Economic and social activities are undergoing radical changes, which can be labelled as 'knowledge economy and/or society'. In this sense, intellectual capital (IC), or knowledge assets, as the fourth factor of production, is replacing the other ones-job, land and capital. This article tries to offer the origins and nature of the firm's IC that can be labelled as 'An Intellectual Capital-Based View of the Firm Competition'. This framework tries to highlight the strategic role of different intangible assets like talented and (...) committed workers, cultural values, or long-term relationships among the firm and its stakeholders-customers, allies, suppliers and society in general - in gaining and sustaining competitive advantages, being the management of IC a key issue in the management agenda. (shrink)
Economic and social activities are undergoing radical changes, which can be labelled as ‘knowledge economy and/or society’. In this sense, intellectual capital, or knowledge assets, as the fourth factor of production, is replacing the other ones – job, land and capital. This article tries to offer the origins and nature of the firm’s IC that can be labelled as ‘An Intellectual Capital-Based View of the Firm Competition’. This framework tries to highlight the strategic role of different intangible assets like talented (...) and committed workers, cultural values, or long-term relationships among the firm and its stakeholders – customers, allies, suppliers and society in general – in gaining and sustaining competitive advantages, being the management of IC a key issue in the management agenda. (shrink)
Different theoretical approaches highlight the growing relevance of corporate reputation as strategic factor. Among these approaches the arguments of the Resource-Based View are special worthwhile (Grant, 1991, California Management Review 33(3), 114–135; Barney, 1999, Sloan Management Review Spring, 137–145). Nevertheless, this topic poses several methodological problems (Barney et al., 2001), as the unavailability to identify and measure this organizational factor, that is “socially complex” and intangible in its nature. In this work, using the findings of our empirical research on Spanish (...) biotechnology firms, we carry out an identification and measurement of corporate reputation, highlighting its two key components: “business reputation” and “social reputation”. (shrink)
This introduction to the Common Knowledge symposium titled “Comparative Relativism” outlines a variety of intellectual contexts where placing the unlikely companion terms comparison and relativism in conjunction offers analytical purchase. If comparison, in the most general sense, involves the investigation of discrete contexts in order to elucidate their similarities and differences, then relativism, as a tendency, stance, or working method, usually involves the assumption that contexts exhibit, or may exhibit, radically different, incomparable, or incommensurable traits. Comparative studies are required to (...) treat their objects as alike, at least in some crucial respects; relativism indicates the limits of this practice. Jensen argues that this seeming paradox is productive, as he moves across contexts, from Lévi-Strauss's analysis of comparison as an anthropological method to Peter Galison's history of physics, and on to the anthropological, philosophical, and historical examples offered in symposium contributions by Barbara Herrnstein Smith, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, Marilyn Strathern, and Isabelle Stengers. Comparative relativism is understood by some to imply that relativism comes in various kinds and that these have multiple uses, functions, and effects, varying widely in different personal, historical, and institutional contexts that can be compared and contrasted. Comparative relativism is taken by others to encourage a “comparison of comparisons,” in order to relativize what different peoples—say, Western academics and Amerindian shamans—compare things “for.” Jensen concludes that what is compared and relativized in this symposium are the methods of comparison and relativization themselves. He ventures that the contributors all hope that treating these terms in juxtaposition may allow for new configurations of inquiry. (shrink)
RESUMO O presente artigo parte de várias considerações de Bakhtin a respeito do discurso romanesco a fim de compreender alguns aspectos discursivos do Dom Quixote, de Miguel de Cervantes. Procede-se, então, a uma comparação com o discurso de outra obra que reproduz parcialmente o Dom Quixote: o conto Pierre Menard, autor do Quixote, de Jorge Luis Borges. Por fim, discute-se brevemente o problema da quase ausência do Dom Quixote nas discussões de Bakhtin sobre o romance, apresentando-se a hipótese de Walter (...) Reed de que, tal como no conto de Borges, a própria teoria bakhtiniana também reproduz parcialmente o peculiar pensamento do Quixote. ABSTRACT This article discusses several of Bakhtin’s concepts regarding discourse in the novel genre as a way to understand some discursive aspects of Miguel de Cervantes’ Dom Quixote. We then proceed to a comparison with the discourse in another literary work that partially reproduces Dom Quixote: the short story “Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote,” by Jorge Luis Borges. Finally, we briefly discuss the problem of Dom Quixote’s almost absence in Bakhtin’s work about the novel genre, while presenting the hypothesis by Walter Reed that, as in Borges’ short story, Bakhtin’s theory itself also partially reproduces the Quixote’s particular way of thinking. (shrink)
Atendendo ao chamado de Heidegger por “outro início”, desde o pensamento originário grego, são reconsideradas as noções de paideia e de arete. À paideia exaustivamente investigada por Werner Jaeger é imposta a interpretação do próprio Heidegger e de Danielle Montet. Enquanto a arete é reexaminada através de uma nova luz lançada pela obra de António Caeiro. Enfim, devidamente preparado pelo pensamento inusual destes pensadores sobre paideia e arete, se reabre o debate sobre a possibilidade ou não da virtude ser ensinada. (...) Concluímos com Sócrates que definitivamente ela não pode ser ensinada, não ao modo pretendido dos sofistas e dos “modernos” pensadores e educadores, mas que sim há certamente possibilidade de uma “paideia da arete”. (shrink)
Resumo: Nosso trabalho aborda um pensamento não raro, especialmente entre aqueles mais engajados na “vida ativa”, seja nos laboratórios da academia ou nos quefazeres mundanos, a “inutilidade da abordagem filosófica”, onde se considera imperativo e imediato “fazer” ou “agir”. Por se tratar o tema proposto filosoficamente, corre-se o risco de “inutilidade” de nossa abordagem do próprio tema. Todavia, diante do progresso irrefreável da técnica, e sua dominação por sobre todas as expressões da vida humana, aí incluída a própria filosofia, entendemos (...) - com Martin Heidegger - que é precisamente nesta condição que a filosofia encontra o seu "fim", não no sentido de um esgotamento de suas possibilidades, mas como "lugar", "finalidade", "abertura" para a busca-de-si. Para levar a cabo esta empreitada, discutimos uma interpretação muito própria da abordagem filosófica e sua qualificação tendo como contraponto o pensar científico. Na parte final, refletimos sobre os conceitos de inutilidade e circularidade enquanto condição para a abertura do pensar filosófico e, por conseguinte, para uma retomada autêntica da busca-de-si. (shrink)
Resumen En esta contribución ofrecemos una interpretación del pons asinorum que se basa en una lógica de términos contemporánea. Esto nos permite revitalizar la idea del pons asinorum para generar el -políticamente correcto- pons scholasticorum, una versión terminística del pons asinorum que conecta la inventio medii con el dictum de omni et nullo.In this contribution we offer an interpretation of the pons asinorum by using a contemporary term logic. This interpretation allows us to revitalize the concept of the pons asinorum (...) in order to produce the -politically correct- pons scholasticorum, a terministic version of the pons asinorum that relates the inventio medii with the dictum de omni et nullo. (shrink)
Es mi homenaje a Melchor Cano, el teólogo dominico que teologizó siempre con autoridad. Siguió en esto y en su estilo humanístico a su venerado Maestro, Francisco de Vitoria. Trato de la época anterior a su profesorado salmantino. Lo mío es el pedestal sobre el que se apoyará su apoteosis, que estará en: la cátedra de Prima de Teología de Salamanca, el concilio de Trento, el asesoramiento como consejero de Felipe II, los Lugares Teológicos. Lo mío es, pues, el lugar (...) que lo vio nacer, la formación salmantina como dominico, la coronación de su formación teológica y primer profesorado en el Colegio de San Gregorio de Valladolid, y su irradiación desde la cátedra principal de teología en la universidad de Alcalá. It is my homage to Melchior Cano, the Dominican theologian who always taught theology with authority. He followed his venerate master Francisco de Vitoria. I am talking of the previous time to his teaching at Salamanca. My intention is to show the pedestal on which his apotheosis will stand: the theological chair of Prima at Salamanca, the Council of Trent, the advice as Philip II’ counselor, the theological places as well as the place where he was born, his education in Salamanca, as a Dominican, the culmination of his theological education, his first teaching at St. Gregory’s college at Valladolid and his irradiation from the main theological chair at Alcala University. (shrink)
University research in the U.S.A. is based on a tight relationship between University and economic activity. In Europe and South America, although less commonly than in the U.S.A., there's already a large amount of experiences related to the creation of "on campus" or "spin off" companies based on the results and knowledge obtained from research in University departments and R&D centres financed with public funds. The virtual base of this results in communication technologies enables private use and the appropriation of (...) the benefits by their authors. European model, historically widely separated from private companies, has produced high quality basic research, but it has failed to obtain profit from technological development. Research funds happen to be basically public. Europe heads for economic, politic and military union. Common economic space and the growing up of the new markets, which we can foresee to be extended to other countries, will promote business opportunities and the relationship University-Industry. University institutions and faculties should think about their current ethic convictions to create a new Industry-University model in the context of a global economy. (shrink)
This paper takes the view that compensated donation and altruism are not incompatible. In particular, it holds that the arguments against giving compensation stand on weak rational grounds: the charge that compensation fosters “commodification” has neither been specific enough to account for different types of monetary transactions nor sufficiently grounded in reality to be rationally convincing; although altruism is commendable, organ donors should not be compelled to act purely on the basis of altruistic motivations, especially if there are good reasons (...) to believe that significantly more lives can be saved and enhanced if incentives are put in place, and offering compensation for organs does not necessarily lead to exploitation—on the contrary, it may be regarded as a necessity in efforts to minimise the level of exploitation that already exists in current organ procurement systems. (shrink)
The current literature shows great interest in the issue of gender diversity on boards of directors. Some studies have hypothesized a direct relationship between diversity and the value of the firm, but not many examine the intermediate mechanisms that may exert an influence on such relationships. We employ two stages of GMM estimation methodology to exhibit evidences of the relationship between gender diversity and compensation of top managers in the Spanish context. Results show that gender diversity positively affects the effectiveness (...) of boards—in terms of composition, structure, size and functioning—influencing a proper design of top managers compensation linked to company performance. Evidences suggest that legislative actions aimed at increasing the presence of women on boards of directors are justified not only for ethical reasons, but also for reasons of economic efficiency. (shrink)
A proposal to allow prisoners to save their lives or to be eligible for commutation of sentence by donating kidneys for transplantation has been a subject of controversy in the Philippines. Notwithstanding the vulnerabilities associated with imprisonment, there are good reasons for allowing organ donations by prisoners. Under certain conditions, such donations can be very beneficial not only to the recipients but to the prisoners themselves. While protection needs to be given to avoid coercion and exploitation, overprotection has to be (...) avoided. The prohibition on the involvement of prisoners in organ transplantation constitutes unjustified overprotection. Under certain conditions, prisoners can make genuinely independent decisions. When it can be reasonably ascertained that they are able to decide freely, society should recognise an obligation to help them implement their decisions, such as when they intend to donate an organ as a way of asserting their religious faith and performing a sacrifice in atonement for their sins. (shrink)
No altar da Igreja de Santa Maria della Vittoria (Roma), encontramos a bela escultura de Bernini, denominada “O êxtase de Santa Teresa”. Símbolo da entrega ao gozo espiritual, a escultura do artista italiano representa Santa Teresa de Ávila recebendo do anjo a seta do amor divino, reprodução perfeita do êxtase místico e religioso. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de Teresas na literatura brasileira, como heroínas divididas entre o sacro e o profano. Propomos o estudo do romance Tereza (...) Batista: cansada de guerra , de Jorge Amado, a partir da intertextualidade com a tradição literária baiana, de Gregório de Matos e Castro Alves, e em contraponto ao pensamento religioso da obra lírica de Santa Teresa de Ávila, em diálogo com a escultura extática da santa, criada por Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Palavras-chaves : Santa Teresa de Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Matos. Sagrado. Profano.At the altar of the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria (Rome), is located the Bernini’s sculpture, called "The Ecstasy of St. Teresa." Symbol of surrender to spiritual joy, the sculpture by the Italian artist represents St. Teresa of Avila affected by the arrow of the Angel, perfect reproduction of the religious and mystical ecstasy. This article aims to analyze the occurrence of Teresas in Brazilian literature, as heroines divided between the sacred and the profane. We propose to study of the novel Tereza Batista: cansada de guerra , by Jorge Amado, from the intertextuality with the literary tradition of Bahia, of Gregorio de Mattos and Castro Alves, and in opposition to the religious thought of the lyrical work of St. Teresa de Ávila, in dialogue with the ecstatic sculpture of St. Tereza, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Keywords : St. Teresa of Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Mattos. Sacred. Profane. (shrink)
Originally published in 2004 in the Common Knowledge symposium “Talking Peace with Gods,” this article elaborates the nature and consequences of the perspectivist cosmologies of Amerindian societies. Contemporary Western cosmologies regard humans as ex-animals who became differentiated from other nonhuman species through the acquisition of advanced cognitive capacities. Amerindian cultures, by contrast, regard animals as ex-humans who became differentiated from both modern humans and other animal species via a series of physical adaptations. Underneath these physical differences, both humans and nonhumans (...) retain a shared human soul; what is more, each species perceives its own kind as human and all other kinds—including humans—as animals. Viveiros de Castro distinguishes this “perspectivism” from relativism: whereas Western relativism assumes multiple valid cultural models, Amerindian perspectivism holds that human and nonhuman species possess a common values system and cultural framework. While this commonality is ordinarily obscured by biologically grounded, perceptual differences, the gap in perspective may be bridged by shamans, whose gift of adopting nonhuman subjectivities enables them to see other species as they see themselves—namely, as humans partaking in human culture. Perspectivism influences both the practices that Amerindian peoples adopt toward nonhuman species and their attitudes toward other human groups, especially in the context of warfare. The Amerindian warrior’s capacity to overcome an enemy ultimately depends on a shaman-like entry into the subjectivity of another: rather than denying the personhood of his enemy, the Amerindian warrior must acknowledge the affinity between them. (shrink)
A patient’s age serves as a very useful guide to physicians in deciding what disease manifestations to anticipate, what treatment to offer for certain conditions, and how to prepare for possible emergencies. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, determining treatment options on the basis of a patient’s chronological age can easily give rise to unjustified discrimination. This is of particular significance in situations where the allocation of scarce critical care resources could have a direct impact on who will live (...) and who will die. This paper examines the fairness of recommendations contained in resource allocation guidelines in the Philippines that have implications for the way elderly patients could be treated or excluded from some forms of critical care treatment in the context of the ongoing Corona virus emergency. (shrink)
BackgroundSex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines.MethodsA panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the (...) guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing.ResultsThe Sex and Gender Equity in Research guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings.ConclusionsThe SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process. (shrink)
The article assumes that the expression “comparative relativism”—the title of the Common Knowledge symposium in which the essay appears—is neither tautological nor oxymoronic. Rather, the author construes the term as an apt synthetic characterization of anthropology and illustrates that idea by means of four quotations, taken from authors as different as Richard Rorty and David Schneider, Marcel Mauss and Henri Michaux. The quotations can be said to “exemplify” anthropology in terms that are interestingly (and diversely) restrictive: some of them amount (...) to extrinsic negations of anthropology that would paralyze it; others suggest intrinsic negativities that would propel it. All of the passages chosen evoke the idea of belief, which is profoundly implicated, in all possible senses (and especially the worse ones), in the majority of arguments that connect the themes of anthropology, comparison, and relativism. (shrink)
En este artículo me gustaría concentrarme en al forma de tratar el problema de Benacerraf respecto de la inaccesibilidad de los objetos abstractos. Este es el principio (llamado FBP por Balaguer) que caracteriza a los objetos por axiomas de una teoría de la existencia consistente. Analizo los argume..
In this dialogue with Yuk Hui, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro discusses his work on the Amerindian perspectivism, multinaturalism; the relation between nature, culture and technics in his ethnographic studies; as well as the necessity of a non-anthropocentric definition of technology. He also discusses a haunting futurism of ecological crisis and automation of the Anthropocene, and explores a “strategic primitivism” as survival tool.
In this paper we give a brief treatment of a theory of proofs for a system of Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic. This system is distinct from Classical Linear Logic, but unlike the standard Intuitionistic Linear Logic of Girard and Lafont includes the multiplicative disjunction par. This connective does have an entirely natural interpretation in a variety of categorical models of Intuitionistic Linear Logic. The main proof-theoretic problem arises from the observation of Schellinx that cut elimination fails outright for an intuitive (...) formulation of Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic; the nub of the problem is the interaction between par and linear implication. We present here a term assignment system which gives an interpretation of proofs as some kind of non-deterministic function. In this way we find a system which does enjoy cut elimination. The system is a direct result of an analysis of the categorical semantics, though we make an effort to present the system as if it were purely a proof-theoretic construction. (shrink)
Pothos & Busemeyer's (P&B's) query about whether quantum probability can provide a foundation for the cognitive modeling embodies so many underlying implications that the subject is far from exhausted. In this brief commentary, however, I suggest that the conceptual thresholds of the meaningful learning give rise to a typical Boltzmann's weighting measure, which indicates a statistical verisimilitude of quantum behavior in the human cognitive ensemble.
In spite of the important discoveries made by Adam Smith and later by the economists of the Austrian School, Friedrich Hayek remained intellectually challenged by the miracle of the price mechanism. As it turned out there was still some pioneering to do in describing the price mechanism. This became clear when Hayek identified the dispersal of information relevant to exchange transactions as the central issue of economic study. In the context of his distinction between competition as a state of things (...) and as a process the price mechanism manifests itself as a powerful integrator of information which is at first sight hopelessly dispersed in modern society. In 1945 he pointed out another intellectual challenge which the miracle of the price mechanism poses: How could such a marvelous functionality come into existence? “I am convinced that if it [the price mechanism] were the result of deliberate human design, and if the people guided by the price changes understood that their decisions have significance far beyond their immediate aim, this mechanism would have been acclaimed as one of the greatest triumphs of the human mind”. It is precisely because the free determination of prices is obviously not an invention, and because actors on the market in general do not realize that their decisions are at once also signals for the information-processing system that the market is, that in general this market order is not highly estimated. The market order is nevertheless the best illustration of the dual principle that the most beautiful forms of complex functionality are not deliberately created and are not deliberately maintained. (shrink)
O embate do encontro: o currículo cultural da educação física como lugar de conflitos Resumo: Neste artigo, tenciona-se aproximar, problematizar e refletir sobre a relação entre duas divindades gregas: Dionísio e Apolo - e o Currículo Cultural da Educação Física. Buscamos amparo metodológico na criação filosófico conceitual, pois sua utilização pode redesenhar relações estabelecidas e permitir jogar com elementos distintos e, inicialmente, não aproximáveis. Influenciados por Dionísio, ao final, trazemos duas criações pedagógicas a fim de transgredir os limites dados pelo (...) "excesso de Apolo" na escrita acadêmica.Palavras-chave: Educação Física; Currículo Cultural; Filosofia. The fight of the meeting: the curriculum of physical education as a place of conflicts: In this article, we intend to approximate the relationship between two Greek deities: Dionysus and Apollo - and the Cultural Curriculum of Physical Education. We seek methodological support in the conceptual philosophical creation, as its use can redesign established relationships and allow us to play with different and, initially, not approximable elements. Influenced by Dionísio, at the end, we bring two pedagogical creations in order to transgress the limits given by the "excess of Apollo" in academic writing.Keywords: Physical Education; Cultural Curriculum; Philosophy. La lucha de la reunión: el currículo cultural de la educación física como lugar de conflictos Resumén: En este artículo, tenemos la intención de aproximar la relación entre dos deidades griegas: Dioniso y Apolo, y el Currículo Cultural de Educación Física. Buscamos apoyo metodológico en la creación filosófica conceptual, ya que su uso puede rediseñar las relaciones establecidas y nos permite jugar con elementos diferentes e, inicialmente, no aproximables. Influenciado por Dionísio, al final, traemos dos creaciones pedagógicas para transgredir los límites dados por el "exceso de Apolo" en la escritura académica.Palabras clave: Educación Física; Curriculum Cultural; Filosofia Data de registro: 02/03/2020Data de aceite: 05/08/2020. (shrink)