13 found
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  1.  4
    Problems with Using Stability, Specificity, and Proportionality as Criteria for Evaluating Strength of Scientific Causal Explanations: Commentary on Lynch Et Al.Gry Oftedal - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):26.
    Lynch et al. employ stability, specificity, and proportionality as criteria for evaluating microbiome causal explanations. Although these causal characteristics signify relevant differences between causal roles, I suggest that they should not be used as general criteria for strong or good causal explanations.
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  2. Functional Stability and Systems Level Causation.Anders Strand & Gry Oftedal - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):809-820.
    A wide range of gene knockout experiments shows that functional stability is an important feature of biological systems. On this backdrop, we present an argument for higher‐level causation based on counterfactual dependence. Furthermore, we sketch a metaphysical picture providing resources to explain the metaphysical nature of functional stability, higher‐level causation, and the relevant notion of levels. Our account aims to clarify the role empirical results and philosophical assumptions should play in debates about reductionism and higher‐level causation. It thereby contributes to (...)
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  3.  15
    The Role of Philosophy of Science in Responsible Research and Innovation : The Case of Nanomedicine.Gry Oftedal - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-12.
    Research on ethical, legal and social aspects of life sciences and new technologies has mainly been focused on impacts and consequences, while the emerging framework of Responsible Research and Innovation focuses rather on increased involvement and reflexivity in research processes to foster science and technology that better answers the needs of society. I argue that philosophy of science should be a central feature of RRI and demonstrate how the philosophy of science can contribute in this sense. I show how investigating (...)
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  4.  47
    Restricted Causal Relevance.Anders Strand & Gry Oftedal - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (2):431-457.
    Causal selection and priority are at the heart of discussions of the causal parity thesis, which says that all causes of a given effect are on a par, and that any justified priority assigned to a given cause results from causal explanatory interests. In theories of causation that provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of causal claims, status as cause is an either/or issue: either a given cause satisfies the conditions or it does not. Consequently, assessments of causal (...)
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  5.  29
    Synthetic Biology and Genetic Causation.Gry Oftedal & Veli-Pekka Parkkinen - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):208-216.
    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we (...)
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  6.  16
    Causation and Counterfactual Dependence in Robust Biological Systems.Anders Strand & Gry Oftedal - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 179--193.
    In many biological experiments, due to gene-redundancy or distributed backup mechanisms, there are no visible effects on the functionality of the organism when a gene is knocked out or down. In such cases there is apparently no counterfactual dependence between the gene and the phenotype in question, although intuitively the gene is causally relevant. Due to relativity of causal relations to causal models, we suggest that such cases can be handled by changing the resolution of the causal model that represents (...)
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  7. Heritability and Genetic Causation.Gry Oftedal - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):699-709.
    The method in human genetics of ascribing causal responsibility to genotype by the use of heritability estimates has been heavily criticized over the years. It has been argued that these estimates are rarely valid and do not serve the purpose of tracing genetic causes. Recent contributions strike back at this criticism. I present and discuss two opposing views on these matters represented by Richard Lewontin and Neven Sesardic, and I suggest that some of the disagreement is based on differing concepts (...)
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  8. 1. Preface Preface (Pp. I-Ii).Marcel Weber, Warren Schmaus, Heather A. Jamniczky, Gry Oftedal, Robert C. Bishop, Axel Gelfert, Mathias Frisch, Daniel Parker, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5).
  9.  36
    Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection.Gry Oftedal - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):333-336.
  10.  9
    The Role of “Missile” and “Targeting” Metaphors in Nanomedicine.Gry Oftedal - 2019 - Philosophia Scientae 23:39-55.
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  11.  53
    Neven Sesardic • Making Sense of Heritability.Gry Oftedal - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):619-623.
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  12.  3
    The Role of “Missile” and “Targeting” Metaphors in Nanomedicine.Gry Oftedal - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiæ.
    In this paper I suggest that the “missile” and the “targeting” metaphors in research on nanoparticle-based drug delivery play different roles. I argue that the “missile” plays a marginal scientific role and a more important role in communication, while “targeting” has become an organizing metaphor for the research field. The reason, I suggest, is that targeting is the main _ explanandum _ of the field and that this metaphor continues to be relevant even as nanomedicine matures towards tackling more complex (...)
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  13.  3
    The Role of “Missile” and “Targeting” Metaphors in Nanomedicine.Gry Oftedal - 2019 - Philosophia Scientiæ. Travaux d'Histoire Et de Philosophie des Sciences 23:39-55.
    Dans cet article, je soutiens que les métaphores « missile » et « ciblage » dans la recherche sur les médicaments à base de nanoparticules jouent différents rôles. Je soutiens que le « missile » joue un rôle scientifique marginal et un rôle plus central dans la communication, tandis que le « ciblage» est devenu une métaphore organisatrice dans le domaine de la recherche. La raison, je le suggère, est que le ciblage est l’explanandum principal du domaine et que cette (...)
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