written for trainers, it may profitably be used by any individual who wants to know more about positive methods for working with children. The information provided here has been used extensively to train child-care providers throughout Illinois. Covered in detail (...)
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  29.  54
    Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research Integrity: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 31 May - 3 June 2015.Lex Bouter, Melissa S. Anderson, Ana Marusic, Sabine Kleinert, Susan Zimmerman, Paulo S. L. Beirão, Laura Beranzoli, Giuseppe Di Capua, Silvia Peppoloni, Maria Betânia de Freitas Marques, Adriana Sousa, Claudia Rech, Torunn Ellefsen, Adele Flakke Johannessen, Jacob Holen, Raymond Tait, Jillon Van der Wall, John Chibnall, James M. DuBois, Farida Lada, Jigisha Patel, Stephanie Harriman, Leila Posenato Garcia, Adriana Nascimento Sousa, Cláudia Maria Correia Borges Rech, Oliveira Patrocínio, Raphaela Dias Fernandes, Laressa Lima Amâncio, Anja Gillis, David Gallacher, David Malwitz, Tom Lavrijssen, Mariusz Lubomirski, Malini Dasgupta, Katie Speanburg, Elizabeth C. Moylan, Maria K. Kowalczuk, Nikolas Offenhauser, Markus Feufel, Niklas Keller, Volker Bähr, Diego Oliveira Guedes, Douglas Leonardo Gomes Filho, Vincent Larivière, Rodrigo Costas, Daniele Fanelli, Mark William Neff, Aline Carolina de Oliveira Machado Prata, Limbanazo Matandika, Sonia Maria Ramos de Vasconcelos & Karina de A. Rocha - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (Suppl 1).
    Table of contentsI1 Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research IntegrityConcurrent Sessions:1. Countries' systems and policies to foster research integrityCS01.1 Second time around: Implementing and embedding a review of responsible conduct of research policy and practice in an Australian research-intensive universitySusan Patricia O'BrienCS01.2 Measures to promote research integrity in a university: the case of an Asian universityDanny Chan, Frederick Leung2. Examples of research integrity education programmes in different countriesCS02.1 Development of a state-run “cyber education program of research ethics” in (...)
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  30.  17
    Review of Douglas H. Gordon and Norman L. Torrey: The Censoring of Diderot's Encyclopedie and the Re-Established Text[REVIEW]T. V. Smith - 1948 - Ethics 58 (2):138-140.
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  31.  23
    Book Review:The Censoring of Diderot's Encyclopedie and the Re-Established Text. Douglas H. Gordon, Norman L. Torrey. [REVIEW]T. V. Smith - 1948 - Ethics 58 (2):138-.
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  32.  4
    Douglas Walton’ın Argüman Biçimleri Yaklaşımı.Başak Kurtuldu - 2019 - Felsefe Arkivi 51:161-178.
    It can be said that the roots of the studies on the argumentation theory go back to rhetorical and dialectical studies. One of the sub-fields of the argumentation theory is argument schemes, used in everyday language and various fields within certain rules. Today, with the studies in the field of informal logic, argumentation schemes have aslo become an important field to study. The argumentation schemes approach also plays an important role in the study of artificial language at the intersection of (...)
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  33. A Comprehensive Account of Blame: Self-Blame, Non-Moral Blame, and Blame for the Non-Voluntary.Douglas W. Portmore - 2022 - In Andreas Carlsson (ed.), Self-Blame and Moral Responsibility. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Blame is multifarious. It can be passionate or dispassionate. It can be expressed or kept private. We blame both the living and the dead. And we blame ourselves as well as others. What’s more, we blame ourselves, not only for our moral failings, but also for our non-moral failings: for our aesthetic bad taste, gustatory self-indulgence, or poor athletic performance. And we blame ourselves both for things over which we exerted agential control (e.g., our voluntary acts) and for things over (...)
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  34. Must There Be Basic Action?Douglas Lavin - 2012 - Noûs 47 (2):273-301.
    The idea of basic action is a fixed point in the contemporary investigation of the nature of action. And while there are arguments aimed at putting the idea in place, it is meant to be closer to a gift of common sense than to a hard-won achievement of philosophical reflection. It first appears at the stage of innocuous description and before the announcement of philosophical positions. And yet, as any decent magician knows, the real work so often gets done in (...)
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  35. Latitude, Supererogation, and Imperfect Duties.Douglas W. Portmore - 2023 - In David Heyd (ed.), Springer Handbook of Supererogation. Springer.
  36. Abductive inference and delusional belief.Max Coltheart, Peter Menzies & John Sutton - 2010 - Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1):261-287.
    Delusional beliefs have sometimes been considered as rational inferences from abnormal experiences. We explore this idea in more detail, making the following points. Firstly, the abnormalities of cognition which initially prompt the entertaining of a delusional belief are not always conscious and since we prefer to restrict the term “experience” to consciousness we refer to “abnormal data” rather than “abnormal experience”. Secondly, we argue that in relation to many delusions (we consider eight) one can clearly identify what the abnormal cognitive (...)
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  37.  16
    A Combinatorial Theory of Possibility, by D. M. Armstrong. [REVIEW]Peter Menzies - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (3):731-734.
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  38.  23
    Criteria for Assessing AI-Based Sentencing Algorithms: A Reply to Ryberg.Thomas Douglas - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-4.
  39.  3
    Argument Evaluation and Evidence.Douglas Walton - 2016 - Cham: Imprint: Springer.
    This monograph poses a series of key problems of evidential reasoning and argumentation. It then offers solutions achieved by applying recently developed computational models of argumentation made available in artificial intelligence. Each problem is posed in such a way that the solution is easily understood. The book progresses from confronting these problems and offering solutions to them, building a useful general method for evaluating arguments along the way. It provides a hands-on survey explaining to the reader how to use current (...)
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  40. Archetypes of wisdom: an introduction to philosophy.Douglas J. Soccio - 1995 - Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
    This reader-friendly book examines philosophies and philosophers using an engaging, non-condescending approach that speaks to you at your level.
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  41.  61
    Truth, Winning, and Simple Determination Pluralism.Douglas Edwards - 2012 - In Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Cory Wright (eds.), Truth and Pluralism: Current Debates. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 113.
  42.  17
    The uneven distribution of fears and phobias: A nonassociative account.Ross G. Menzies - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):305-306.
    A review of data concerning the uneven distribution of phobias suggests that nonassociative, ethological models can account for most of tile important findings that cannot be attributed to expectancy biases. The origin of a variety of fears that appear in fixed developmental patterns across divergent cultures and species can best be explained by biological models.
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  43. An objectivist's guide to subjective value.Graham Oddie & Peter Menzies - 1992 - Ethics 102 (3):512-533.
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  44. Is semantics in the plan?Peter Menzies & Huw Price - 2009 - In David Braddon-Mitchell & Robert Nola (eds.), Conceptual Analysis and Philosophical Naturalism. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 159--82.
    The so-called Canberra Plan is a grandchild of the Ramsey-Carnap treatment of theoretical terms. In its original form, the Ramsey-Carnap approach provided a method for analysing the meaning of scientific terms, such as “electron”, “gene” and “quark”—terms whose meanings could plausibly be delineated by their roles within scientific theories. But in the hands of David Lewis (1970, 1972), the original approach begat a more ambitious descendant, generalised and extended in two distinct ways: first, Lewis applied the technique to analyse the (...)
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  45. Metaethical Quietism.Douglas Kremm & Karl Schafer - 2017 - In Tristram Colin McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 643-658.
    A brief exploration of the nature of, and motivations for, contemporary forms of metaethical quietism. Also outlines some of the prominent objections to such positions and discusses some of the limitations of these objections from the quietist's perspective.
     
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  46.  7
    Critical notices.Allan Menzies - 1915 - Mind 24 (3):404-408.
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  47.  1
    Critical realism and the Christian scriptures: foundations and readings.Joseph K. Gordon (ed.) - 2023 - Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press.
    This collection of chapters, from an international group of theologians and scripture scholars, engages the hermeneutical insights of Bernard Lonergan and those influenced by him to both advance theoretical discussions concerning the interpretation of Christian Scripture and to demonstrate the usefulness of such hermeneutical insights through applied readings of specific biblical texts.
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  48.  8
    The philosophy of hope: beatitude in Spinoza.Alexander Douglas - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Can philosophy be a source of hope? Today it is common to believe that the answer is no - that providing hope, if it is possible at all, belongs either to the predictive sciences or to religion. In this exciting and simulating book, however, Alexander Douglas argues that the philosophy of Spinoza can offer something akin to religious hope. Douglas shows how Spinoza is able, without appealing to belief in any traditional afterlife or supernatural grace, to develop a (...)
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  49.  10
    Kant's Theory of Science.Gordon G. Brittan - 2015 - Princeton University Press.
    While interest in Kant's philosophy has increased in recent years, very little of it has focused on his theory of science. This book gives a general account of that theory, of its motives and implications, and of the way it brought forth a new conception of the nature of philosophical thought. To reconstruct Kant's theory of science, the author identifies unifying themes of his philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of physics, both undergirded by his distinctive logical doctrines, and shows how (...)
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  50. Action as a form of temporal unity: on Anscombe’s Intention.Douglas Lavin - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (5):609-629.
    The aim of this paper is to display an alternative to the familiar decompositional approach in action theory, one that resists the demand for an explanation of action in non-agential terms, while not simply treating the notion of intentional agency as an unexplained primitive. On this Anscombean alternative, action is not a worldly event with certain psychological causes, but a distinctive form of material process, one that is not simply caused by an exercise of reason but is itself a productive (...)
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