Results for 'Group selection'

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  1. Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585-608.
    In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s (...)
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  2.  35
    Cultural Group Selection Plays an Essential Role in Explaining Human Cooperation: A Sketch of the Evidence.Peter Richerson, Ryan Baldini, Adrian V. Bell, Kathryn Demps, Karl Frost, Vicken Hillis, Sarah Mathew, Emily K. Newton, Nicole Naar, Lesley Newson, Cody Ross, Paul E. Smaldino, Timothy M. Waring & Matthew Zefferman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-71.
    Human cooperation is highly unusual. We live in large groups composed mostly of non-relatives. Evolutionists have proposed a number of explanations for this pattern, including cultural group selection and extensions of more general processes such as reciprocity, kin selection, and multi-level selection acting on genes. Evolutionary processes are consilient; they affect several different empirical domains, such as patterns of behavior and the proximal drivers of that behavior. In this target article, we sketch the evidence from five (...)
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  3.  53
    Group Selection and Contextual Analysis.Eugene Earnshaw - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):305-316.
    Multi-level selection can be understood via the Price equation or contextual analysis, which offer incompatible statistical decompositions of evolutionary change into components of group and individual selection. Okasha argued that each approach suffers from problem cases. I introduce further problem cases for the Price approach, arguing that it is appropriate for MLS 2 group selection but not MLS 1. I also show that the problem cases Okasha raises for contextual analysis can be resolved. For some (...)
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  4. Altruism, Group Selection and Correlated Interaction.Samir Okasha - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):703-725.
    Group selection is one acknowledged mechanism for the evolution of altruism. It is well known that for altruism to spread by natural selection, interactions must be correlated; that is, altruists must tend to associate with one another. But does group selection itself require correlated interactions? Two possible arguments for answering this question affirmatively are explored. The first is a bad argument, for it rests on a product/process confusion. The second is a more subtle argument, whose (...)
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  5. Group Selection and Methodological Individualism: A Criticism of Watkins.Edward Reed - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):256-262.
  6.  34
    Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
    Adaptations can occur at different hierarchical levels, but it can be difficult to identify the level of adaptation in specific cases. A major problem is that selection at a lower level can filter up, creating the illusion of selection at a higher level. We use optimality modeling of the volvocine algae to explore the emergence of genuine group adaptations. We find that it is helpful to develop an explicit model for what group fitness would be in (...)
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  7. Kin Selection, Group Selection, and the Varieties of Population Structure.Jonathan Birch - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):259-286.
    Various results show the ‘formal equivalence’ of kin and group selectionist methodologies, but this does not preclude there being a real and useful distinction between kin and group selection processes. I distinguish individual- and population-centred approaches to drawing such a distinction, and I proceed to develop the latter. On the account I advance, the differences between kin and group selection are differences of degree in the structural properties of populations. A spatial metaphor provides a useful (...)
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  8. Group Selection and Our Obsession with the Meaning of Life.Bence Nanay - 2010 - The Monist 93 (1):76-95.
    The aim of this paper is to make an unlikely connection between the old question about the meaning of life and some important concepts in philosophy of biology. More precisely, I argue that while biology is unlikely to help us to figure out the meaning of life, the fact that this question has been considered to be such a crucial one could be explained with the help of some consideration of our evolutionary past. I argue that if there is evidence (...)
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  9.  16
    Cultural Group Selection Follows Darwin's Classic Syllogism for the Operation of Selection.Peter Richerson, Ryan Baldini, Adrian V. Bell, Kathryn Demps, Karl Frost, Vicken Hillis, Sarah Mathew, Emily K. Newton, Nicole Naar, Lesley Newson, Cody Ross, Paul E. Smaldino, Timothy M. Waring & Matthew Zefferman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  10.  15
    Group Selection in the Evolution of Religion: Genetic Evolution or Cultural Evolution?Taylor Davis - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 15 (3-4):235-253.
    In the scientific literature on religious evolution, two competing theories appeal to group selection to explain the relationship between religious belief and altruism, or costly, prosocial behavior. Both theories agree that group selection plays an important role in cultural evolution, affecting psychological traits that individuals acquire through social learning. They disagree, however, about whether group selection has also played a role in genetic evolution, affecting traits that are inherited genetically. Recently, Jonathan Haidt has defended (...)
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  11.  51
    Models of Group Selection.Deborah G. Mayo & Norman L. Gilinsky - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (4):515-538.
    The key problem in the controversy over group selection is that of defining a criterion of group selection that identifies a distinct causal process that is irreducible to the causal process of individual selection. We aim to clarify this problem and to formulate an adequate model of irreducible group selection. We distinguish two types of group selection models, labeling them type I and type II models. Type I models are invoked to (...)
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  12.  48
    Philosophical Aspects of the Group Selection Controversy.John Cassidy - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (4):575-594.
    This article is primarily a study of the group selection controversy, with special emphasis on the period from 1962 to the present, and the rise of inclusive fitness theory. Interest is focused on the relations between individual fitness theory and other fitness theories and on the methodological imperatives used in the controversy over the status of these theories. An appendix formalizes the notion of "assertive part" which is used in the informal discussion of the methodological imperatives elicited from (...)
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  13.  33
    Group Selection: A Niche Construction Perspective.Kevin N. Laland, F. John Odling-Smee & Marcus W. Feldman - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Group selection, as advocated by Sober and Wilson, is theoretically plausible, although it remains an open question as to what extent it occurs in nature. If group selection has operated in hominids, it is likely to have selected cultural not genetic variation. A focus on niche construction helps delineate the conditions under which cooperation is favoured. Group selection may favour between-group conflict as well as within-group cooperation.
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  14. Why Won't the Group Selection Controversy Go Away?Samir Okasha - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):25-50.
    The group selection controversy is about whether natural selection ever operates at the level of groups, rather than at the level of individual organisms. Traditionally, group selection has been invoked to explain the existence of altruistic behaviour in nature. However, most contemporary evolutionary biologists are highly sceptical of the hypothesis of group selection, which they regard as biologically implausible and not needed to explain the evolution of altruism anyway. But in their recent book, (...)
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  15. Group Selection and Our Obsession with the Grand Questions of Life.Bence Nanay - 2010 - The Monist 93 (1):76-95.
    The aim of this paper is to make an unlikely connection between the old question about the meaning of life and some important concepts in philosophy of biology. More precisely, I argue that while biology is unlikely to help us to figure out the meaning of life, the fact that this question has been considered to be such a crucial one could be explained with the help of some consideration of our evolutionary past. I argue that if there is evidence (...)
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  16.  15
    From Group Selection to Ecological Niches.Jack Birner - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 185--202.
  17.  28
    Charles Darwin and Group Selection.Michael Ruse - 1980 - Annals of Science 37 (6):615-630.
    The question of the levels at which natural selection can be said to operate is much discussed by biologists today and is a key factor in the recent controversy about sociobiology. It is shown that this problem is one to which Charles Darwin addressed himself at some length. It is argued that apart from some slight equivocation over man, Darwin opted firmly for hypotheses supposing selection always to work at the level of the individual rather than the (...). However, natural selection's co-discoverer, Alfred Russel Wallace, endorsed group selection hypotheses. (shrink)
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  18. Group Selection, Pluralism, and the Evolution of Altruism. [REVIEW]Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (3):685 - 691.
    One version of pluralism was defended in a well-known paper by Sterelny and Kitcher. In this sense, pluralism is the view that any given selective process can be described at a variety of different levels in the biological hierarchy. On Sterelny and Kitcher’s view, one can explain giraffe necks in terms of competition among longer-necked and shorter-necked giraffes, and one can also explain them in terms of competition among the genes that lead to these differences in neck size. Although these (...)
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  19.  79
    Transmission Coupling Mechanisms: Cultural Group Selection.Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson - unknown
    The application of phylogenetic methods to cultural variation raises questions about how cultural adaption works and how it is coupled to cultural transmission. Cultural group selection is of particular interest in this context because it depends on the same kinds of mechanisms that lead to tree-like patterns of cultural variation. Here, we review ideas about cultural group selection relevant to cultural phylogenetics. We discuss why group selection among multiple equilibria is not subject to the (...)
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  20. A New Group-Selection Model for the Evolution of Homosexuality.Jeff Kirby - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):683-694.
    Abstract. Scientists have long puzzled over how homosexual orientation has evolved, given the assumed low relative fitness of homosexual individuals compared to heterosexual individuals. A number of theoretical models for the evolution of homosexuality have been postulated including balance polymorphism, "Fertile females", hypervariability of DNA sequences, kin selection, and "parental manipulation". In this paper, I propose a new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality which offers two advantages over existing models: (1) its non-assumption of genetic determinism, (...)
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  21.  40
    Correlated Interaction and Group Selection.Bruce Glymour - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):835-855.
    argues that correlated interactions are necessary for group selection. His argument turns on a particular procedure for measuring the strength of selection, and employs a restricted conception of correlated interaction. It is here shown that the procedure in question is unreliable, and that while related procedures are reliable in special contexts, they do not require correlated interactions for group selection to occur. It is also shown that none of these procedures, all of which employ partial (...)
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  22.  73
    Efficient Social Contracts and Group Selection.Simon M. Huttegger & Rory Smead - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):517-531.
    We consider the Stag Hunt in terms of Maynard Smith’s famous Haystack model. In the Stag Hunt, contrary to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, there is a cooperative equilibrium besides the equilibrium where every player defects. This implies that in the Haystack model, where a population is partitioned into groups, groups playing the cooperative equilibrium tend to grow faster than those at the non-cooperative equilibrium. We determine under what conditions this leads to the takeover of the population by cooperators. Moreover, we compare (...)
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  23.  89
    Laboratory Models, Causal Explanation and Group Selection.James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):67-96.
    We develop an account of laboratory models, which have been central to the group selection controversy. We compare arguments for group selection in nature with Darwin's arguments for natural selection to argue that laboratory models provide important grounds for causal claims about selection. Biologists get information about causes and cause-effect relationships in the laboratory because of the special role their own causal agency plays there. They can also get information about patterns of effects and (...)
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  24.  15
    Group Selection and “the Pious Gene”.John Barresi - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):777-778.
    If selection at the group level is to be considered more than a mere possibility, it is important to find phenomena that are best explained at this level of selection. I argue that human religious phenomena provide evidence for the selection of a “pious gene” at the group level, which results in a human tendency to believe in a transcendental reality that encourages behavioral conformity to collective as opposed to individual interest.
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  25.  6
    Group Selection or Categorical Perception?Craig T. Palmer, B. Eric Fredrickson & Christopher F. Tilley - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):780-780.
    Humans appear to be possible candidates for group selection because they are often said to live in bands, clans, and tribes. These terms, however, are only names for conceptual categories of people. They do not designate enduring bounded gatherings of people that might be “vehicles of selection.” Hence, group selection has probably not been a major force in human evolution.
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  26.  64
    Is There Such a Thing as “Group Selection” in the Contextual Analysis Framework?Ciprian Jeler - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (4):484-502.
    This paper argues that the contextual approach to natural selection does not offer an estimation of the contributions of individual and group selection to evolutionary change in multi-level selection scenarios, and that this is so because the term “group selection”, as defined by the contextual approach, does not refer to a process taking place at the group level. In the contextual analysis framework, this term simply denotes an evolutionary change that takes place due (...)
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  27.  62
    Evolutionary Theory and Group Selection: The Question of Warfare.Doyne Dawson - 1999 - History and Theory 38 (4):79–100.
    Evolutionary anthropology has focused on the origins of war, or rather ethnocentricity, because it epitomizes the problem of group selection, and because war may itself have been the main agent of group selection. The neo-Darwinian synthesis in biology has explained how ethnocentricity might evolve by group selection, and the distinction between evoked culture and adopted culture, suggested by the emerging synthesis in evolutionary psychology, has explained how it might be transmitted. Ethnocentric mechanisms could have (...)
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  28.  27
    Group Selection's New Clothes.Lee Cronk - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):615-616.
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  29.  35
    Evaluation of Evidence in Group Selection Debates.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:483 - 493.
    I address the controversy in evolutionary biology concerning which levels of biological entity (units) can and do undergo natural selection. I refine a definition of the unit of selection, first presented by William Wimsatt, that is grounded in the structure of natural selection models. I examine Elliott Sober's objection to this structural definition, the "homogeneous populations" problem; I find that neither the proposed definition nor Sober's own causal account can solve the problem. Sober, in his solution using (...)
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  30.  22
    Disentangling Social Preferences From Group Selection.Alejandro Rosas - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (2):169-175.
  31.  87
    Test Cases, Resolvability, and Group Selection: A Critical Examination of the Myxoma Case.Robert A. Wilson - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (3):380-401.
    The evolution of the myxoma virus in Australia has been presented for many years as a test case for the hypothesis that group selection can function effectively `in the wild.' This paper critically examines the myxoma case, and argues that its failure as a test case for this hypothesis has broader implications for debates over the levels of selection.
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  32.  42
    Group Selection: The Theory Replaces the Bogey Man.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):639-654.
    In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s (...)
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  33.  23
    Why is Group Selection Such a Problem?Randolph M. Nesse - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):633-634.
  34.  47
    Genetic Similarity, Human Altruism, and Group Selection.J. Philippe Rushton - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):503-518.
  35.  21
    Beyond Shared Fate: Group-Selected Mechanisms for Cooperation and Competition in Fuzzy, Fluid Vehicles.Geoffrey F. Miller - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):630-631.
  36.  44
    Cultural Group Selection and Holobiont Evolution – a Comparison of Structures of Evolution.Ehud Lamm - 2016 - In Snait Gissis, Ehud Lamm & Ayelet Shavit (eds.), Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences. MIT Press.
    The notion of structure of evolution is proposed to capture what it means to say that two situations exhibit the same or similar constellations of factors affecting evolution. The key features of holobiont evolution and the hologenome theory are used to define a holobiont structure of evolution. Finally, Cultural Group Selection, a set of hypotheses regarding the evolution of human cognition, is shown to match the holobiont structure closely though not perfectly.
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  37.  80
    Sacrificial Agape and Group Selection in Contemporary American Christianity.J. Jeffrey Tillman - 2008 - Zygon 43 (3):541-556.
    Human altruistic behavior has received a great deal of scientific attention over the past forty years. Altruistic-like behaviors found among insects and animals have illumined certain human behaviors, and the revival of interest in group selection has focused attention on how sacrificial altruism, although not adaptive for individuals, can be adaptive for groups. Curiously, at the same time that sociobiology has placed greater emphasis on the value of sacrificial altruism, Protestant ethics in America has moved away from it. (...)
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  38.  22
    Do We Need a New Account of Group Selection? A Reply to McLoone: Brian McLoone—Some Criticism of the Contextual Approach, and a Few Proposals.Ciprian Jeler - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (2):57-68.
    In "Some Criticism of the Contextual Approach, and a Few Proposals" in Biological Theory, Brian McLoone discusses some of the points about the contextual approach that I made in a recent paper. Besides offering a reply to McLoone’s comments on my paper, in this article I show why McLoone’s discussion of the two main frameworks for thinking about group selection—the contextual and the Price approach—is partly misguided. In particular, I show that one of McLoone’s main arguments against the (...)
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  39.  93
    A Critique of R.D. Alexander's Views on Group Selection.David Sloan Wilson - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (3):431-449.
    Group selection is increasingly being viewed as an important force in human evolution. This paper examines the views of R.D. Alexander, one of the most influential thinkers about human behavior from an evolutionary perspective, on the subject of group selection. Alexander's general conception of evolution is based on the gene-centered approach of G.C. Williams, but he has also emphasized a potential role for group selection in the evolution of individual genomes and in human evolution. (...)
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  40.  11
    Group Selection in the Upper Palaeolithic.Christopher Boehm - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Using criteria of relative plausibility, it is possible to make a case for significant group selection over the 100,000 years that Anatomically Modern Humans have been both moral and egalitarian. Our nomadic forebears surely lived in egalitarian communities that levelled social differences and moralistically curbed free-riding behaviour, and this egalitarian syndrome would have had profound effects on levels of selection. First, it reduced phenotypic variation at the within-group level. Second, it increased phenotypic variation at the between- (...) level. Third, and crucially, moral sanctioning also permitted groups to sharply curtail free-riding tendencies at the level of phenotype. The result was group selection strong enough to support altruistic genes, and a human nature that was set up for social ambivalence: that nature was mainly selfish and strongly nepotistic, but it was at least modestly and socially significantly altruistic. The effects on human social and moral life were pervasive, both in hunting bands and in more recent manifestations of human society. (shrink)
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  41.  8
    Ultrasociality Without Group Selection: Possible, Reasonable, and Likely.Max M. Krasnow - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  42.  17
    More on Group Selection and Human Behavior.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):782-787.
    The six commentaries raise five issues about multi-level selection theory that we attempt to address: (1) replicators without vehicles, (2) group selection and movement between groups, (3) absolute versus relative fitness, (4) group-level psychological adaptions, and (5) multi-level selection as a predictive theory.
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  43.  32
    Evolution in Spatial Predator–Prey Models and the “Prudent Predator”: The Inadequacy of Steady‐State Organism Fitness and the Concept of Individual and Group Selection.Charles Goodnight, E. Rauch, Hiroki Sayama, Marcus A. M. De Aguiar, M. Baranger & Yaneer Bar‐yam - 2008 - Complexity 13 (5):23-44.
    Complexity is pleased to announce the installment of Prof Hiroki Sayama as its new Chief Editor. In this Editorial, Prof Sayama describes his feelings about his recent appointment, discusses some of the journal’s journey and relevance to current issues, and shares his vision and aspirations for its future.
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  44.  34
    Be Fruitful and Multiply: Growth, Reason, and Cultural Group Selection in Hayek and Darwin.Naomi Beck - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):413-423.
    The theory of cultural evolution proposed by economist Friedrich August von Hayek is without doubt the most harshly criticized component in his highly prolific intellectual corpus. Hayek depicted the emergence of the market order as the unintended consequence of an evolutionary process in which groups whose rules of behavior led to a comparative increase in population and wealth were favored over others. Key to Hayek’s theory was the claim that the rules of the market, on which modern civilization relies, evolved (...)
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  45.  17
    Reintroducing “Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences”to BBS Readers.Nicholas S. Thompson - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):304-305.
    Wilson and Sober's (1994t) revival of group selection theory may have failed with some readers because its simple arithmetic foundation was obscured under the complexities of its presentation. When that uncontrovertible principle is uncovered, it broadens dramatically the fundamental motives that social scientists may impute to human nature and still be consistent with Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  46.  24
    Group Selection and “Genuine” Altruism.Robert H. Frank - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):620-621.
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  47.  30
    Group Selection, Morality, and Environmental Problems.Iver Mysterud - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    As various kinds of resources become scarce within the context of today's population, consumption, and environmental problems, conflicts of interest will become more evident, competition become more intense, and certain kinds of ‘unwanted’ behavioural strategies might have a tendency to emerge and be used by a growing number of individuals. In such situations, humans may activate group adaptations. If we have group adaptations, like a tendency to classify humans into in-groups and out-groups and to develop moralities favouring one's (...)
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  48.  91
    Why Reciprocal Altruism is Not a Kind of Group Selection.Grant Ramsey & Robert Brandon - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):385-400.
    Reciprocal altruism was originally formulated in terms of individual selection and most theorists continue to view it in this way. However, this interpretation of reciprocal altruism has been challenged by Sober and Wilson (1998). They argue that reciprocal altruism (as well as all other forms of altruism) evolves by the process of group selection. In this paper, we argue that the original interpretation of reciprocal altruism is the correct one. We accomplish this by arguing that if fitness (...)
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  49. From Group Selection to Ecological Niches. Popper's Rethinking of Evolutionary Theory in the Light of Hayek's Theory of Culture.Jack Birner - 2009 - In R. S. Cohen & Z. Parusniková (eds.), Rethinking Popper, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 272.
     
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  50.  1
    Cultural Group Selection in the Light of the Selection of Extended Behavioral Patterns.Carsta Simon - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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