The majority of traditional students enrolled at most colleges and universities are a part of what has been termed the Millennial Generation, also known as Generation Y, which typically describes the group of individuals born in most of the 1980s and 1990s. This cohort’s life has been shaped by corporate scandals, economic instability, and worldwide tragedies. Concurrently, business ethics has become a popular topic in the news within the last 2 decades due to the increase in the number of high-profile (...) business scandals. Unfortunately, this trend has also been accompanied by an increased number of reported incidents of academic dishonesty at many major universities. Two underresearched factors that may be related to academic dishonesty and cheating behavior are religiosity and spirituality. This article attempts to shed more light on the relationship between religious beliefs and unethical behavior, with a focus on millennial college students. It is posited that religiosity and spirituality influence an individual’s attitudes, views, decisions, and ultimately behaviors. The results of this study indicate that religiosity but not spirituality is a predictor of students’ attitudes toward cheating and cheating behavior. (shrink)
W illia m o f Ockha m w a s a F rancisca n fria r , a theol o gia n an d a v e r y singula r philo sophe r . H e l i v e d a t a tim e o f crisi s an d durin g th e transitio n o f philosop h y an d theol o g y . Hi s secularis m i s manifeste d i n (...) th e defens e o f a radica l separatio n bet w ee n th e religious an d secula r p ow ers . Assigne d t o th e philosophica l cu r ren t o f nominalism , h e deal t a s e v ere b l o w t o th e metap h ysica l realis m o f Aristotl e an d Thoma s Aquina s an d h e ad v ocate d the separatio n o f reaso n an d f aith , bet w ee n philosop h y an d theol o g y an d thu s h e unde r mined th e ideol o gica l foundation s o f th e churc h o f hi s time . H e w a s accuse d o f heres y because o f hi s nominalism , althoug h h e himsel f condemne d P op e Joh n XXI I a s heretica l fo r his conceptio n o f p o v e r t y , a concep t f a r rem o v e d fro m ev angelica l principle s an d especial ly fro m th e notio n o f th e F rancisca n orde r . H e defende d th e separatio n o f churc h an d stat e and h e denie d th e P ope ’ s authorit y i n secula r matters . H e flat ly asse r te d freedo m o f conscience an d Luthe r too k hi m a s a teache r. (shrink)
Paperback reprint of a classic study first published forty years ago. Allen examines the practical dimensions of Paul's missionary activity and urges the contemporary relevance of these same methods.--L. S. F.
Fürstenau systematically analyzes Heidegger's understanding of being, stressing the continuity between Sein und Zeit and his later writings. He also presents a survey of the history of philosophy as interpreted by Heidegger, summing up this discussion with an account of Heidegger's conception of Ursprünglichkeit and Verfall in philosophy. A work of explication and interpretation rather than criticism.--L. S. F.
Hélal's study invites comparison with two other books on Whitehead's philosophy of science. There is nearly no overlap with Ann L. Plamondon's Whitehead's Organic Philosophy of Science, which stresses those themes developed in Whitehead's metaphysical period which have a bearing on topics under current discussion in the philosophy of science. Hélal restricts himself to the earlier period, hoping later to make a comparable study of the later periods. There is, however, considerable overlap with Robert M. Palter's Whitehead's Philosophy of Science, (...) though perhaps less than might be expected. Thus chapter 3 analyzing the nature of events and objects, and especially chapter 4 on the method of extensive abstraction can only repeat much that is already available in Palter. In addition Palter discusses the theory of relativity much more extensively, and goes into Whitehead's discussion of extensive connection in Process and Reality, part IV. On the other hand, the first two chapters of Hélal's study on Whitehead's idea of nature, and especially the final chapter on his refusal to allow any bifurcation in nature introduce many themes not to be found in Palter. If a rigorous, systematic, and elaborate presentation of Whitehead's philosophy of science is desired, Palter's work should be consulted. But if one is interested in the metaphysical undercurrents in Whitehead's earlier period, then perhaps Hélal's is preferable. Thus for example, Palter barely mentions the notions of "percipient events" and "percipient objects," while Hélal pays special attention to them as precursors of Whitehead's concern for subjectivity in his metaphysics. (shrink)
Veterinarians play an essential role in the animal-based food chain. They are professionally responsible for the health of farm animals to secure food safety and public health. In the last decades, food scandals and zoonotic disease outbreaks have shown how much animal and human health are entangled. Therefore, the concept of One Health is broadly promoted within veterinary medicine. The profession embraces this idea that the health of humans, animals and the environment is inextricably linked and supports the related call (...) for transdisciplinary collaboration. Especially in zoonotic disease control, the benefits of the cooperation between veterinarians and human doctors seem evident. However, applying a One Health approach also makes moral problems explicit. For instance, how should veterinarians deal with situations in which measures to protect public health negatively affect animal health? This creates a conflict of professional responsibilities. To deal with such moral problems and to strengthen the veterinarian’s position, the starting point is a holistic perspective on One Health. We will argue for an ‘encapsulated health’ argument: the best way to safeguard human health is to promote the health of animals and the environment. This also holds for the responsibility of the veterinary profession: to serve public health, the central responsibility of veterinarians should be to be experts in animal health and welfare. We elaborate this point by using a case study on the role of the veterinary profession in antimicrobial resistance policies in the Netherlands. (shrink)
The editor has been quite successful in selecting experts to write the three-to-four-page articles in this handbook, and in most cases he has chosen advocates rather than critics to expound particular concepts: e.g., Nygren on Eros and Agape, Tillich on Kairos, Dinkler on demythologizing. Each article lists one or two important books on its subject.--L. S. F.
This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating (...) to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data. (shrink)
The existence of free will has been both an enduring presumption of Western culture and a subject for debate across disciplines for millennia. However, little empirical evidence exists to support the almost unquestioned assumption that, in general, Westerners endorse the existence of free will. The few studies that measure belief in free will have methodological problems that likely resulted in underestimating the true extent of belief. Recently, Rakos et al. (Behavior and Social Issues 17:20–39, 2008 ) found a stronger endorsement (...) of free will when demand characteristics were eliminated. The current study builds on this work by sampling incarcerated adolescents and adults, whose freedom to act is externally constrained. Belief in free will as well as attitudes toward punishment, self-esteem, and locus of control were measured. The results indicate that free will is strongly endorsed in Western society even when freedom to act is severely restricted. However, incarcerated adolescents endorsed free will to a slightly lesser extent than their nonincarcerated counterparts from Rakos et al. (Behavior and Social Issues 17:20–39, 2008 ), while incarcerated and nonincarcerated adults offered equally strong endorsements. The comparable endorsement by adults is consistent with the hypothesis that the belief in agency is an evolutionary adaptation. The small decrease found for incarcerated adolescents may reflect the interaction between developmental factors and the expression of an evolutionary adaptation. Additionally, incarcerated adolescents and adults associated beliefs in free will with viewing punishment as a means of deterrence, rehabilitation, and retribution. Incarcerated adults, but not incarcerated adolescents, associated beliefs in free will with greater self-esteem and with an external locus of control. Finally, though both incarcerated adults and adolescents endorsed free will strongly, the former manifested the belief by emphasizing free agentic choice whereas the latter focused on the personal responsibility that is interwoven with free choice. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, cultural, and developmental factors. (shrink)
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