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Gottfried Schweiger
University of Salzburg
  1. A Philosophical Examination of Social Justice and Child Poverty.Gottfried Schweiger & Gunter Graf - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Child poverty is one of the biggest challenges of today, harming millions of children. In this book, it is investigated from a philosophical social justice perspective, primarily in the context of modern welfare states. Based on both normative theory (particularly the capability approach) and empirical evidence, the authors identify the injustices of child poverty, showing how it negatively affects the well-being of children as well as their whole life course. But child poverty is not 'given by nature'. It is avoidable (...)
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  2. Recognition and Social Exclusion. A Recognition-Theoretical Exploration of Poverty in Europe.Gottfried Schweiger - 2013 - Ethical Perspectives 20 (4):529-554.
    Thus far, the recognition approach as described in the works of Axel Honneth has not systematically engaged with the problem of poverty. To fill this gap, the present contribution will focus on poverty conceived as social exclusion in the context of the European Union and probe its moral significance. It will show that this form of social exclusion is morally harmful and wrong from the perspective of the recognition approach. To justify this finding, social exclusion has to fulfil three conditions: (...)
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  3.  3
    Should States Prioritize Child Refugees?Gottfried Schweiger - 2019 - Ethics and Global Politics 12 (2):46-61.
    In this paper I am interested in the question of whether and why states should prioritize child refugees over adult refugees in cases where they are not able to grant refuge to all those who are entitled to it. In particular I discuss three grounds on which such a prioritization could be based: (a) vulnerability, (b) efficiency and (c) life phase and life span. As can be shown, these grounds also apply, to some extent, to particular groups of adults such (...)
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  4. Epistemic Injustice and Powerlessness in the Context of Global Justice. An Argument for “Thick” and “Small” Knowledge.Gottfried Schweiger - 2016 - Wagadu. A Journal of Transnational Women's and Gender Studies 15:104-125.
    In this paper, I present an analysis of the “windows into reality” that are used in theories of global justice with a focus on issues of epistemic injustice and the powerlessness of the global poor. I argue that we should aim for a better understanding of global poverty through acknowledging people living in poverty as epistemic subjects. To achieve this, we need to deepen and broaden the knowledge base of theories of global justice and approach the subject through methodologies of (...)
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  5.  24
    Ethics and the Dynamic Vulnerability of Children.Gottfried Schweiger & Gunter Graf - 2017 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 12 (2-3):243-261.
    GOTTFRIED SCHWEIGER,GUNTER GRAF | : In this paper, we want to examine the particular vulnerability of children from an ethical perspective. We want to defend three claims: Firstly, we will argue that children’s vulnerability is best understood as a dynamic quality, meaning that as children progress through childhood, their vulnerability also undergoes particular changes. To capture this, we want to discriminate among physical, mental, social, and symbolic vulnerability, which vary according to certain features, such as age, maturity, gender, and race. (...)
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  6.  34
    Ethics and the Endangerment of Children's Bodies.Graf Gunter & Gottfried Schweiger - 2017 - Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book addresses the endangerment of children’s bodies in affluent societies. Bodily integrity is an important part of a child’s physical and mental well-being, but it can also be violated through various threats during childhood; not only affecting physical health but also causing mental damage and leading to distortions in the development of the self. The authors give an account of three areas, which present different serious dangers: (1) body and eating, (2) body and sexuality, and (3) body and violence. (...)
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  7. Globalizing Recognition. Global Justice and the Dialectic of Recognition.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):78-91.
    The question I want to answer is if and how the recognition approach, taken from the works of Axel Honneth, could be an adequate framework for addressing the problems of global justice and poverty. My thesis is that such a globalization of the recognition approach rests on the dialectic of relative and absolute elements of recognition. (1) First, I will discuss the relativism of the recognition approach, that it understands recognition as being relative to a certain society or a set (...)
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  8.  28
    The Well-Being of Children. Philosophical and Social Scientific Approaches.Gottfried Schweiger & Gunter Graf (eds.) - 2016 - De Gruyter Open.
    This volume explores the questions related to the theory, practice, and policy of the well-being and well-becoming of children. It does so in a truly interdisciplinary way with a focus on the social sciences and philosophy, giving therefore justice to the growing insight that studying and promoting the well-being of children has a strong ethical component. It is dependent on the questions of good life, its conditions and cannot be separated from the concept of social justice and moral entitlements of (...)
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  9.  97
    The Duty to Bring Children Living in Conflict Zones to a Safe Haven.Gottfried Schweiger - 2016 - Journal of Global Ethics 12 (3):380-397.
    In this paper, I will discuss a children’s rights-based argument for the duty of states, as a joint effort, to establish an effective program to help bring children out of conflict zones, such as parts of Syria, and to a safe haven. Children are among the most vulnerable subjects in violent conflicts who suffer greatly and have their human rights brutally violated as a consequence. Furthermore, children are also a group whose capacities to protect themselves are very limited, while their (...)
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  10.  19
    Capabilities, Recognition and the Philosophical Evaluation of Poverty: A Discussion of Issues of Justification and the Role of Subjective Experiences.Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2013 - International Critical Thought 3 (3):282--296.
    Both the capability and the recognition approach are influential and substantial theories in social philosophy. In this contribution, we outline their main assumptions in their assessment of poverty. The two approaches are set in relation to each other, focusing mainly on (a) their moral evaluation of poverty, (b) issues of justification of their central normative claims, and (c) the role that is attributed to subjective experiences, feelings and emotions in these theories. This comparison reveals that in spite of significant differences, (...)
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  11. Introduction: Justice and Disadvantages During Childhood: What Does the Capability Approach Have to Offer?Gottfried Schweiger, Gunter Graf & Mar Cabezas - 2016 - Ethical Perspectives 23 (1):73 - 99.
    Justice for children and during childhood and the particular political, social and moral status of children has long been a neglected issue in ethics, and in social and political philosophy. The application of general, adult-oriented theories of justice to children can be regarded as particularly problematic. Philosophers have only recently begun to explore what it means to consider children as equals, what goods are especially valuable to them, and what are the obligations of justice different agents have toward children. In (...)
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  12.  30
    Recognition Theory and Global Poverty.Gottfried Schweiger - 2014 - Journal of Global Ethics 10 (3):267-273.
    So far, recognition theory has focused its attention on modern capitalism and its formation in richer Western societies and has neglected issues of global poverty. A brief sketch of Axel Honneth's recognition theory precedes an examination of how the theory can contribute to a better understanding of global poverty, and justice in relation to poverty. I wish to highlight five ways in which recognition theory can enrich our inventory of theories dealing with global poverty and justice: It emphasizes the importance (...)
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  13.  21
    Verletzbarkeit und Autonomie im Lebenslauf.Gottfried Schweiger - 2015 - Zeitschrift für Kritische Sozialtheorie Und Philosophie 2 (2):401-420.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialtheorie und Philosophie Jahrgang: 2 Heft: 2 Seiten: 401-420.
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  14.  62
    Ethical Obligations of Wealthy People: Progressive Taxation and the Financial Crisis.Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak - 2013 - Ethics and Social Welfare 7 (2):141--154.
    The Financial Crisis in Europe puts pressure on welfare states and its tax systems as well as on considerations of social justice. In this paper, we would like to explore the status of the idea of progressive taxation and its justification (especially the ‘ability-to-pay’ principle) in times of a financial crisis. We will discuss it within a social justice framework following David Miller—using the principles of (i) need, (ii) merit, and (iii) equality. We will conclude that progressive taxation can be (...)
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  15.  66
    Achieving Income Justice in Professional Sports: Limitation, Taxation, or Donation.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Physical Culture and Sport 56 (1):12-22.
    This paper is based on the assumption that the high incomes of some professional sports athletes, such as players in professional leagues in the United States and Europe, pose an ethical problem of social justice. I deal with the questions of what should follow from this evaluation and in which ways those incomes should be regulated. I discuss three different options: a) the idea that the incomes of professional athletes should be limited, b) the idea that they should be vastly (...)
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  16.  18
    Absolute Und Relative Kritik der Armut.Gottfried Schweiger - 2013 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 67 (2).
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  17.  14
    Health, Justice and Happiness During Childhood.María del Mar Cabezas Hernández, Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):501-511.
  18.  34
    Relative Armut und soziale Wertschätzung.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - SATS 13 (1):39--59.
    Zusammenafssung: Dieser Beitrag untersucht das Konzept der relativen Armut, wie es im Rahmen der Europäischen Union politisch festgelegt wurde, im Kontext einer Theorie der Anerkennung. Dabei werden zwei Thesen entwickelt und verteidigt. (1) Die erste These dieses Beitrags lautet, dass relative Armut die Verweigerung sozialer Wertschätzung darstellt. Das heisst, dass mit ihr eine moralische Verletzung und Leid verbunden ist. (2) Die zweite These lautet, dass relative Armut eine soziale Pathologie darstellt. Damit ist gemeint, dass mit ihr nicht nur eine moralische (...)
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  19. Income Justice in Professional Sports Leagues: The Case of the Major League Baseball.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Revista Portugueasa de Ciencias Do Desporto [Portuguese Journal of Sport Science] 12 (Supl.):160--164.
    The issue of income justice in professional sports, while a topic of high ethical and social interest, is nevertheless not at the forefront of research. The differences between team and individual sports are significant, and this article will focus on team sports, where income is generally set by fixed contracts rather than bonuses or money prizes. First, I will illustrate the overall problem by presenting some figures on the relation of athletes' salaries from Major League Baseball (MLB) to the median (...)
     
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  20.  37
    Die zeitliche Dimension sozialer Wertschätzung im Lebenslauf.Gottfried Schweiger - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):239--264.
    Die Bedeutung wechselseitiger Anerkennung für die Ausbildung von Identität und für das Verständnis gesellschaftlicher Formationen wurde seit der Reaktualisierung des Anerkennungsbegriffes durch Axel Honneth vielfach aufgenommen und diskutiert. Ein Aspekt, der hierbei bislang zu wenig systematisch untersucht wurde, ist die zeitliche Dimension sozialer Anerkennungsverhältnisse. Die hier vertretene These lautet, dass soziale Wertschätzung im wesentlichen nicht einfach aktual an eine gesellschaftlich für sinnvoll und nützlich erachtete Leistung oder Eigenschaft gekoppelt ist, sondern vielmehr eine in sich zeitliche Kategorie ist, die also im (...)
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  21. Philosophie und Armut. Überlegungen zu ihrem Zusammenhang.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Diskurs. Gesellschafts- Und Geisteswissenschaftliche Interventionen 8 (1):66--87.
    In this paper I explore the philosophical debate about poverty. Although there is a significant amount of philosophical research on poverty – especially on world wide and absolute poverty – there is little reflection on what philosophical poverty research could be as a distinct research agenda and also little reflection on certain questions regarding the concept and normative evaluation of poverty. Here, I explore two important questions: What is poverty, which relates to conceptual issues and the definition of poverty. How (...)
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  22.  12
    Philosophy and Child Poverty: Reflections on the Ethics and Politics of Poor Children and Their Families.Nicolás Brando & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.) - 2019 - Springer.
    This book offers a broad and diverse reflection of the ways in which child poverty could be conceptualised, and the ways in which it is intertwined with childhood as a specific social condition. Furthermore, the responsibilities towards children and the possible mechanisms required for dealing with this condition will be analysed and clarified. -/- This is the first volume on philosophy and child poverty. Despite the increasing number of publications on poverty, the particular phenomenon of poverty during childhood has not (...)
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  23.  3
    Philosophy and the Poverty of Children and Their Families.Nicolás Brando & Gottfried Schweiger - 2019 - In Nicolás Brando & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.), Philosophy and Child Poverty: Reflections on the Ethics and Politics of Poor Children and Their Families. Springer. pp. 1-15.
    Although the philosophical literature on both poverty and childhood is certainly increasing, the status of children living in poverty has been largely ignored as a philosophical subject. The condition of children and the justice-related issues that derive from it compel us to look more deeply into the sources and responsibilities of and towards poverty during childhood. We highlight four challenges raised by studying child poverty, and the mechanisms through which philosophical analysis may aid in addressing them. Philosophy can work as (...)
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  24. Girlhood and Ethics: The Role of Bodily Integrity.Mar Cabezas & Gottfried Schweiger - 2016 - Girlhood Studies 9 (3).
    Our concern is with the ethical issues related to girlhood and bodily integrity—the right to be free from physical harm and harassment and to experience freedom and security in relation to the body. We defend agency, positive self-relations, and health as basic elements of bodily integrity and we advocate that this normative concept be used as a conceptual tool for the protection of the rights of girls. We assume the capability approach developed by Martha Nussbaum as an ethical framework that (...)
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  25. Health, Justice and Happiness During Childhood.Mar Cabezas, Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (4).
    Health is certainly a valuable asset in the life of every human being and of particular relevance for a flourishing childhood. As empirical research concerning the social determinants of health shows, its distribution can, at least to a certain extent, be influenced by the way a society is arranged. Many philosophers now acknowledge that a fair distribution of health has to be a central part of a just society and they discuss to what extent a right to health can be (...)
     
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  26.  5
    Global Justice and Childhood: Introduction.Johannes Drerup & Gottfried Schweiger - 2019 - Journal of Global Ethics 15 (3):193-201.
    This brief introduction frames a guest-edited collection of eleven contributed articles in the Journal of Global Ethics focused on global justice and childhood. On a general level, there is widespread consensus that there is a strong need for improvement in the lives of children around the globe. What global justice demands in this regard, however, has never been fleshed out in detail and there is only a little philosophical literature on this topic. Against this background, five aspects of the question (...)
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  27. Handbuch Philosophie der Kindheit.Johannes Drerup & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.) - 2019 - J.B. Metzler.
    Was macht ein Kind zu einem Kind? Sind Kinder ihren Eltern zur Dankbarkeit verpflichtet? Ist die Schulpflicht eine legitime staatliche Vorgabe? Gibt es ein Recht darauf, Kinder zu haben? -/- Das Handbuch liefert einen systematischen Überblick über die zentralen Konzepte und Theorien sowie die wichtigsten Diskussionsfelder der Philosophie der Kindheit. Zur Debatte stehen neben dem moralischen, rechtlichen und politischen Status von Kindern auch Fragen nach dem instrumentellen oder intrinsischen Wert der Kindheit sowie nach historischen Veränderungen im gesellschaftlichen Umgang mit Kindern.
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  28. Justice, Education and the Politics of Childhood: Challenges and Perspectives.Johannes Drerup, Gunter Graf, Christoph Schickhardt & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume contributes to the ongoing interdisciplinary controversies about the moral, legal and political status of children and childhood. It comprises essays by scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds on diverse theoretical problems and public policy controversies that bear upon different facets of the life of children in contemporary liberal democracies. The book is divided into three major parts that are each organized around a common general theme. The first part (“Children and Childhood: Autonomy, Well-Being and Paternalism”) focusses on key concepts (...)
     
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  29.  21
    Justice, Education, and the Politics of Childhood.Johannes Drerup, Gunter Graf, Christoph Schickhardt & Gottfried Schweiger - 2017 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 71 (1):169-172.
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  30.  17
    Ethical Issues in Poverty Alleviation.Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (eds.) - 2016 - Cham: Springer.
    This book explores the philosophical, and in particular ethical, issues concerning the conceptualization, design and implementation of poverty alleviation measures from the local to the global level. It connects these topics with the ongoing debates on social and global justice, and asks what an ethical or normative philosophical perspective can add to the economic, political, and other social science approaches that dominate the main debates on poverty alleviation. Divided into four sections, the volume examines four areas of concern: the relation (...)
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  31. Philosophical Explorations of Justice and Taxation. National and Global Issues.Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
  32. Capabilities and Functionings as the,,Currency of Justice" for Children.Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2017 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosphie 103 (4):439-455.
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  33.  12
    Editorial Zu Band 4, Heft 1, 2017.Gunter Graf, Gottfried Schweiger, Michael Zichy & Martina Schmidhuber - 2017 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 4 (1).
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  34.  53
    “Poor Fat Kids”: Social Justice at the Intersection of Obesity and Poverty in Childhood.Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2016 - Dilemata. International Journal of Applied Ethics 21:53-70.
    Obesity and poverty in childhood are widely studied phenomena and despite mixed results, some findings are without doubt: they come with various experiences of mental, physical and social harm, have therefore negative effects on the well-being of children, and they intersect in relation with race, class and gender. In this contribution we analyze child obesity and poverty from a philosophical social justice perspective, which has, to a large extent, so far neglected this topic. We show how they compromise social justice (...)
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  35. Social Policy and Justice for Children.Gunter Graf & Gottfried Schweiger - 2016 - In Johannes Drerup, Gunter Graf, Christoph Schickhardt & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.), Justice, education and the politics of childhood: challenges and perspectives. Springer. pp. 101-114.
    Empirical evidence clearly shows that child poverty is a growing concern in the industrialized world and that the well-being of children is deeply affected by growing up in poverty in at least two ways. On the one hand, a low socioeconomic status jeopardizes the access to goods and services that are necessary for the current well-being of children. On the other hand, growing up in poverty also, in various ways, negatively affects the well-being in later life. On the basis of (...)
     
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  36. Identität Und Inklusion Im EuropaìˆIschen Sozialraum.Elisabeth Klaus, Clemens Sedmak, Ricarda Drüeke & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.) - 2010 - Vs Verlag FuìˆR Sozialwissenschaften.
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  37.  5
    Editorial Zu Band 7, Heft 2, (Juli) 2020.Andrea Klonschinski, Martina Schmidhuber, Mark Schweda, Gottfried Schweiger & Michael Zichy - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 7 (1):13-13.
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  38. Arbeit im Strukturwandel.Gottfried Schweiger - 2009 - In Menschenwã¼Rdiges Arbeiten. Eine Herausforderung Fã¼R Gesellschaft, Politik Und Wissenschaft. Vs Verlag FuìˆR Sozialwissenschaften. pp. 39--71.
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  39.  21
    Anerkennung Und Arbeitslosigkeit.Gottfried Schweiger - 2011 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 3 (2):291-310.
    Recognition and UnemploymentThis paper aims to explore the case of unemployment from the perspective of recognition theory as it was conceived by Axel Honneth. In the first part I present a shortened form of recognition theory and afterwards, in the second part, its take on work and labor in modern societies. Finally, the third part elaborates how unemployment can be understood and evaluated from this viewpoint. I argue that unemployment itself is not a form of misrecognition and therefore not moral (...)
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  40.  6
    Begriff der dialektischen Naturphilosophie.Gottfried Schweiger - 2010 - Topos - Beiträge Zur Dialektischen Theorie 33:11--43.
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  41. Der individualisierte Lebenslauf als Modus moralischer Verletzung.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - In Alfred Dunshirn, Elisabeth Nemeth & Gerhard Unterthurner (eds.), Crossing Borders. Grenzen (Über)Denken. Beiträge Zum 9. Internationalen Kongress der Österreichischen Gesellschaft Für Philosophie in Wien. Österreichische Gesellschaft FüR Philosophie. pp. 609--618.
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  42. Dialektische Naturphilosophie: Geschichte - Probleme - Perspektiven.Gottfried Schweiger - 2011 - P. Lang.
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  43.  99
    Die Progressive Besteuerung von Einkommen Und Vermögen Aus Sozialethischer Perspektive.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Etica E Politica 14 (1):506-523.
    Die progressive Besteuerung von Einkommen und Vermögen ist ein politisch viel diskutiertes, aber sozialethisch wenig reflektiertes Thema. In diesem Beitrag wird dargelegt, wie progressive Steuern auf Einkommen und Vermögen in einem Wohlfahrtsstaat aus Perspektive der sozialen Gerechtigkeit, wie sie von David Miller konzipiert wird, gerechtfertigt werden können. Um das Argument so einfach wie möglich zu gestalten, orientiert sich die Fragestellung dabei an der notwendigen Funktion der Bekämpfung von Armut, derer sich Wohlfahrtsstaaten als einer Forderung der sozialen Gerechtigkeit zu verpflichten haben. (...)
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  44.  5
    Desempleo, Reconocimiento y Meritocracia.Gottfried Schweiger - unknown
    Unemployment is one of the greatest social problems all around the world including in modern capitalistic welfare states. Therefore its social critique is a necessary task for any critical social philosophy such as Axel Honneth's recognition approach, which understands social justice in terms of social conditions of recognition. This paper aims to develop an evaluation of unemployment and its moral weight from this perspective. I will lay out the recognition approach and present a moral evaluation of unemployment as socially unjust (...)
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  45.  20
    Einleitung: Kindheit und Gerechtigkeit.Gottfried Schweiger & Gunter Graf - 2015 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 2 (1).
    Beschäftigt man sich systematisch mit der Konzeption von Gerechtigkeit für Kinder bzw. während der Kindheit, ist es hilfreich, drei verschiedene Fragen zu klären, die normalerweise in Hinblick auf Erwachsene diskutiert werden, doch auch für eine genauere Analyse der Ansprüche von Kindern relevant sind. Welche Güter sind für die Gerechtigkeitstheorie relevant? Nach welchen Prinzipien sollen diese Güter verteilt werden? Wer ist dafür verantwortlich, dass die angestrebte Güterverteilung verwirklicht wird? In dieser Einleitung umreißen wir kurz den gegenwärtigen Diskussionsstand, der in diesen drei (...)
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  46.  18
    Ethics, Poverty and Children’s Vulnerability.Gottfried Schweiger - 2019 - Ethics and Social Welfare 13 (3):288-301.
    This paper is concerned with child poverty from an ethical perspective and applies the normative concept of vulnerability for this purpose. The first part of the paper will briefly outline children’s particular vulnerability and distinguish important aspects of this. Then the concept will be applied to child poverty and it will be shown that child poverty is a corrosive situational vulnerability, with many severe consequences. In this part of the paper normative reasoning and empirical literature will be brought together. Then, (...)
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  47.  17
    Editorial Zu Band 1, Heft 1, 2014.Gottfried Schweiger, Gu Graf, Martina Schmidhuber & Michael Zichy - 2014 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 1 (1).
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  48.  12
    Editorial Zu Band 5, Heft 1, 2018.Gottfried Schweiger, Martina Schmidhuber & Michael Zichy - 2018 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 5 (1):13-14.
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  49.  1
    Humiliation and Child Poverty.Gottfried Schweiger - 2019 - In Nicolás Brando & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.), Philosophy and Child Poverty: Reflections on the Ethics and Politics of Poor Children and Their Families. Springer. pp. 127-144.
    As a matter of justice children have several claims and are entitled to a range of goods. In this paper I will argue that one of these goods is positive self-relations. Since poverty during childhood distorts the proper development and experience of these three self-relations it violates children’s claims to justice. I will defend this argument in three steps: I will introduce and examine three types of positive self-relations and argue that children are entitled to all of these; I will (...)
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  50. Humiliation and Justice for Children Living in Poverty.Gottfried Schweiger - 2014 - Azafea - Revista de Filosofia 16:57-72.
    As a matter of justice children are entitled to many different things. In this paper we will argue that one of these things is positive self-relations (self-confidence, self-respect, and self-esteem), and that this implies that they must not be humiliated. This allows us to criticize poverty as unjust and to conclude that it should be alleviated. We will defend this claim in three steps: (1) we will introduce and examine three types of positive self-relations (self-confidence, self-respect, and self-esteem) and argue (...)
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