Publishing scientific articles is a crucial activity performed by a scientist to demonstrate inclusion as part of the community of scientists: a community constituted by journal editors, reviewers, authors and readers. A manuscript submitted to journals is first read by reviewers, and their decision to accept it creates membership in the community for the author with its attendant privileges of ingroup status. Rejection bars such membership. In this article we examine the language used by this powerful individual — the journal (...) reviewer — to recognize another individual — the author — as being a member or not. Five reviewer reports of two different manuscripts submitted by non-native English-speaking authors are analyzed in this case study. Complementary discourse analytical approaches are used: group ideology, syntactic structure and personal pronouns. The analysis of the linguistic strategies used reveals three distinct positions that the reviewers adopt within this under-researched genre. (shrink)
The situational context within which an activity takes place, as well as the personality characteristics of individuals shape the types of strategies people choose in order to regulate their emotions, especially when confronted with challenging or undesirable situations. Taking self-regulation as the framework to study emotions in relation to learning and performing chamber music canon repertoire, this quasi-experimental and intra-individual study focused on the self-rated emotional states of a professional classical cellist during long-term sustained practice across 100-weeks. This helped to (...) develop greater awareness of different emotions and how they vary over artistic events. Data analysis included traditional psychometric measurements to test the internal consistency of the time series data as well as the relationship between variables. The study mapped the cellist’s flexible regulation of 17 different positive and negative emotions empirically linked to learning and achievement while practicing within the social context of performing music publicly at a high level. Findings arising from the study help with understandings of how to support musicians to maximize their artistic potential by reducing emotion dysregulation and strengthening the types of adaptive methods that enable them to manage their own emotions. (shrink)
Precisado el concepto de inculturación, se analizan los principales componentes del suceso guadalupano, como son el ayate o lienzo con la imagen de la Virgen de Guadalupe, las apariciones, el Nican Mopohua o narración de las mismas, el mensajero Juan Diego, la Casita Sagrada o templo pedido por la Virgen y la religiosidad popular que de dichas apariciones nace. Estamos ante un modelo de perfecta inculturación, como la han llamado los pastores.
Nos proponemos recorrer aquí algunas de las líneas de fuerza que permiten vincular la obra de Samuel Beckett con la estética desarrollada en los escritos de Gilles Deleuze. Para ello dedicaremos un primer apartado a las relaciones entre Beckett y la filosofía, para hacer patente allí la afinidad con algunas de las fuentes fundamentales de la filosofía deleuziana, como Nietzsche, Spinoza y la distancia con aquel que se constituye como uno de sus “enemigos” filosóficos: Martin Heidegger. Plantearemos luego algunos puntos (...) de reparo en relación con el vínculo entre Deleuze y literatura en general para abordar por último la específica interpretación que se hace de Beckett en los textos dedicados exclusivamente a su obra. (shrink)
A la muerte de Suárez algunos de sus escritos permanecían aún inéditos. De ellos se hablaba ya en las primeras cartas que comunicaban su fallecimiento. Así, el P. Núñez Mascarenhas, superior de la casa de Lisboa donde falleció el insigne teólogo, decía al provincial de la Compañía de Jesús en el reino de Aragón: "El P. Suárez se había recogido en el Noviciado para preparar la impresión de varios volúmenes: primero, el De Angelis; segundo, el De opere sex dierum [en (...) adelante, DOSD]; tercero, De fide; cuarto y quinto, De gratia y De auxiliis; sexto y séptimo, De statu religionis; octavo, De voluntario et involuntario"3. (shrink)
The Civil Economy approach, as developed by Italian economists Luigino Bruni and Stefano Zamagni, aims at introducing reciprocity into the economy as a humanizing factor. Despite being presented as an innovative perspective, the CE approach shares many characteristics with the German model of Social Market Economy. The present paper compares both approaches, showing that they in fact share a normative basis and similar aims but address them from diverse points of view; namely, CE addresses them from a virtue ethics perspective (...) and SME from an institutional ethics one. This leads them to stress different aspects and to focus on diverse problems. Therefore, CE would not constitute an alternative to SME but a complement. Thus, a combination of both approaches should allow each to take advantage of their respective strengths and lead to a better result in terms of the common good. (shrink)
This study describes the methodology used by Marcos Y. Lopez of the Centro Escolar University in developing and validating The CEU-Lopez Critical Thinking Test. The test is a multi-aspect general-knowledge critical thinking test designed for Filipino students in tertiary level. It uses Ennis’s conception of critical thinking in the development of test items. The use of verbal reports of thinking to establish validity and fairness of multiple-choice critical thinking test is based on the study by Norris in validating his co-authored (...) Test on Appraising Observations. Verbal reports of thinking are useful in establishing validity and fairness of multiple-choice critical thinking tests for they provide evidence to judge whether good thinking is in general associated with choosing answers credited by the key as correct and poor thinking is associated with choosing unkeyed answers . The eight processes employed in developing and validating this multiple-choice critical thinking test are as follows: test conceptualization, development of a test plan, development of test items, face and content validation of the test, revision of the test items, pre try-out of the test, actual try-out of the test, and construct validation of the test using verbal reports of thinking. The CEU-Lopez Critical Thinking Test consists of 87 items that focus on five aspects of critical thinking: deduction, credibility judgment, assumption identification, induction, and meaning. (shrink)
Why does social injustice exist? What role, if any, do implicit biases play in the perpetuation of social inequalities? Individualistic approaches to these questions explain social injustice as the result of individuals’ preferences, beliefs, and choices. For example, they explain racial injustice as the result of individuals acting on racial stereotypes and prejudices. In contrast, structural approaches explain social injustice in terms of beyond-the-individual features, including laws, institutions, city layouts, and social norms. Often these two approaches are seen as competitors. (...) Framing them as competitors suggests that only one approach can win and that the loser offers worse explanations of injustice. In this essay, we explore each approach and compare them. Using implicit bias as an example, we argue that the relationship between individualistic and structural approaches is more complicated than it may first seem. Moreover, we contend that each approach has its place in analyses of injustice and raise the possibility that they can work together—synergistically—to produce deeper explanations of social injustice. If so, the approaches may be complementary, rather than competing. (shrink)
In Lukács: Praxis and the Absolute, Daniel Andrés López reassembles Lukács’s philosophy of praxis on a Hegelian basis, as a conceptual-historical totality, both defending him and proposing an unprecedented, immanent critique that raises problems for Marxian philosophy as a whole.
This chapter defends a version of the indexical contextualist form of moderate relativism: the attempt to endorse appearances of faultless disagreement within the framework in which a sentence at a context at the index of the context determines its appropriate truth-value. Many object that any such an indexical proposal would fail to account for intuitions of (genuine) disagreement as revealed in ordinary disputes in the domain. The defence from this objection exploits presuppositions of commonality to the effect that the addressee (...) is relevantly like the speaker of the context. (shrink)
Food quality is an important issue on the global agenda, particularly in high- and middle-income economies, but of little concern in designing Mexico’s food policy. Food policy has focused on quantity and in the case of maize, on satisfying domestic demand by supporting large commercial agriculture and importing from abroad. However, and as argued in this paper, obtaining a food staple of quality is also an important issue for rural households and contributes to motivating continued smallholder production. Based on case (...) studies in the rural district of Atlacomulco, in the state of Mexico, as well as in two regions of the state of Chiapas, this paper analyzes the production and consumption strategies of rural households. We focus on goals of food security and quality and note differential trends among households of varying characteristics and local contexts. We find that the motivation of small-scale producers to grow maize should be supported by Mexico’s food policy. (shrink)
Resumo Plotino é um pensador estranho para o filósofo contemporâneo: nas suas Enéadas, ele discute experiência mística e prática filosófica como se fosse uma mesma coisa. De fato, no pensamento plotiniano, o ápice da vida filosófica é a contemplação mística: não pensamento irracional, mas uma forma supra-racional de consciência que é alcançada pela prática ascética e pelo procedimento dialético. Este artigo tenta entender o que é a experiência mística em Plotino. Na verdade, uma leitura atenta dos textos das Enéadas que (...) tratam do assunto mostram que não existe apenas um, mas dois tipos de contemplação mística supra-racional: a experiência da alma humana unida ao Intelecto divino e a experiência da alma humana unida ao Um, o princípio supremo da realidade de acordo com a filosofia plotiniana. Ambos são tipos de intuição intelectual interior, mas, se a experiência mística do Intelecto é a contemplação da totalidade do mundo inteligível, a contemplação do Um é a intuição da identidade pura, além de toda a diferença. Palavras-chave: Plotino; Neoplatonismo; Mística.Plotinus is a strange scholar to the contemporary philosopher: in his Enneads, he discusses mystical experience and philosophical practice as if they were the same thing. Indeed, according to his thoughts, the summit of philosophical life is mystical contemplation: not irrational thinking, but a supra-rational form of consciousness achieved through ascetic practice and dialectical procedure. This paper attempts to understand the mystical experience in Plotinus. In fact, a close reading of the texts of the Enneads on the subject demonstrates that there are not only one, but two kinds of supra-rational mystical contemplation: the experience of the human soul united to the divine Intellect and the experience of the human soul united to the One, the supreme principle of reality according to Plotinus's philosophy. Both are kinds of interior intellectual intuition, but if the mystical experience of the Intellect is the contemplation of the whole of the intelligible world, the contemplation of the One is the intuition of pure identity, beyond all difference. Key words: Plotinus; Neo-Platonism; Mysticism. (shrink)
What different relativist claims about a given domain are to be distinguished? Which of them is best placed to account for intuitive facts about disagreement in that domain? In a recent paper in this journal, ‘Indexical Relativism versus Genuine Relativism’ (2004), Max Kölbel distinguishes two forms of relativism, andargues that one of them, indexical relativism, faces problems in accounting for disagreement. In the first part of this discussion I present my own taxonomy of relativist positions in a given domain, which (...) is based on David Lewis’s 1980 essay, and I compare it with Kölbel’s and other recent suggestions. In the second part, I argue that the presuppositional defence of indexical relativism against related objections that I have elaborated elsewhere is also effective against Kölbel’s recent charges. (shrink)
In contrast to individualistic explanations of social injustice that appeal to implicit attitudes, structural explanations are unintuitive: they appeal to entities that lack clear ontological status, and the explanatory mechanism is similarly unclear. This makes structural explanations unappealing. The present work proposes a structural explanation of one type of injustice that happens in conversations, discursive injustice. This proposal meets two goals. First, it satisfactorily accounts for the specific features of this particular kind of injustice; and second, it articulates a structural (...) explanation that overcomes their unattractiveness. The main idea is that discursive injustice is not the result of biased interlocutors, but of problematic discursive norms. (shrink)
In this note, my aim is to point out a phenomenon that has not received much attention; a phenomenon that, in my opinion, should not be overlooked in the professional practice of philosophy, especially within feminist efforts for social justice. I am referring to the way in which being a non-native speaker of English interacts with the practice of philosophy.1 There is evidence that non-native speakers are often perceived in prejudiced ways. Such prejudiced perception causes harm and, more importantly, constitutes (...) wrongdoing. As in other cases of prejudiced perception and biased behavior, it would be pretentious and misguided to expect philosophers and the philosophy profession to be free from this vice. There are good reasons to think that this prejudiced perception is bad not only for the persons who are perceived in such a way, but also for the profession, for it might make us miss important things that could improve philosophy in general. I claim we should be more sensitive to this phenomenon, both out of concern for justice, and for the sake of doing better philosophy. (shrink)
RESUMEN:La originalidad que define la lectura deleuzeana de las artes es su crítica implícita a toda antropología o psicología del artista y del espectador, y a todo abordaje de la obra dependiente de la tradición hermenéutica, de las teorías del lenguaje y de la semiología estructuralista. El problema de la animalidad y de la vida en general en relación con el arte parece responder, de un modo inédito, al desdibujamiento de las esferas que la estética clásica distinguía como categorías escindidas (...) para el análisis de la obra de arte; el autor, la obra, el espectador. En este artículo proponemos un recorrido por algunos aspectos de las teorías de la individuación y lo viviente en Simondon, Bergson y von Uexküll para comprender su uso y función en la estética deleuzena. PALABRAS CLAVE:DELEUZE, ESTÉTICA, SIMONDON, BERGSON, VON UEXKÜLLABSTRACT:The originality of Deleuze aesthetics is its implicit refuse of any anthropology o psychology of the artist or the spectator, and also a refusal of hermeneutics, language theories and structuralist semiology towards an analysis of the work of art. The problem of animality and life in general in relation to art seems to respond, in an unprecedented way, to the fading of those which classical aesthetics regarded as split topics for the analysis of the work of art, i.e., author, work of art, spectator. This paper points out some relevant aspects of individuation and life theories in Simondon, Bergson and von Uexküll, so as to understand their use and function in Deleuze aesthetics. KEY WORDS:DELEUZE, AESTHETICS, SIMONDON, BERGSON, VON UEXKÜLL. (shrink)
Pritchard sostiene que la condición de habilidad y la condición de seguridad le imponen demandas independientes al conocimiento, i.e., que la satisfacción de una no implica la satisfacción de la otra y que, por lo tanto, ninguna de ellas es suficiente por sí misma para ofrecer una caracterización adecuada de esta noción. Argumento, por el contrario, que no hay buenas razones para pensar que la condición de seguridad es insuficiente. Empleando algunos conceptos de Greco y Pritchard y Kallestrup para caracterizar (...) a las habilidades cognitivas y el caso del mentiroso consistente de Lackey, argumento que TEMP, el caso clave de Pritchard para mostrar que puede haber seguridad sin habilidad, no funciona porque el proceso cognitivo relevante constituye una realización legítima, aunque anómala, de una habilidad. Pritchard maintains that the ability and the safety conditions impose independent demands on knowledge, i.e., that satisfying only one of them is not sufficient to acquire knowledge. I argue that there are no good reasons to suppose that the safety condition is not sufficient. I claim that TEMP, the key case proposed by Pritchard to show that there can be safety without ability, fails because therelevant cognitive process constitutes a legitimate, although anomalous, realization of a cognitive ability. (shrink)
La preocupación por los modos de producción del discurso filosófico como inseparable de la práctica filosófica ha sido un rasgo distintivo del período helenístico, y desde nuestra perspectiva, adopta un rasgo novedoso en el escepticismo antiguo. El pirronismo incluye en su propuesta el tratamiento crítico sobre la tendencia aseverativa propia del lenguaje como fuente productora de dogmatismos. De esta manera, la terapéutica escéptica debe operar también sobre las propias expresiones y los tipos de escritura que adopta el pirrónico. Wittgenstein parece (...) cercano a algunas de estas preocupaciones en la medida en que las formas de expresar y escribir deben reflejar el enfoque no-teórico en el que se practica la filosofía - asociado a una reflexión filosófica sobre el lenguaje. Atendiendo a ciertos aspectos de la orientación pirrónica como clave de lectura, estudiaremos las reflexiones de Wittgenstein sobre sus propios escritos como quedan exhibidas en sus prólogos. Concern about modes of production of philosophical discourse as inseparable from philosophical practice has been a distinctive feature of the Hellenistic period and, from our perspective, it adopts a new feature in ancient skepticism. Pyrrhonism includes, in its proposal, the critical treatment on assertive trend inherent to language as a source of dogmatism. Thus, the skeptical therapeutic must also operate on the expressions and types of writing pyrrhonics use. Wittgenstein seems close to some of these concerns in the sense that the ways of expressing and writing should reflect the non-theoretical approach in which philosophy is practised -associated to a philosophical reflection on language. Regarding certain aspects of the Pyrrhonian orientation as a reading key, we will study Wittgenstein's reflections on his own writings as are exhibited in his prologues. (shrink)
En este artículo se presenta una visión panorámica de la situación actual del judaísmo así como de los principales problemas y desafíos que afronta en la actualidad. De manera especial se reflexiona sobre el concepto de identidad judía, pues son muchas y diferentes las respuestas a las preguntas ¿quién es judío? y ¿qué significa ser judío?
Consider a cat on a mat. On the one hand, there seems to be just one cat, but on the other there seem to be many things with as good a claim as anything in the vicinity to being a cat. Hence, the problem of the many. In his ‘Many, but Almost One,’ David Lewis offered two solutions. According to the first, only one of the many is indeed a cat, although it is indeterminate exactly which one. According to the (...) second, the many are all cats, but they are almost identical to each other, and hence they are almost one. For Lewis, the two solutions do not compete with each other but are mutually complementary, as each one can assist the other. This paper has two aims: to give some reasons against the first of these two solutions, but then to defend the second as a self-standing solution from Lewis’s considerations to the contrary. (shrink)
The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of sociocultural factors on corruption levels. Taking as starting point Husted (J Int Bus Studies 30:339–359, 1999) and Graeff (In: Lambsdorff J, Taube M, Schramm M (eds) The new institutional economics of corruption. Routledge, London, 2005) proposals, we consider both the interrelation between cultural dimensions and the diverse expressions of social capital with corruption. According to our results, the universalistic trust (linking and bridging social capital) constitutes a positive social capital (...) that is negatively linked to corruption. In contrast, the particularistic levels of trust (bonding) can constitute a negative social capital directly related to corruption levels. Furthermore, cultures which are favourable to the legitimation of dependency relations and the formation of closed particularistic groups (power-distance and community factors) create a breeding ground for the development of these amoral rent-seeking structures. (shrink)
This article compares the ‘enfranchisement lottery’, a novel method for allocating the right to vote, with universal suffrage. The comparison is conducted exclusively on the basis of the expected consequences of the two systems. Each scheme seems to have a relative advantage. On the one hand, the enfranchisement lottery would create a better informed electorate and thus improve the quality of electoral outcomes. On the other hand, universal suffrage is more likely to ensure that elections are seen to be fair, (...) which is important for political stability. This article concludes that, on balance, universal suffrage is prima facie superior to the enfranchisement lottery. Yet the analysis shows that the instrumental case for the ‘one person, one vote’ principle is less conclusive than democratic theorists usually suppose. (shrink)
In the recent literature on contextualism and relativism, one often finds disputes as to which kind of consideration would be relevant for positing a feature of a context as a parameter in the ‘‘circumstance of evaluation’: via the presence of an operator in the language which shifts that feature (Stanley) or by being a feature of a context with respect to which the truth of ‘‘propositions’’ expressed in the context is relative (McFarlane). This kind of dispute arises from two different (...) independent roles that elements in ‘‘circumstances of evaluation’’ are sometimes assumed to have. I distinguish indices from points of evaluation, and motivate its significance in the debate. (shrink)