29 found
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  1.  16
    Zombie-Like or Superconscious? A Phenomenological and Conceptual Analysis of Consciousness in Elite Sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2013 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 40 (1):85-106.
    According to a view defended by Hubert Dreyfus and others, elite athletes are totally absorbed while they are performing, and they act non-deliberately without any representational or conceptual thinking. By using both conceptual clarification and phenomenological description the article criticizes this view and maintains that various forms of conscious thinking and acting plays an important role before, during and after competitive events. The article describes in phenomenological detail how elite athletes use consciousness in their actions in sport; as planning, attention, (...)
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  2.  26
    Book Symposium: Kevin Krein’s Philosophy and Nature Sports.Kevin Krein, Jim Parry, Irena Martínková, Gunnar Breivik & Rebekah Humphreys - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (2):240-274.
    This is a book symposium on Kevin Krein’s Philosophy and Nature Sports. Gunnar Breivik, Jim Parry and Irena Martínková, and Rebekah Humphreys provide critical commentary on the text. The critical comments are followed by a response from Krein. The discussion covers a broad range of topics. These include the definition of “sport,” comparisons between nature sports and friluftsliv, the role of risk in nature sports, the experience of flow and the sublime in nature sports, and the understanding of nature. Krein (...)
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  3.  17
    Skillful Coping in Everyday Life and in Sport: A Critical Examination of the Views of Heidegger and Dreyfus.Gunnar Breivik - 2007 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 34 (2):116-134.
  4.  14
    Sporting knowledge and the problem of knowing how.Gunnar Breivik - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (2):143-162.
    In the Concept of Mind from 1949 Gilbert Ryle distinguished between knowing how and knowing that. What was Ryle’s basic idea and how is the discussion going on in philosophy today? How can sport philosophy use the idea of knowing how? My goal in this paper is first to bring Ryle and the post-Rylean discussion to light and then show how phenomenology can give some input to the discussion. The article focuses especially on the two main interpretations of knowing how, (...)
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  5.  38
    Sport as part of a meaningful life.Gunnar Breivik - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 49 (1):19-36.
    My purpose in this article is to raise the problem of meaning in sport. The problem has two aspects. One is whether sport has any meaning in itself. The other is about how sport can be a part of a...
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  6.  14
    Being-in-the-Void: A Heideggerian Analysis of Skydiving.Gunnar Breivik - 2010 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37 (1):29-46.
  7.  29
    The Sporting Exploration of the World; Toward a Fundamental Ontology of the Sporting Human Being.Gunnar Breivik - 2019 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 14 (2):146-162.
    My perspective in this paper is to look at sport and other physical activities as a way of exploring and experimenting with the environing world. The human being is basically the homo movens – born...
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  8.  17
    Dangerous Play With the Elements: Towards a Phenomenology of Risk Sports.Gunnar Breivik - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):314 - 330.
    The purpose of this article is to present a phenomenological description of how athletes in specific risk sports explore human interaction with natural elements. Skydivers play with, and surf on, the encountering air while falling towards the ground. Kayakers play on the waves and with the stoppers and currents in the rivers. Climbers are ballerinas of the vertical, using cracks and holds in the cliffs to pull upwards against gravity forces. The theoretical background for the description is found in the (...)
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  9.  32
    What would a deep ecological sport look like? The example of Arne Naess.Gunnar Breivik - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (1):63-81.
    ABSTRACTSince the 1960s environmental problems have increasingly been on the agenda in Western countries. Global warming and climate change have increased concerns among scientists, politicians and the general population. While both elite sport and mass sport are part of the consumer culture that leads to ecological problems, sport philosophers, with few exceptions, have not discussed what an ecologically acceptable sport would look like. My goal in this article is to present a radical model of ecological sport based on Arne Naess’s (...)
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  10.  18
    Bodily movement - the fundamental dimensions.Gunnar Breivik - 2008 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (3):337 – 352.
    Bodily movement has become an interesting topic in recent philosophy, both in analytic and phenomenological versions. Philosophy from Descartes to Kant defined the human being as a mental subject in a material body. This mechanistic attitude toward the body still lingers on in many studies of motor learning and control. The article shows how alternative philosophical views can give a better understanding of bodily movement. The article starts with Heidegger's contribution to overcoming the subject-object dichotomy and his new understanding of (...)
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  11.  40
    Searle, Merleau-Ponty, Rizzolatti – three perspectives on Intentionality and action in sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (2):199-212.
    Actions in sport are intentional in character. They are directed at and are about something. This understanding of intentional action is common in continental as well as analytic philosophy. In sport philosophy, intentionality has received relatively little attention, but has more recently come on the agenda. In addition to what we can call ‘action intentionality,’ studied by philosophers like Searle, the phenomenological approach forwarded by Merleau-Ponty has opened up for a concept of ‘motor intentionality,’ which means a basic bodily attention (...)
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  12.  47
    From ‘philosophy of sport’ to ‘philosophies of sports’? History, identity and diversification of sport philosophy.Gunnar Breivik - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (3):301-320.
    ABSTRACTMy goal in this article is to give a portrait of how modern sport philosophy, which started in 1972, developed from relatively narrow paradigmatic borders to become a diverse and multi-para...
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  13.  29
    The role of skill in sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):222-236.
    Skill is obviously a central part of sports and should therefore be central in sport philosophic studies. My aim in this paper is to try to place skill in a wider context and thus give skill the place it deserves. I will do this by taking up four points. I first try to place the concept of skill in relation to concepts like ability and know how. I argue that ability is something one has as part of a natural endowment, (...)
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  14.  33
    Intentionality and Action in Sport: A Discussion of the Views of Searle and Dreyfus.Gunnar Breivik - 2018 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 12 (2):133-148.
    The article looks at sport as a form of human action where the participants display various forms of Intentionality. Intentionality may be defined as ‘that property of many mental states and events by which they are directed at or about or of objects and states of affairs in the world.’ Sporting actions are about human intentions, beliefs, desires, perceptions and not to forget, movements. This means that sports typically display what we call ‘Intentionality.’ The study of Intentionality and intentional actions (...)
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  15.  13
    Philosophical perfectionism – consequences and implications for sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2010 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (1):87 – 105.
    Ethical theories in sport philosophy tend to focus on interpersonal relations. Little has been said about sport as part of the good life and as experienced from within. This article tries to remedy this by discussing a theory that is fitting for sport, especially elite sport. The idea of perfection has a long tradition in Western philosophy. Aristotle maintains that the good life consists in developing specific human faculties to their fullest. The article discusses Hurka's recent version of Aristotelian perfectionism (...)
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  16. The Quest for excitement and the safe society.Gunnar Breivik - 2007 - In Mike J. McNamee (ed.), Philosophy, Risk and Adventure Sports. London ;Routledge. pp. 10.
  17.  13
    ‘Richness in Ends, Simpleness in Means!’ on Arne Naess’s Version of Deep Ecological Friluftsliv and Its Implications for Outdoor Activities.Gunnar Breivik - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (3):417-434.
    The increasing global warming and the loss of biodiversity should concern us all. Some feel that outdoor activities, which take place in natural surroundings, should have a special obligation to ch...
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  18.  5
    Sport In High Modernity: Sport as a Carrier of Social Values.Gunnar Breivik - 1998 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 25 (1):103-118.
  19.  16
    The role of risk in nature sports.Gunnar Breivik - 2024 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 51 (2):253-266.
    In this article, I will examine the role of risk in the risky nature sports. Risky nature sports are identified as nature sports where participants may reckon with the possibility of severe injury or death if things go wrong. The first part of the article identifies some evolutionary, historical, and conceptual characteristics of nature sports and risk. In the second part of the article, I discuss the concept of risk and its meaning in risky nature sports. Additionally, I address questions (...)
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  20.  4
    14 Sport, gene doping and ethics.Gunnar Breivik - 2005 - In Claudio Marcello Tamburrini & Torbjörn Tännsjö (eds.), Genetic Technology and Sport: Ethical Questions. Routledge. pp. 165.
  21.  25
    Academic versus Sporting Knowledge. Robert L. Simon and the Debate about Sports on Campus.Gunnar Breivik - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):61-74.
  22.  21
    Skills, knowledge and expertise in sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):217-221.
  23.  18
    Hvor moralsk tenker fotballspillere? – en empirisk studie av toppfotball.Lars Tore Ødegård & Gunnar Breivik - 2015 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):33-51.
    Det er en utbredt oppfatning at det økende prestasjonskravet i toppfotball fører til en svekkelse av moral og fair play-holdninger. Men hvordan tenker toppfotballspillere i forhold til ulike dilemmaer som oppstår på banen, og er det forskjeller mellom toppfotballspillere og spillere på lavere nivå? For å avklare dette gjennomførte vi en empirisk undersøkelse der vi intervjuet spillere og trener i én toppklubb og én breddeklubb. Vi var interessert i to hovedproblemstillinger: 1) Hva tenker fotballspillere på ulike prestasjonsnivå om etikk og (...)
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  24. The quest for excitement and the safe society.Gunnar Breivik - 1999 - Philosophy 3 (1).
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  25.  7
    Can basejumping be morally defended?Gunnar Breivik - 2007 - In Mike J. McNamee (ed.), Philosophy, Risk and Adventure Sports. London ;Routledge. pp. 168.
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  26.  10
    Fra egoisme til sjenerøsitet – kan toppidretten reformeres?Gunnar Breivik - 2010 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):39-56.
    Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i den norske idrettsmodellen der topp og bredde hører sammen, og der toppidrettsutøvere uvegerlig blir rollemodeller for barn og unge. Den moderne toppidretten er i økende grad preget av egoistiske holdninger der det dreier seg hele tiden om å skaffe seg fordeler. I denne artikkelen tar jeg opp egoisme, rettferdighet og sjenerøsitet som tre grunnleggende holdninger i idrettskonkurranser og drøfter hvorvidt man med inspirasjon fra sjenerøsitetsidealer og praktiske eksempler kan tenke seg en toppidrett som i større grad (...)
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  27.  2
    Limits to Growth in Elite Sport - Some Ethical Considerations.Gunnar Breivik - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:10-16.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the ethical implications and problems in elite sport as it gets closer to the human performance limit. Modern elite sport must be viewed on the background of the idea of systematic progress. The Olympic motto, 'citius, altius, fortius'- faster, higher, stronger-gives a precise concentration of this idea. Modern sport is also influenced by the liberal idea of a free market where actors can perform, compete and be rewarded according to performance. (...)
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  28.  23
    Philosophy of Sport in the Nordic Countries.Gunnar Breivik - 2010 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37 (2):194-214.
    In 1972 I attended the Pre-Olympic Scientific Congress in Munich. For the first time science and sport were brought together in connection with the Olympic Games. The organizers presented a book Sport in Blickpunkt der Wissenschaften (Sport from a Scientific Point of View) that summarized history and state of the art of the main sport scientific approaches (41). The German philosopher Hans Lenk gave a presentation of a broad array of past and present interpretations of sport from a philosophic viewpoint (...)
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  29.  3
    Sport in high modernity: essays and articles.Gunnar Breivik - 1999 - [Oslo?]: Norges idrettshøgskole, Institutt for samfunnsfag.
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