Along the same line as that in Ono (Ann Pure Appl Logic 161:246–250, 2009), a proof-theoretic approach to Glivenko theorems is developed here for substructural predicate logics relative not only to classical predicate logic but also to arbitrary involutive substructural predicate logics over intuitionistic linear predicate logic without exponentials QFL e . It is shown that there exists the weakest logic over QFL e among substructural predicate logics for which the Glivenko theorem holds. Negative translations of substructural predicate logics are (...) studied by using the same approach. First, a negative translation, called extended Kuroda translation is introduced. Then a translation result of an arbitrary involutive substructural predicate logics over QFL e is shown, and the existence of the weakest logic is proved among such logics for which the extended Kuroda translation works. They are obtained by a slight modification of the proof of the Glivenko theorem. Relations of our extended Kuroda translation with other standard negative translations will be discussed. Lastly, algebraic aspects of these results will be mentioned briefly. In this way, a clear and comprehensive understanding of Glivenko theorems and negative translations will be obtained from a substructural viewpoint. (shrink)
Good agricultural practices certification schemes have been promoted to enhance agricultural sustainability. This study seeks to explain the adoption of GAP certification schemes through an analysis of the role of personal values in guiding such choice. It is a departure from approaches taken in previous studies in the area. Through the laddering interview technique of means-end chain analysis, a hierarchical value map was systematically schematized to illustrate the relationship between adoption of GAP, outcomes, and personal values driving the choice. The (...) personal values identified in this study cluster under the headings of “better life”, “religious responsibility”, “healthy life”, and “responsible farmer”. Amongst these, the main evidence pointed to the desire to have “better life” through the enhanced financial position that is perceived to arise as a consequence of GAP adoption as being of primary importance. These findings suggest that, while profit is not the sole end driver of adoptive behavior, GAP certification schemes have to be seen as lucrative and to enhance the goals of achieving core personal values. Other empirical information in this study also has significant policy implications. It is a key finding of this paper that effective promotions of GAP should be tailored and targeted at specific segments of the farmer population. (shrink)
In the new era of technology, internet turns to be one of the main sources of information, since it is considered cheaper and easier to use. Hence in tourism, two main pull factors influencing potential tourist to visit a destination are recognized as nature and culture which a destination offers. The acceptance of culture as one of the important factors in tourists’ motivation, heritage sites become popular in many countries especially those which are nominated as world heritage sites. This paper (...) is to analyze the condition of available online information about George Town world heritage spots (Penang, Malaysia). As far as heritage is one of the products of tourism and tourism, on the other hand, is a big help for sustainability of heritage sites, providing sufficient information about tourism heritage sites as a promotional key is very important. Top ten tourism websites were chosen and content analysis was performed to find the current situation of those websites. By recognizing heritage as tangible and intangible, the result shows that although the intangible heritages need more concern in sustainability matter, but the information about them are not as complete as the tangible ones. Lack of proper information was seen in most websites and the focus of information was more on tangible heritage and among intangible heritage, the main focus was on food. To support the result of analysis, in-dept interviews were conducted by couple of heritage offices in the city. The main reason behind the lack of sufficient information about intangible heritage seems to be the lack of complete list of them and moreover, promoting this division of heritage needs negotiation with the local residence involving in those activities. The paper suggests providing a complete list of George Town world heritage as far as some of them are disappearing lately, and keeping this valuable world heritage sustainable for next generation needs detailed study and completing the list as soon as possible. In this regard those intangible heritages which are in hazard of disappearing can be maintained by the effort of key holders of the field. Moreover, providing the mentioned list helps the information providers, especially related websites to focus equally on tangible and intangible George Town world heritage. (shrink)
This 1989 second volume of Professor Williams' translation of al-Tabarī's account of the early 'Abbāsī empire focuses on the reigns of the son - al-Mahdī - and grandsons - al-Hadi and Hārūn al-Rashīd - of Caliph al-Mansūr, the subject of the first volume. This was the 'Golden Prime' of the empire, before the civil war between the sons of al-Rashīd and the movement of the capital away from Baghdad. Also considered is the story of the Persian aristocratic family, the (...) Barmakis, who became the real rulers under the indolent al-Rashīd, until he destroyed them in a rage which astonished his contemporaries. The events are narrated through the reminiscences of eyewitnesses, woven together by the great historiographer al-Tabarī. The translator of the volume is an Islamicist who has lived many years in the Arab world and has a rare knowledge of its culture and literature. (shrink)
Source: Author: Mohsen Mehrara, Yazdan Gudarzi Farahani, Farzan Faninam, Abbas Rezazadeh Karsalari This paper examines the relationship between stock market index and macroeconomic policies on Iran's economy using quarterly data in the period 1999-2013. This study employed cointegration test and vector autoregressive models to examine relationships between the stock market index and the macroeconomic variables. The empirical results reveal that a positive money shock can increase stocks return. According to impulse responses, the government expenditure had a slight impact on (...) stocks return in the short term. But the government expenditure has a positive effect on exchange index in long run. Also the effect of taxes on the stock's price index is negative, so that it reaches its maximum level after the third lag and then alleviates. The GDP shock has positive effect on the stock's price index. Increase in production level leads to increase in earnings and profitability, leading to a positive response from stocks index. Therefore the results showed that the macroeconomic variables such as inflation, exchange rate and GDP have significant effects on Tehran exchange price index. So the hypothesis that the improving economic factors can have a useful role in the booming capital market is confirmed. Also the effect of fiscal policy factors such as tax revenues and government expenditures is more than monetary policy factors on stock returns. ]]>. (shrink)
In _Opposition to Philosophy in Safavid Iran_ Ata Anzali and S.M. Hadi Gerami offer a critical edition of what is arguably the most erudite and extensive critique of philosophy from the Safavid period. The editors’ extensive introduction offers an in-depth analysis that places the work within the broader framework of Safavid intellectual and social history.
A democratic ethics of biological technology must engage the public. This is not easy to do in a way that satisfies the demands of democratic ethics, or meets the pace of rapidly changing, complex technology. This paper describes a solution proposed by the University of British Columbia’s Norms Evolving in Response to Dilemmas interdisciplinary research group. The solution, the NERD web survey, has three distinct advantages over other methods: it is Deep—the survey provides deep data, particularly when compared to alternatives (...) such as polls and focus groups; Cheap—our survey is cost effective, which is important for a truly democratic tool; and Improvable—the NERD survey is a work in progress, improvable by design. (shrink)
Consanguineous marriage is a deeply rooted tradition in the Arab world. Such marriages are linked to higher rates of recessive genetic diseases. During the Syrian conflict, which started in 2011, around one million Syrian individuals became refugees in Lebanon. This study assessed the consanguinity rates among Syrian refugees living in Lebanon up to three successive consanguineous generations, and examined refugees’ awareness of the possible consequences of consanguineous marriage and their attitudes towards consanguinity. Their knowledge of, and access to, premarital screening (...) was also assessed. The study was conducted between January and May 2018. Several study sites representing refugees’ distribution within the country were chosen. The study sample included 1008 interviewees from different families. Of those interviewed, 51.9% were in a consanguineous marriage. Interestingly, 23.9% were the product of consanguineous marriages themselves, and 17.9% were consanguineous for three successive generations. The interviewees generally knew about premarital screening, but the majority had not had the screening. The high rates of consanguinity in these Syrian refugees call for immediate action, including raising genetic awareness and providing appropriate genetic counselling. Despite the respondents’ familiarity with premarital screening, there was a low rate of uptake of the test, underscoring the importance of providing better education to these refugees. (shrink)
The north-central Gulf of Mexico area received rapid deposition of a basin-floor fan system consisting of interbedded muds, silts, and sandy turbidite deposits during the Pleistocene. Overpressure occurs at shallow depths when burial rates exceed the dewatering rates of sediment pore fluids. Two stratigraphic sequences in the region contain significant overpressure with elevated shallow-water flow risk within these units. We have used publicly available seismic and well data to identify the geomorphology and overpressure variation of these units. The previously described (...) “Blue Unit” and its lateral extent, thickness, depth below sea level, and overpressure gradient have been revised. The Blue Unit extends from the northern portion of the Mississippi Canyon protraction area to as far south as the Atwater Valley protraction area. For the first time, the Green Unit’s lateral extent, thickness, depth BSL, and pore pressure are defined. The “Green Unit” was found to extend further south than the Blue Unit into the AT protraction area and further east in the Desoto Canyon protraction area. The tops of both units are highly incised by postdepositional erosional systems, whereas the base of each unit is well preserved. The top of the Blue Unit below the mud line varies from <70 m in the north to as deep as 701 m in the south, whereas the top of the Green Unit is as shallow as 300 m in the north to 901 m in the south. Overpressure in the MC area has been reported just BML. The pore pressure gradient ranges from 0.47 to 0.52 psi/ft at the base of the Blue Unit and increases to 0.60 psi/ft within the Green Unit. (shrink)
In this paper, in order to achieve automatic defect identification for pneumatic pressure equipment, an improved feature extraction algorithm eddy current pulsed thermography is presented. The presented feature extraction algorithm contains four elements: data block selection; variable step search; relation value classification; and between-class distance decision function. The data block selection and variable step search are integrated to decrease the redundant computations in the automatic defect identification. The goal of the classification and between-class distance calculation is to select the typical (...) features of thermographic sequence. The main image information can be extracted by the method precisely and efficiently. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of the proposed algorithm in automatic defect identification. (shrink)
Innovation in ethics pedagogy has continued to evolve and incorporate other forms of storytelling aimed at improving student engagement and learning. The use of bioethics narratives in feature-length films, medical television shows, or short clips in the classroom has a well-established history. In parallel, screenplays present an opportunity for an active approach to ethical engagement. We argue that screenplays and screenwriting provide a rich supplement to current medical ethics teaching and serve as a strong form of reflective learning.