Results for 'H. Clark��Barrett'

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  1.  78
    Small-Scale Societies Exhibit Fundamental Variation in the Role of Intentions in Moral Judgment.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence - 2016 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (17):4688–4693.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
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  2. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate.H. Clark Barrett & Robert Kurzban - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (3):628-647.
    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that purport to undermine modularity, with particular attention on cognitive architecture, development, genetics, and evolution. The authors propose that modularity, cleanly defined, provides a useful framework for directing (...)
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  3. Debunking Adapting Minds.H. Clark Barrett with Bryant - manuscript
  4. Recognizing Intentions in Infant-Directed Speech: Evidence for Universals.H. Clark Barrett With Bryant & A. G. - manuscript
     
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  5. Enzymatic Computation and Cognitive Modularity.H. Clark Barrett - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):259-87.
    Currently, there is widespread skepticism that higher cognitive processes, given their apparent flexibility and globality, could be carried out by specialized computational devices, or modules. This skepticism is largely due to Fodor’s influential definition of modularity. From the rather flexible catalogue of possible modular features that Fodor originally proposed has emerged a widely held notion of modules as rigid, informationally encapsulated devices that accept highly local inputs and whose opera- tions are insensitive to context. It is a mistake, however, to (...)
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  6.  22
    Towards a Cognitive Science of the Human: Cross-Cultural Approaches and Their Urgency.H. Clark Barrett - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (8):620-638.
  7. Should the Study of Homo Sapiens Be Part of Cognitive Science?H. Clark Barrett, Stephen Stich & Stephen Laurence - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):379-386.
    Beller, Bender, and Medin argue that a reconciliation between anthropology and cognitive science seems unlikely. We disagree. In our view, Beller et al.’s view of the scope of what anthropology can offer cognitive science is too narrow. In focusing on anthropology’s role in elucidating cultural particulars, they downplay the fact that anthropology can reveal both variation and universals in human cognition, and is in a unique position to do so relative to the other subfields of cognitive science. Indeed, without cross-cultural (...)
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  8.  30
    Children's Understanding of Death as the Cessation of Agency: A Test Using Sleep Versus Death.H. Clark Barrett & Tanya Behne - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):93-108.
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  9. Debunking Adapting Minds[REVIEW]Edouard Machery & H. Clark Barrett - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (2):232-246.
    David Buller’s recent book, _Adapting Minds_, is a philosophical critique of the field of evolutionary psychology. Buller argues that evolutionary psychology is utterly bankrupt from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Although _Adapting Minds _has been well received in both the academic press and the popular media, we argue that Buller’s critique of evolutionary psychology fails.
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  10.  4
    Enzymatic Computation and Cognitive Modularity.H. Clark Barrett - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):259-287.
    : Currently, there is widespread skepticism that higher cognitive processes, given their apparent flexibility and globality, could be carried out by specialized computational devices, or modules. This skepticism is largely due to Fodor's influential definition of modularity. From the rather flexible catalogue of possible modular features that Fodor originally proposed has emerged a widely held notion of modules as rigid, informationally encapsulated devices that accept highly local inputs and whose operations are insensitive to context. It is a mistake, however, to (...)
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  11. On the Functional Origins of Essentialism.H. Clark Barrett - 2001 - [Journal (Paginated)] (in Press) 2 (1):1-30.
    This essay examines the proposal that psychological essentialism results from a history of natural selection acting on human representation and inference systems. It has been argued that the features that distinguish essentialist representational systems are especially well suited for representing natural kinds. If the evolved function of essentialism is to exploit the rich inductive potential of such kinds, then it must be subserved by cognitive mechanisms that carry out at least three distinct functions: identifying these kinds in the environment, constructing (...)
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  12.  18
    Descent Versus Design in Shuar Children's Reasoning About Animals.H. Clark Barrett - 2004 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 4 (1):25-50.
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  13. Do Human Parents Face a Quantity-Quality Tradeoff? Evidence From a Shuar Community.H. Clark Barrett - manuscript
     
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  14.  16
    On the Functional Orgins of Essentialism.H. Clark Barrett - 2001 - Mind and Society 2 (1):1-30.
    This essay examines the proposal that psychological essentialism results from a history of natural selection acting on human representation and inference systems. It has been argued that the features that distinguish essentialist representational systems are especially well suited for representing natural kinds. If the evolved function, of essentialism is to exploit the rich inductive potential of such kinds, then it must be subserved by cognitive mechanisms that carry out at least three distinct functions: identifying these kinds in the environment, constructing (...)
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  15.  13
    Artifacts and Original Intent: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Design Stance.H. Clark Barrett, Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence - 2008 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (1-2):1-22.
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  16. Perinatal Sadness Among Shuar Women: Support for an Evolutionary Theory of Psychic Pain.H. Clark Barrett & E. Hagen - manuscript
  17.  4
    Adaptive Content Biases in Learning About Animals Across the Life Course.James Broesch, H. Clark Barrett & Joseph Henrich - 2014 - Human Nature 25 (2):181-199.
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  18. Adaptation to Moving Targets: Culture/Gene Coevolution, Not Either/Or.H. Clark Barrett, Willem E. Frankenhuis & Andreas Wilke - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):511-512.
    We agree that much of language evolution is likely to be adaptation of languages to properties of the brain. However, the attempt to rule out the existence of language-specific adaptations a priori is misguided. In particular, the claim that adaptation to cannot occur is false. Instead, the details of gene-culture coevolution in language are an empirical matter.
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  19. Evolved Cognitive Mechanisms and Human Behavior.H. Clark Barrett - manuscript
    In Crawford, C. & Krebs, D. (eds.) Foundations of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, applications and findings. (2nd Ed.) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
     
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  20.  8
    Vocal Emotion Recognition Across Disparate Cultures.Gregory Bryant & H. Clark Barrett - 2008 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (1-2):135-148.
    There exists substantial cultural variation in how emotions are expressed, but there is also considerable evidence for universal properties in facial and vocal affective expressions. This is the first empirical effort examining the perception of vocal emotional expressions across cultures with little common exposure to sources of emotion stimuli, such as mass media. Shuar hunter-horticulturalists from Amazonian Ecuador were able to reliably identify happy, angry, fearful and sad vocalizations produced by American native English speakers by matching emotional spoken utterances to (...)
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  21.  30
    Evolution and Risky Decisions.H. Clark Barrett & Laurence Fiddick - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (7):251-252.
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  22.  69
    Resolving the Debate on Innate Ideas: Learnability Constraints and the Evolved Interpenetration of Motivational and Conceptual Functions.John Tooby, Leda Cosmides & H. Clark Barrett - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York. pp. 305--337.
    In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. Stich (Eds.). The innate mind: Structure and content. (pp. 305-337). New York: Oxford University Press.
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  23.  40
    Infants' Perception of Chasing.Willem E. Frankenhuis, Bailey House, H. Clark Barrett & Scott P. Johnson - 2013 - Cognition 126 (2):224-233.
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  24. Modularity and Design Reincarnation.H. Clark Barrett - 2006 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents.
  25.  18
    Is Category Specificity in the World or in the Mind?H. Clark Barrett - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):478-479.
    HIT produces category-specific deficits without category- specific mechanisms by assuming that differences in properties of objects are transparently converted into differences in representational format. A complete model would specify the mechanisms that accomplish this. Such category-specific mechanisms may have evolved because assumptions about the properties of some kinds of objects (e.g., living things) are invalid for others (e.g., artifacts).
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  26.  15
    Intuitive Dualism and Afterlife Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Study.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Tanya Broesch, Emma Cohen, Peggy Froerer, Martin Kanovsky, Mariah G. Schug & Stephen Laurence - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (6):e12992.
  27.  11
    Modularity And.H. Clark Barrett - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. Oxford University Press. pp. 2--199.
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  28. Modularity and Design Reincarnation.H. Clark Barrett - manuscript
     
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  29.  18
    Rise of the Humans.H. Clark Barrett - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (10):442-443.
  30. Essay Review-Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature.Edouard Machery & H. Clark Barrett - 2006 - In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. pp. 73--2.
  31.  88
    David J. Buller: Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature,.reviewed Edouard Machery & H. Clark Barrett - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (2):232-246.
    David Buller's recent book, Adapting Minds, is a philosophical critique of the field of evolutionary psychology. Buller argues that evolutionary psychology is utterly bankrupt from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Although Adapting Minds has been well received in both the academic press and the popular media, we argue that Buller's critique of evolutionary psychology fails.
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  32. Adaptive Specializations, Social Exchange, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence.Leda Cosmides, H. Clark Barrett & John Tooby - 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (Supplement 2):9007--9014.
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  33.  24
    Kinship Intensity and the Use of Mental States in Moral Judgment Across Societies.Cameron M. Curtin, H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Martin Kanovsky, Stephen Laurence, Anne Pisor, Brooke Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden & Joseph Henrich - forthcoming - Evolution and Human Behavior.
    Decades of research conducted in Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, & Democratic (WEIRD) societies have led many scholars to conclude that the use of mental states in moral judgment is a human cognitive universal, perhaps an adaptive strategy for selecting optimal social partners from a large pool of candidates. However, recent work from a more diverse array of societies suggests there may be important variation in how much people rely on mental states, with people in some societies judging accidental harms just (...)
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  34.  15
    Development: Evolutionary Ecology's Midwife.Karthik Panchanathan, Willem E. Frankenhuis & H. Clark Barrett - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):105-106.
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  35.  7
    Prosody in Spontaneous Humor: Evidence for Encryption.Thomas Flamson, Gregory A. Bryant & H. Clark Barrett - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (2):248-267.
    The study of conversational humor has received relatively little empirical attention with almost no examinations of the role of vocal signals in spontaneous humor production. Here we report an analysis of spontaneous humorous speech in a rural Brazilian collective farm. The sample was collected over the course of ethnographic fieldwork in northeastern Brazil, and is drawn specifically from the monthly communal business meetings conducted in Portuguese. Our analyses focused on humorous utterances identified by the subsequent presence of laughter. Acoustic features (...)
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  36. Psychology and Language. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics.Herbert H. Clark & Eve V. Clark - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (3):437-450.
     
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  37.  12
    Predicting End-of-Life Treatment Preferences: Perils and Practicalities.P. H. Ditto & C. J. Clark - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (2):196-204.
    Rid and Wendler propose the development of a Patient Preference Predictor (PPP), an actuarial model for predicting incapacitated patient’s life-sustaining treatment preferences across a wide range of end-of-life scenarios. An actuarial approach to end-of-life decision making has enormous potential, but transferring the logic of actuarial prediction to end-of-life decision making raises several conceptual complexities and logistical problems that need further consideration. Actuarial models have proven effective in targeted prediction tasks, but no evidence supports their effectiveness in the kind of broad (...)
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  38.  11
    The Ethics of Palliative Care: European Perspectives.H. ten Have & David Clark (eds.) - 2002 - Open University Press.
    As palliative care develops across many of the countries of Europe, we find that it continues to raise important ethical challenges. Palliative care practice requires ethical sensitivity and understanding. At the same time the very existence of palliative care calls for ethical explanation. Ethics and palliative care meet over some vital issues: 'the good death', sedation at the end of life, requests for euthanasia, futile treatment, and the role of research. Yet palliative care appears uncertain about its goals and there (...)
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  39.  15
    The Growth of Neutron Irradiated Magnesium Oxide.D. H. Bowexynxcy & F. J. P. Clarke - 1964 - Philosophical Magazine 9 (99):413-421.
  40.  13
    Impurity Precipitates in Magnesium Oxide.D. H. Bowen & F. J. P. Clarke - 1963 - Philosophical Magazine 8 (92):1257-1268.
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  41.  93
    Picture Changes During Blinks: Looking Without Seeing and Seeing Without Looking.J. Kevin O'Regan, H. Deubel, James J. Clark & R. Rensink - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7:191-211.
    Observers inspected normal, high quality color displays of everyday visual scenes while their eye movements were recorded. A large display change occurred each time an eye blink occurred. Display changes could either involve "Central Interest" or "Marginal Interest" locations, as determined from descriptions obtained from independent judges in a prior pilot experiment. Visual salience, as determined by luminance, color, and position of the Central and Marginal interest changes were equalized.
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  42.  37
    Collapse of a Quantum Field May Affect Brain Function.C. M. H. Nunn, Christopher J. S. Clarke & B. H. Blott - 1994 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (1):127-39.
    Experiments are described, using electroencephalography (EEG) and simple tests of performance, which support the hypothesis that collapse of a quantum field is of importance to the functioning of the brain. The theoretical basis of our experiments is derived from Penrose (1989) who suggested that conscious decision-making is a manifestation of the outcome of quantum computation in the brain involving collapse of some relevant wave function. He also proposed that collapse of any wave function depends on a gravitational criterion. As different (...)
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  43. S.H. Clark, Paul Ricoeur.The Editors - 1992 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 4 (1):78-79.
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  44. The First Man in the Moon.H. Wells, Arthur C. Clarke & John Hammond - 1996 - Utopian Studies 7 (2):350-351.
  45. Stephen H. Clark "Paul Ricoeur".Eileen Brennan - 1993 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies:357.
     
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  46.  15
    Methodological Challenges in European Ethics Approvals for a Genetic Epidemiology Study in Critically Ill Patients: The GenOSept Experience.Ascanio Tridente, Paul A. H. Holloway, Paula Hutton, Anthony C. Gordon, Gary H. Mills, Geraldine M. Clarke, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Frank Stuber, Christopher Garrard, Charles Hinds & Julian Bion - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):30.
    During the set-up phase of an international study of genetic influences on outcomes from sepsis, we aimed to characterise potential differences in ethics approval processes and outcomes in participating European countries. Between 2005 and 2007 of the FP6-funded international Genetics Of Sepsis and Septic Shock project, we asked national coordinators to complete a structured survey of research ethic committee approval structures and processes in their countries, and linked these data to outcomes. Survey findings were reconfirmed or modified in 2017. Eighteen (...)
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  47. Brain Surgery and Vivisection, 'the Times' Correspondence [Ed.] with an Intr. By J.H. Clarke.John Henry Brain Surgery & Clarke - 1885
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  48.  33
    Literature and Ethical Medicine: Five Cases From Common Practice.R. Charon, H. Brody, M. W. Clark, D. Davis, R. Martinez & R. M. Nelson - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (3):243-265.
    This essay is composed of five stories written by practicing physicians about their patients. Each clinical story describes a challenging ethical condition–potential abuse of medical power, gravely ill and probably over-treated newborns, iatrogenic narcotic addiction, deceived dying people. Rather than singling out one ethical conflict to resolve or adjudicate, the authors attempt, through literary methods, to grasp the singular experiences of their patients and to act according to the deep structures of their patients' lives. Examining these five stories with simple (...)
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  49.  7
    Strategic Global Strategy: The Intersection of General Principles, Corporate Responsibility and Economic Value-Added.Laura P. Hartman, Patricia H. Werhane, Cynthia E. Clark, Craig V. Vansandt & Mukesh Sud - 2017 - Business and Society Review 122 (1):71-91.
    An ongoing argument often made by business ethicists is that a singular preoccupation on profitability, will lead, in the long run, to disvalue for all the stakeholders and the communities it affects, and often, economic challenges for the company. On the other hand, we argue, a preoccupation with ethics and CSR as the primary aims of a for-profit company, it is, on its own, like a preoccupation with profitability, unsustainable. Indeed, without economic viability, a company will fail. Both of these (...)
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  50.  16
    In the Political W Orld~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Hosted at in thePolitica Vorld Http Ne. Sagepub. Com.Joseph H. Lane & Rebecca R. Clark - 2006 - Political Theory 34 (1):62-94.
    Rousseau argued forcefully for the superiority of a life lived in accordance with “the simplest impulses of nature,” but his complex understanding of the relationship between humans and “nature” is rarely cited as a source of inspiration by those seeking to reform the human relationship with the natural world. We argue that the complexities of Rousseau's political thought illuminate important connections between his works and the programs put forth by deep ecology. In Part One, we explore the theoretical connections between (...)
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