Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Victoria's new Powers of Attorney Act 2014 came into operation on 1 September 2015. Following recommendations by the Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee, changes have been introduced in the new Act to simplify the process of making an enduring power of attorney. Reforms include the addition of a section on capacity, the introduction of a supportive attorney role distinct from the enduring power of attorney role, and the enhancement of safeguards. This article analyses how the (...) new Powers of Attorney Act 2014 empowers persons with impaired decision-making capacity and also strengthens the mechanisms which protect them from abuse. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Advance care planning is a significant and important process of end-of-life care. It provides the opportunity for persons to express their medical treatment preferences prior to losing the capacity to decide for themselves. It also allows for the appointment of substituted decision maker to make medical decisions for persons who have lost capacity. Whilst advance care planning can be beneficial when it is used effectively, the legislative framework surrounding advance care planning is complex and confusing. (...) This brief article will summarise advance care planning, its current legislative framework in Victoria and how proposed recommendations offered by the Inquiry into end of life choices may simplify advance care planning. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Victoria's new Mental Health Act 2014 came into operation on 1st July 2014. Corresponding with international standards, the new Act aims to strengthen the human rights of persons with mental illness. This is supported by the inclusion of a recovery framework which promotes a collaborative treatment approach, procedures that reduce the duration of compulsory treatment, as well as better mental health service oversight and safeguards. This article analyses and highlights these reforms from a human rights (...) perspective. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Christine Bryden is a survivor of dementia and has been a passionate advocate for persons with dementia for more than 20 years. She has written 4 books. Her latest 2 books - Before I Forget and Nothing About Us, Without us! - give an insider's perspective into the lived experience of a person with dementia. This article provides a review of these 2 books which detail Christine Bryden's life story, and in doing so, highlight some (...) of the key messages expressed by the author. These key messages include examining the various misconceptions about persons with dementia, the required care for persons with dementia, as well as the need for building a dementia-friendly society. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Negative portrayals of older persons in Australian culture have led to ageist attitudes and behaviours towards them. For the older person, this can result in self-deprecation, which in turn leads to poorer health, diminished wellbeing, and reduced mental ability. It can also negatively affect an older person's motivation to be an active member of society, resulting in a sense of isolation. Ageism also disregards the positive economic and social contributions that older persons make to the (...) wider community. Drawing on both secular and Catholic viewpoints, this article seeks to recognise, challenge, and move to overcome ageism and age discrimination in Australia. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes The widespread over-consumption of alcohol in Australia has shaped its high tolerance to drinking culture. Australia has a complex socio-cultural relationship with alcohol and it is challenging to reduce high alcohol intake when it is so ingrained in our society. The substantial harms associated with over-consumption not only affect the drinker, but also impact upon the wider community. This article discusses the available evidence about the health and social harms for individuals that may result from (...) an over-consumption of alcohol and how these impact on society. More so, it discusses how effective alcohol policy strategies such as decreasing the availability of alcohol, increasing its price as well as promoting public awareness of the associated risks may help to reduce these harms. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes The Internet has made seeking for health information easy and convenient. This information provides medical knowledge which has the potential to empower both patients and health professionals. However, It is concerning that patients may attempt to use this type of information for self-diagnostic purposes, particularly those who are unfamiliar with medical terminology. Understanding web- based information effectively is most important to enable appropriate and informed healthcare decisions. Consequently, a new role for health professionals is indicated, (...) requiring them to become familiar with the health information available on the Internet, to direct patients to reliable sources, and to assist them in understanding and interpreting web-based health information. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes Atul Gawande's book Being Mortal: Illness, Medicine, and What Matters in the End, draws upon both anecdotal stories and literary sources to highlight the importance of honest discussions as the end of life approaches. These discussions are particularly significant for older persons and terminally ill patients. Gawande believes that these discussions could be facilitated by more in-depth and focussed communication between the healthcare professional and the patient. Respecting the patient's values and priorities, and promoting a (...) sense of wellbeing and dignity are critical for quality care. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes; Herbert, Dilinie The Caroline Chisholm Centre for Health Ethics1 was established through the collaboration of private catholic hospitals in Victoria, namely: Cabrini Health, Calvary Health Care Bethlehem, Caritas Christi Hospice, Mercy Hospital for Women, Mercy Werribee Hospital, Mercy Palliative Care, St John of God Health Care, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, and St Vincent's Private Hospital Melbourne. Our role is to develop, review and respond to policies and procedures affecting Catholic Health Care; provide educational resources and (...) formation in ethics and offer ethics consultation and advisement. The Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin is our quarterly publication that reports on ethical issues arising in health care as well as literature reviews of pertinent research topics that effect national and international interests. (shrink)
Simonet, Emanuel Nicolas Cortes A Voice at the Table: An Integrated Model for Pastoral Care in Aged Mental Health, written by Rosemary Kelleher with Olga Yastrubetskaya, describes a practical model for integrating pastoral care practitioners into multidisciplinary teams within aged mental health services. While highlighting the importance of spiritual care within healthcare, the book also emphasises the need for pastoral care practitioners to have the essential skills and knowledge vital to being significant members of the multidisciplinary team. This article (...) offers a concise review of a most valuable resource. (shrink)
Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, amongst other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g. uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim —what we call here “framing” the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. 1) It (...) proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. 2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. 3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. 4) Provocative recommendations promote adjustments for a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully-considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ~5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (~25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (~40%) – or uncertainty is completely ignored (~8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers. (shrink)
At a time when humanity experiences its greatest advances, major conflicts and abuses arise around the world due to a lack of humanism and reason within the meaning of the Enlightenment. Modernity and western comfort in our globalized society have not helped share and balance the wealth, nor preserve the natural resources; it has not prevented crimes against humanity nor the most insane dictatorial actions of the 20th and early 21st centuries. This went hand in hand with a massive degradation (...) of the environment. Could the animal be the solution to all the mistakes we have made during the last century, instead of being considered an inferior, a slave? Could he not be the one who has managed the best in the fields of intelligence, self-regulation and respect of his vital environment? Should we not rather turn toward the animal to find a new balanced model? Respecting the environment and his peers seems to be the most striking evidence of intelligence, does it not? The animal has achieved this. Man has not. Focusing on the way man has treated animals may therefore help us to understand why we have treated our peers so badly. (shrink)
Das obras de Newton da Costa, muitas pessoas na França conhecem apenas o renascimento da paraconsistência. Apresentamos algumas razões em defesa de investigações nessa parte da lógica. Acima de tudo, porém, relembramos uma das maiores contribuições de Newton da Costa: sua demonstração, em 1991, em colaboração com Doria, da indecidibilidade gödeliana do movimento na física matemátcia, um resultado que foi de certa forma previsto, por outras razões, por Duhem em 1906. DOI: 10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n1p7.
Une première période où les influences mêlées d’Alessandro Padoa et de Bertrand Russell s’exercent en France culmine avec les essais philosophiques de Jean Nicod. Une seconde période voit fleurir les travaux du mathématicien Jacques Herbrand ; avant de périr, il laisse son nom à un théorème fondamental. Suit une période de débats entre philosophes, mathématiciens et physiciens, stimulés en 1935 et 1937 par la tenue à Paris de deux congrès consacrés, totalement ou en partie, à la philosophie des sciences. Paulette (...) Février y esquisse une logique non classique où l’on postule l’existence de couples de propositions non composables pour ériger en principes les relations de Werner Heisenberg. Jean-Louis Destouches développe cette conception jusqu’à décrire comment édifier une théorie unifiante. La structuration des êtres mathématiques est l’objet d’études philosophiques d’Albert Lautman. Le rôle putatif de la notion de groupe en logique est interrogé. La notion de structure mathématique est l’objet de deux contributions : Marc Krasner généralise les conceptions d’Évariste Galois, attribuées à la logique et étendues à des langages infinitaires ; Nicolas Bourbaki, compte tenu de l’évolution des mathématiques, qualifie de structure ce que nous appelons aujourd’hui un modèle. (shrink)
Love, especially romantic and partnership love, has been a legitimate research theme in social science since the mid-twentieth century. In the research less attention is paid to how personal conceptions of love are formed within specific sociocultural contexts. One question that emerges in relation to social representations theory is: how are ideas about love, or knowledge of love, re-presented among particular social groups and which sociocultural resources are used in the process? In our questionnaire-based research we ascertained which perceptions, ideas (...) and knowledge are prevalent among young people who are gaining their first experiences of partner relationships, what they consider love to be in their own context and what knowledge they have of love. The questionnaire was completed by 268 higher education students, who provided 38 representations of love, based on personal experience and linked to sociocultural sources of love. (shrink)
In his posthumous book from 1914, "New foundations of logic, arithmetic and set theory", Julius Konig develops his philosophy of mathematics. In a previous contribution, we attracted attention on the positive part (his truth and falsehood predicates being excluded) of his "pure logic": his "isology" being assimilated to mutual implication, it constitutes a genuine formalization of positive intuitionistic logic. Konig's intention was to rebuild logic in such a way that the excluded third's principle could no longer be logical. However, his (...) treatment of truth and falsehood (boiling down to negation) is purely classical. We explain here this discrepancy by the choice of the alleged more primitive notions to which the questioned notions of truth and falsehood have been reduced. Finaly, it turns out that the disjunctive and conjunctive forms of the principles of the excluded third and of contradiction have effectively been excluded, but none of their implicative forms. (shrink)
The first step of the construction of Nézondet's models of finite arithmetics which are counter-models to Erdös–Woods conjecture is to add to the natural numbers the non-standard numbers generated by one of them, using addition, multiplication and divisions by a natural factor allowed in an ultrapower construction. After a review of some properties of such a structure, we show that the choice of the ultrafilter can be managed, using just the Chinese remainder's theorem, so that a model as desired is (...) obtained as early as at the first time. (shrink)
In the model proposed by Findlay & Walker, the programming of saccadic eye movements is achieved by two parallel processes, one dedicated to the coding of saccade metrics (Where) and the other controlling saccade initiation (When). One outcome of the “winner-take-all” characteristics of the salience map, the main node of the model, is an independence between the metrics and the latency of saccades. We report on some observations, made in the head-unrestrained cat under pathological conditions, of a correlation between accuracy (...) and latency of saccadic gaze shifts. To account for such a correlation, the link between metrics specification (Where) and saccade triggering (When) should be amended in the model. (shrink)
L’évaluation est à la mode et la référence à ses vertus est de bon ton. La sphère publique n’y échappe pas. Le président de la République et le Premier ministre ont ainsi décidé, il y a un an, la création d’un secrétariat d’État chargé, entre autres choses, de l’évaluation des politiques publiques. Pour autant, il ne s’agit pas d’une révolution. L’évaluation des..
Theories are processes modelled by thought. When they evolve in time, they are transformed and become new theories. They may cross from one academic discipline to another, then open up to new areas of human knowledge, mixing together the humanities, art, science and even spirituality. The way they are modelled reveals their plasticity and their elasticity is tested in their potential for transfer from one domain to another, while the different contacts they make and mergers they undergo generate a certain (...) hybridity. Plasticity, elasticity and hybridity are the triad which make the transfer of theories possible. (shrink)
Progress in medicine and the subsequent extension of health coverage has meant that health expenditure has increased sharply in Western countries. In the United States, this rise was precipitated in the 1980s, compounded by an increase in drug consumption which prompted the government to re-examine its financial support to care delivery, most notably in hospital care and emergencies services. In California for example, 50 emergency service providers were closed between 1990 and 2000, and nine in 1999–2000 alone. In that State, (...) only 355 hospitals (out of 568) have maintained emergency services departments (Darves, WebMB, 2001). Reforming hospital Emergency Department (ED) operations requires caution not only because the media pay a lot of attention to ED operations, but also because it raises ethical issues: this became more apparent with the enactment of the EMTALA which stipulates that federally funded hospitals are required to give emergency aid in order to “stabilize” a patient suffering from an “emergency medical condition” before discharging or transferring that patient to another facility. While in essence the law aims to preserve patient access to care, physicians assert that the EMTALA leads to more patients seeking care for non-urgent conditions in EDs (GAO, Report to Congressional Committees, 2001), leading to overcrowding, delayed care for patients with true emergency needs, and forcing hospitals to divert ambulances to other facilities resulting in further delays in urgent care. Also, fewer physicians are willing to be on-call in emergency departments because the EMTALA law requires on-call physicians to provide uncompensated care. Thus there is a need to find a balance between appropriate care to be provided to ED patients, and low costs since uncompensated care is not covered by state or federal funds. This concerns, first and foremost, hospitals that provide a greater amount of uncompensated care (e.g. hospitals serving communities with a higher population of illegal immigrants). Looking at the intrinsic causes of high ED costs, the paper first explains why costs of care provided in EDs are high, and look at a major cause of high ED costs: overcrowding and ED users’ characteristics. This is followed by a discussion on a much-debated factor: the use of EDs for non-emergency conditions, a practice which has often been accused of disproportionately raising costs. We look at various mechanisms used either to divert or prevent the patient from using ED: these include triage services; and the role of HMOs in the ED chain of care: though the US government has increasingly relied on Managed Care organizations to contain costs (e.g. Medicaid and Medicare Managed Care), do HMOs make a difference when it comes to ED costs? Of particular interest is the family physician acting as a gatekeeper, and the legislation that was enacted to protect those who bypass the referral system. We then look at the other end of the ED chain (i.e. the recipient): the financial responsibility of ED users has increased. Alternative providers such as walk-in clinics are increasingly common. EDs also attempt to reengineer their operations to curb costs. While the data are mostly applicable to a private health care system (e.g. the US), the article, using a critical assessment of the existing literature, has implications for other EDs generally, wherever they operate, since every ED faces similar funding problems. (shrink)
Avec l’apparition d’Internet, les règles de fonctionnement dans tous les domaines de la société ont été fondamentalement modifiées. Les échanges sont devenus plus rapides, plus visibles et visuels, et pour la première fois dans l’histoire de l’humanité ils se situent à l’échelle planétaire. Penser que la sphère associative ait pu passer à côté de cette profonde mutation sociétale serait une erreur. Tout comme les autres secteurs de la société, les ONG, les associations, les institutions, les administrations du secteur public, les (...) instances présidentielles et ministérielles des États ont dû, elles aussi, entrer dans cette compétitivité effrénée et modifier leurs modes de fonctionnement vers plus de visibilité des contenus, plus d’explicatifs, plus de diversités des médias employés, plus de services en ligne et d’interactivité, afin de toucher le plus de monde possible, ou de faciliter la vie de chacun en rendant certaines démarches plus rapides. Cependant, mondialisation ne saurait rimer avec efficacité sans passer par l’étape incontournable qu’est la traduction.The arrival of the Internet has profoundly changed the rules in every area of society. Exchanges are faster, more visible and more visual, and for the first time in the history of humanity, they are happening on the scale of the entire planet. It would be a mistake to believe that non-governmental groups have been left untouched by this profound societal change. Like all other sectors of society, NGOs, associations, institutions, public sector administration and State presidential or ministerial bodies have had to join the same headlong race for competitiveness, changing the way they function to make their content ever more visible and more explanatory, broaden their media range and expand their on-line services and interactiveness, to reach as many people as possible or make life easier by offering faster responses. However, globalisation can never equal efficiency if translating is left out of the equation. (shrink)
Le livre de F. Doro-Mégy (ci-après FDM) se fonde sur ses travaux de doctorat. Il s’agit d’un numéro spécial de la collection Linguistique contrastive et traduction dirigée par J. Guillemin-Flescher aux éditions Ophrys. Il est dédié à la mémoire de C. Bernigaud. Dans l’introduction, FDM expose son sujet et les limites de ce dernier. Elle part de l’idée intuitive selon laquelle think serait l’équivalent du français penser tandis que believe correspondrait presque systématiquement à croire. San..