This conference was devoted to the 80 years of the Copenhagen Interpretation, and to the question of the relevance of the Copenhagen interpretation for the present understanding of quantum mechanics. It is in this framework that fundamental questions raised by quantum mechanics, especially in information theory, were discussed throughout the conference. As has become customary in our series of conference in Växjö, we were glad to welcome a fruitful assembly of theoretical physicists, experimentalists, mathematicians and even philosophers interested in the (...) foundations of probability and physics. The nature of quantum fluctuations---in the form of Stochastic Electrodynamics or in other approaches to stochastic quantum mechanics---was also a central topic discussed during the conference, especially during debates. We should also mention talks on the completeness or incompleteness of quantum mechanics; on macroscopic quantum systems; on Bell's inequality, entanglement and experiments on quantum nonlocality (and locality); on Bohmian mechanics; on the connection between quantum mechanics and general relativity; on quantum probability; on quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography technologies; and more generally on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and on the philosophical problems raised by its interpretations. (shrink)
This Växjö conference was devoted to the reconsideration of quantum foundations. Due to increasing research in quantum information theory, especially on quantum computing and cryptography, many questions regarding the foundations of quantum mechanics, which have long been considered to be exclusively of philosophical interest, nowadays play an important role in theoretical and experimental quantum physics.
Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, amongst other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g. uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim —what we call here “framing” the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. 1) It (...) proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. 2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. 3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. 4) Provocative recommendations promote adjustments for a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully-considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ~5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (~25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (~40%) – or uncertainty is completely ignored (~8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers. (shrink)
Love, especially romantic and partnership love, has been a legitimate research theme in social science since the mid-twentieth century. In the research less attention is paid to how personal conceptions of love are formed within specific sociocultural contexts. One question that emerges in relation to social representations theory is: how are ideas about love, or knowledge of love, re-presented among particular social groups and which sociocultural resources are used in the process? In our questionnaire-based research we ascertained which perceptions, ideas (...) and knowledge are prevalent among young people who are gaining their first experiences of partner relationships, what they consider love to be in their own context and what knowledge they have of love. The questionnaire was completed by 268 higher education students, who provided 38 representations of love, based on personal experience and linked to sociocultural sources of love. (shrink)
Une première période où les influences mêlées d’Alessandro Padoa et de Bertrand Russell s’exercent en France culmine avec les essais philosophiques de Jean Nicod. Une seconde période voit fleurir les travaux du mathématicien Jacques Herbrand ; avant de périr, il laisse son nom à un théorème fondamental. Suit une période de débats entre philosophes, mathématiciens et physiciens, stimulés en 1935 et 1937 par la tenue à Paris de deux congrès consacrés, totalement ou en partie, à la philosophie des sciences. Paulette (...) Février y esquisse une logique non classique où l’on postule l’existence de couples de propositions non composables pour ériger en principes les relations de Werner Heisenberg. Jean-Louis Destouches développe cette conception jusqu’à décrire comment édifier une théorie unifiante. La structuration des êtres mathématiques est l’objet d’études philosophiques d’Albert Lautman. Le rôle putatif de la notion de groupe en logique est interrogé. La notion de structure mathématique est l’objet de deux contributions : Marc Krasner généralise les conceptions d’Évariste Galois, attribuées à la logique et étendues à des langages infinitaires ; Nicolas Bourbaki, compte tenu de l’évolution des mathématiques, qualifie de structure ce que nous appelons aujourd’hui un modèle. (shrink)
In his posthumous book from 1914, "New foundations of logic, arithmetic and set theory", Julius Konig develops his philosophy of mathematics. In a previous contribution, we attracted attention on the positive part (his truth and falsehood predicates being excluded) of his "pure logic": his "isology" being assimilated to mutual implication, it constitutes a genuine formalization of positive intuitionistic logic. Konig's intention was to rebuild logic in such a way that the excluded third's principle could no longer be logical. However, his (...) treatment of truth and falsehood (boiling down to negation) is purely classical. We explain here this discrepancy by the choice of the alleged more primitive notions to which the questioned notions of truth and falsehood have been reduced. Finaly, it turns out that the disjunctive and conjunctive forms of the principles of the excluded third and of contradiction have effectively been excluded, but none of their implicative forms. (shrink)
The first step of the construction of Nézondet's models of finite arithmetics which are counter-models to Erdös–Woods conjecture is to add to the natural numbers the non-standard numbers generated by one of them, using addition, multiplication and divisions by a natural factor allowed in an ultrapower construction. After a review of some properties of such a structure, we show that the choice of the ultrafilter can be managed, using just the Chinese remainder's theorem, so that a model as desired is (...) obtained as early as at the first time. (shrink)
Avec l’apparition d’Internet, les règles de fonctionnement dans tous les domaines de la société ont été fondamentalement modifiées. Les échanges sont devenus plus rapides, plus visibles et visuels, et pour la première fois dans l’histoire de l’humanité ils se situent à l’échelle planétaire. Penser que la sphère associative ait pu passer à côté de cette profonde mutation sociétale serait une erreur. Tout comme les autres secteurs de la société, les ONG, les associations, les institutions, les administrations du secteur public, les (...) instances présidentielles et ministérielles des États ont dû, elles aussi, entrer dans cette compétitivité effrénée et modifier leurs modes de fonctionnement vers plus de visibilité des contenus, plus d’explicatifs, plus de diversités des médias employés, plus de services en ligne et d’interactivité, afin de toucher le plus de monde possible, ou de faciliter la vie de chacun en rendant certaines démarches plus rapides. Cependant, mondialisation ne saurait rimer avec efficacité sans passer par l’étape incontournable qu’est la traduction.The arrival of the Internet has profoundly changed the rules in every area of society. Exchanges are faster, more visible and more visual, and for the first time in the history of humanity, they are happening on the scale of the entire planet. It would be a mistake to believe that non-governmental groups have been left untouched by this profound societal change. Like all other sectors of society, NGOs, associations, institutions, public sector administration and State presidential or ministerial bodies have had to join the same headlong race for competitiveness, changing the way they function to make their content ever more visible and more explanatory, broaden their media range and expand their on-line services and interactiveness, to reach as many people as possible or make life easier by offering faster responses. However, globalisation can never equal efficiency if translating is left out of the equation. (shrink)
L’évaluation est à la mode et la référence à ses vertus est de bon ton. La sphère publique n’y échappe pas. Le président de la République et le Premier ministre ont ainsi décidé, il y a un an, la création d’un secrétariat d’État chargé, entre autres choses, de l’évaluation des politiques publiques. Pour autant, il ne s’agit pas d’une révolution. L’évaluation des..
Le livre de F. Doro-Mégy (ci-après FDM) se fonde sur ses travaux de doctorat. Il s’agit d’un numéro spécial de la collection Linguistique contrastive et traduction dirigée par J. Guillemin-Flescher aux éditions Ophrys. Il est dédié à la mémoire de C. Bernigaud. Dans l’introduction, FDM expose son sujet et les limites de ce dernier. Elle part de l’idée intuitive selon laquelle think serait l’équivalent du français penser tandis que believe correspondrait presque systématiquement à croire. San..
Das obras de Newton da Costa, muitas pessoas na França conhecem apenas o renascimento da paraconsistência. Apresentamos algumas razões em defesa de investigações nessa parte da lógica. Acima de tudo, porém, relembramos uma das maiores contribuições de Newton da Costa: sua demonstração, em 1991, em colaboração com Doria, da indecidibilidade gödeliana do movimento na física matemátcia, um resultado que foi de certa forma previsto, por outras razões, por Duhem em 1906. DOI: 10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n1p7.
Theories are processes modelled by thought. When they evolve in time, they are transformed and become new theories. They may cross from one academic discipline to another, then open up to new areas of human knowledge, mixing together the humanities, art, science and even spirituality. The way they are modelled reveals their plasticity and their elasticity is tested in their potential for transfer from one domain to another, while the different contacts they make and mergers they undergo generate a certain (...) hybridity. Plasticity, elasticity and hybridity are the triad which make the transfer of theories possible. (shrink)
In the model proposed by Findlay & Walker, the programming of saccadic eye movements is achieved by two parallel processes, one dedicated to the coding of saccade metrics (Where) and the other controlling saccade initiation (When). One outcome of the “winner-take-all” characteristics of the salience map, the main node of the model, is an independence between the metrics and the latency of saccades. We report on some observations, made in the head-unrestrained cat under pathological conditions, of a correlation between accuracy (...) and latency of saccadic gaze shifts. To account for such a correlation, the link between metrics specification (Where) and saccade triggering (When) should be amended in the model. (shrink)
The first step of the construction of Nézondet's models of finite arithmetics which are counter-models to Erdös-Woods conjecture is to add to the natural numbers the non-standard numbers generated by one of them, using addition, multiplication and divisions by a natural factor allowed in an ultrapower construction. After a review of some properties of such a structure, we show that the choice of the ultrafilter can be managed, using just the Chinese remainder's theorem, so that a model as desired is (...) obtained as early as at the first time. (shrink)
At a time when humanity experiences its greatest advances, major conflicts and abuses arise around the world due to a lack of humanism and reason within the meaning of the Enlightenment. Modernity and western comfort in our globalized society have not helped share and balance the wealth, nor preserve the natural resources; it has not prevented crimes against humanity nor the most insane dictatorial actions of the 20th and early 21st centuries. This went hand in hand with a massive degradation (...) of the environment. Could the animal be the solution to all the mistakes we have made during the last century, instead of being considered an inferior, a slave? Could he not be the one who has managed the best in the fields of intelligence, self-regulation and respect of his vital environment? Should we not rather turn toward the animal to find a new balanced model? Respecting the environment and his peers seems to be the most striking evidence of intelligence, does it not? The animal has achieved this. Man has not. Focusing on the way man has treated animals may therefore help us to understand why we have treated our peers so badly. (shrink)
Translation in the Middle Ages did not involve the same constraints as translation today for various reasons, which this article will attempt to highlight through a semiotic analysis of the opposing powers and other translation-related pressures which interact in the translation process. This process involves a source language and a target language, but above all a source culture and target culture. Translation in the Middle Ages, like translation today, is primarily about taking into consideration certain constraints, some of which are (...) shared between the two eras but which, in all cases, take into account the period in which they were translated. Indeed, an era involves modes of thought, political and religious ideologies, translation and stylistic practices that are unique to that particular time. If, as example periods, we have chosen two eras which are quite remote from each other, it is to demonstrate that the issues certainly differ, but not as much as one might imagine, particularly in certain political and ideological contexts. (shrink)
À partir de l'observation du nord de la région Midi-Pyrénées, cet article défend l'hypothèse que les logiques économiques, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux d'acteurs locaux sont à l'origine de la construction d'une identité territoriale. Fruit d'une histoire collective celle-ci n'empêche pas l'expression d'enjeux et de stratégies aux intérêts divergents mais entraîne deux changements majeurs. Elle permet de penser de façon positive le futur de ce territoire et conduit à l'envisager à partir des relations qu'il entretient avec d'autres espaces parfois (...) fort éloignés.From the observation of the northern region of Midi-Pyrénées, this article defends the hypothesis that economic logic, social networks and local games are at the origin of the construction of a regional identity. Result of a collective history it does not prevent the expression of issues and strategies with different interests but has two major changes. It helps to think positively the future of this country and led to the consideration from its relations with other areas sometimes far apart. (shrink)
In his posthumous book from 1914, “New foundations of logic, arithmetic andset theory”, Julius König develops his philosophy of mathematics. In a previous contribution, we attracted attention on the positive part of his “pure logic”: his “isology” being assimilated to mutual implication, it constitutes a genuine formalization of positive intuitionistic logic. König’s intention was to rebuild logic in such a way that the excluded third’s principle could no longer be logical. However, his treatment of truth and falsehood is purely classical. (...) We explain here this discrepancy by the choice of the alleged more primitive notions to which the questioned notions of truth and falsehood have been reduced. Finaly, it turns out that the disjunctive and conjunctive forms of the principles of the excluded third and of contradiction have effectively been excluded, but none of their implicative forms. (shrink)
Theories are processes modelled by thought. When they evolve in time, they are transformed and become new theories. They may cross from one academic discipline to another, then open up to new areas of human knowledge, mixing together the humanities, art, science and even spirituality. The way they are modelled reveals their plasticity and their elasticity is tested in their potential for transfer from one field to another, while the different contacts they make and mergers they undergo generate a certain (...) hybridity. Plasticity, elasticity and hybridity are the triad which makes the transfer of theories possible. (shrink)