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Hakwan Lau [27]Hakwan C. Lau [6]
  1. Empirical Support for Higher-Order Theories of Conscious Awareness.Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (8):365-373.
  2. The Misunderstood Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness.Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau & Joseph LeDoux - manuscript
    Critics have often misunderstood the higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models, such as first-order local recurrency theory. The criticism that HOT over- intellectualizes conscious experience is inaccurate because in reality the theory assumes minimal cognitive functions for consciousness; in this sense it is an intermediate position between GWT and early sensory views, and plausibly accounts for shortcomings (...)
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  3. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Jorge Morales & Hakwan Lau - forthcoming - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, we discuss a selection of current views of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). We focus on the different predictions they make, in particular with respect to the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during visual experiences, which is an area of critical interest and some source of contention. Our discussion of these views focuses on the level of functional anatomy, rather than at the neuronal circuitry level. We take this approach because we currently understand more about experimental (...)
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  4.  77
    Relative Blindsight in Normal Observers and the Neural Correlate of Visual Consciousness.Hakwan C. Lau & Richard E. Passingham - 2006 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (49):18763-18768.
  5.  22
    How to Measure Metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  6.  46
    A Signal Detection Theoretic Approach for Estimating Metacognitive Sensitivity From Confidence Ratings.Brian Maniscalco & Hakwan Lau - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):422-430.
    How should we measure metacognitive sensitivity, i.e. the efficacy with which observers’ confidence ratings discriminate between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications? We argue that currently available methods are inadequate because they are influenced by factors such as response bias and type 1 sensitivity . Extending the signal detection theory approach of Galvin, Podd, Drga, and Whitmore , we propose a method of measuring type 2 sensitivity that is free from these confounds. We call our measure meta-d′, which reflects (...)
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  7. The Emperor's New Phenomenology? The Empirical Case for Conscious Experience Without First-Order Representations.Hakwan Lau & Richard Brown - 2019 - In Adam Pautz & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Blockheads! Essays on Ned Block's Philosophy of Mind and Consciousness. MIT Press.
    We discuss cases where subjects seem to enjoy conscious experience when the relevant first-order perceptual representations are either missing or too weak to account for the experience. Though these cases are originally considered to be theoretical possibilities that may be problematical for the higher-order view of consciousness, careful considerations of actual empirical examples suggest that this strategy may backfire; these cases may cause more trouble for first-order theories instead. Specifically, these cases suggest that (I) recurrent feedback loops to V1 are (...)
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  8.  37
    Medial Frontal Cortex: From Self-Generated Action to Reflection on One's Own Performance.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):16-21.
  9. A Higher Order Bayesian Decision Theory of Consciousness.Hakwan Lau - 2008 - In Rahul Banerjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (eds.), Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches. Elsevier.
    It is usually taken as given that consciousness involves superior or more elaborate forms of information processing. Contemporary models equate consciousness with global processing, system complexity, or depth or stability of computation. This is in stark contrast with the powerful philosophical intuition that being conscious is more than just having the ability to compute. I argue that it is also incompatible with current empirical findings. I present a model that is free from the strong assumption that consciousness predicts superior performance. (...)
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  10. Volition and the Function of Consciousness.Hakwan Lau - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (5):537-552.
    People have intuitively assumed that many acts of volition are not influenced by unconscious information. However, the available evidence suggests that under suitable conditions, unconscious information can influence behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms. One possibility is that stimuli that are consciously perceived tend to yield strong signals in the brain, and this makes us think that consciousness has the function of sending such strong signals. However, if we could create conditions where the stimuli could produce strong signals but not (...)
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  11.  59
    Consciousness Science: Real Progress and Lingering Misconceptions.Ned Block, David Carmel, Stephen M. Fleming, Robert W. Kentridge, Christof Koch, Victor A. F. Lamme, Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (11):556-557.
  12. Are We Studying Consciousness Yet?Hakwan Lau - 2008 - In Lawrence Weiskrantz & Martin Davies (eds.), Frontiers of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 2008--245.
    It has been over a decade and half since Christof Koch and the late Francis Crick first advocated the now popular NCC project (Crick and Koch, 1990), in which one tries to find the neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) for perceptual processes. In his chapter in this book Chris Frith provides a splendid review of how neuroimaging has contributed greatly to this project. For the sake of contrast, this chapter takes a more critical stance on what we have actually learned. (...)
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  13.  35
    Direct Assessment of Qualia in a Blindsight Participant.Navindra Persaud & Hakwan Lau - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1046-1049.
    Experimenters generally infer whether participants have visual experiences based on metacognitive responses. We showed a well-studied blindsight participant, GY, several definitions of the term “qualia” and then questioned him about whether he felt or he experienced qualia in his normal and blind fields. We found, contrary to others who have used different methods for measuring qualia, that GY does not have qualia for stationary stimuli in his blind field. This novel method for directly assessing qualia embraces the idea that experiences (...)
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  14. Controlling for Performance Capacity Confounds in Neuroimaging Studies of Conscious Awareness.Jorge Morales, Jeffrey Chiang & Hakwan Lau - 2015 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 1:1-11.
    Studying the neural correlates of conscious awareness depends on a reliable comparison between activations associated with awareness and unawareness. One particularly difficult confound to remove is task performance capacity, i.e. the difference in performance between the conditions of interest. While ideally task performance capacity should be matched across different conditions, this is difficult to achieve experimentally. However, differences in performance could theoretically be corrected for mathematically. One such proposal is found in a recent paper by Lamy, Salti and Bar-Haim [Lamy (...)
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  15.  19
    Is It Fallacious to Talk of Self-Generated Action?: Response to Nachev and Husain.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (5):193-194.
  16. Dissociating Response Selection and Conflict in the Medial Frontal Surface.Hakwan Lau - manuscript
    aFunctional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK bDepartment of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK cOxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, UK dDepartment of Psychiatry and Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, UK..
     
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  17.  21
    An Informal Internet Survey on the Current State of Consciousness Science.Matthias Michel, Stephen M. Fleming, Hakwan Lau, Alan L. F. Lee, Susana Martinez-Conde, Richard E. Passingham, Megan A. K. Peters, Dobromir Rahnev, Claire Sergent & Kayuet Liu - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    The scientific study of consciousness emerged as an organized field of research only a few decades ago. As empirical results have begun to enhance our understanding of consciousness, it is important to find out whether other factors, such as funding for consciousness research and status of consciousness scientists, provide a suitable environment for the field to grow and develop sustainably. We conducted an online survey on people’s views regarding various aspects of the scientific study of consciousness as a field of (...)
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  18.  6
    What Type of Awareness Does Binocular Rivalry Assess?Nathan Giles, Hakwan Lau & Brian Odegaard - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (10):719-720.
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  19. Free Choice and the Human Brain.Richard E. Passingham & Hakwan C. Lau - 2006 - In Susan Pockett, William P. Banks & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? MIT Press. pp. 53-72.
  20. Low Attention Impairs Optimal Incorporation of Prior Knowledge in Perceptual Decisions.Jorge Morales, Guillermo Solovey, Brian Maniscalco, Dobromir Rahnev, Floris P. de Lange & Hakwan Lau - 2015 - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 77 (6):2021-2036.
    When visual attention is directed away from a stimulus, neural processing is weak and strength and precision of sensory data decreases. From a computational perspective, in such situations observers should give more weight to prior expectations in order to behave optimally during a discrimination task. Here we test a signal detection theoretic model that counter-intuitively predicts subjects will do just the opposite in a discrimination task with two stimuli, one attended and one unattended: when subjects are probed to discriminate the (...)
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  21.  6
    Domain-General and Domain-Specific Patterns of Activity Support Metacognition in Human Prefrontal Cortex.Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau & Stephen M. Fleming - 2018 - The Journal of Neuroscience 38 (14):3534-3546.
    Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains; for example, memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks or if self-evaluative processes are domain specific. Here, we investigated this issue directly by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics. By comparing patterns (...)
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  22.  58
    Measuring Away an Attentional Confound?Jorge Morales, Yasha Mouradi, Claire Sergent, Ned Block, Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, David Rosenthal, Piercesare Grimaldi & Hakwan Lau - 2017 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 3 (1):1-3.
    A recent fMRI study by Webb et al. (Cortical networks involved in visual awareness independent of visual attention, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:13923–28) proposes a new method for finding the neural correlates of awareness by matching atten- tion across awareness conditions. The experimental design, however, seems at odds with known features of attention. We highlight logical and methodological points that are critical when trying to disentangle attention and awareness.
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  23. The Problem of Introspection.Christopher D. Frith & Hakwan C. Lau - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):761-764.
  24.  37
    The Higher-Order View Does Not Require Consciously Self-Directed Introspection: Response to Malach.Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (11):508-509.
  25.  7
    The Neurobiology of Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity.Tom J. Barry, Connie P. Y. Chiu, Filip Raes, Jorge Ricarte & Hakwan Lau - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (11):1038-1049.
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  26.  8
    The Effects of Neurochemical Balance in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Volitional Control Under Irrelevant Distraction.Ai Koizumi, Hakwan Lau, Yasuhiro Shimada & Hirohito M. Kondo - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 59:104-111.
  27.  9
    Methodological Considerations to Strengthen Studies of Peripheral Vision.Brian Odegaard & Hakwan Lau - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (9):642-643.
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  28.  2
    Cross-Domain Association in Metacognitive Efficiency Depends on First-Order Task Types.Alan L. F. Lee, Eugene Ruby, Nathan Giles & Hakwan Lau - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  29. Should Scientists Think?Hakwan Lau - manuscript
    In my field of consciousness research, scientists frequently mock philosophers for their apparent uselessness. There are many issues about which philosophers have debated for centuries, and yet there are no satisfying resolutions. However, sometimes one thinks: what really is philosophy but careful thinking? Certainly that cannot be completely useless? It is therefore particularly refreshing to read Machado and Silva's article in this issue, which emphasizes the role of conceptual analysis in psychological research.
     
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  30.  10
    Reporting on the Temporal Properties of Visual Events Masked with Continuous Flash Suppression.Travis Riddle, Hakwan Lau & Betsy Sparrow - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:154-168.
  31.  12
    Broken Telephone in the Brain: The Need for Metacognitive Measures.Hakwan Lau & Navindra Persaud - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):513-514.
    The fact that early visual processing has a larger capacity than later visual processing can be explained without positing distinct systems for phenomenology and cognitive accessibility. While phenomenology may overflow forced-choice reports, the later can also overestimate the former, as in the case of blindsight. Metacognitive measures of awareness offer a way to address the of consciousness research.
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