There is currently a consensus among comparative psychologists that nonhuman animals are capable of some forms of mindreading. Several philosophers and psychologists have criticized this consensus, however, arguing that there is a “logical problem” with the experimental approach used to test for mindreading in nonhuman animals. I argue that the logical problem is no more than a version of the general skeptical problem known as the theoretician’s dilemma. As such, it is not a problem that comparative psychologists must solve before (...) providing evidence for mindreading. (shrink)
Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated (...) and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities. (shrink)
We evaluate a common reasoning strategy used in community ecology and comparative psychology for selecting between competing hypotheses. This strategy labels one hypothesis as a “null” on the grounds of its simplicity and epistemically privileges it as accepted until rejected. We argue that this strategy is unjustified. The asymmetrical treatment of statistical null hypotheses is justified through the experimental and mathematical contexts in which they are used, but these contexts are missing in the case of the “pseudo-null hypotheses” found in (...) our case studies. Moreover, statistical nulls are often not epistemically privileged in practice over their alternatives because failing to reject the null is usually a negative result about the alternative, experimental hypothesis. Scientists should eschew the appeal to pseudo-nulls. It is a rhetorical strategy that glosses over a commitment to valuing simplicity over other epistemic virtues in the name of good scientific and statistical methodology. (shrink)
Current conceptions of shame emphasize its negative communication value as a phenomenon of conscious experience. A tendency in our contemporary society is to view this phenomenon as an extremely disparaging and undesirable experience that every person should avoid or eliminate. It has become a cultural norm now that shame, perceived as human failure or sickness, is to be rejected, hidden, and not discussed. It is believed to stand in the way of personal progress and self-realization. The research literature mirrors not (...) only the lack of interest in understanding but the ignorance of this central-to-human-life experience. The present study examines the meaning and communicative structure of shame through an application of the phenomenological method of Merleau-Ponty and Lanigan. My analysis is grounded in empirical phenomenology and focuses on meaning as reflected in verbal protocols. The results obtained dispel the misleading notion of shame as primarily a negative, to-be-avoided experience. Rather, reflection on the empirical data indicates that the subjects do not adopt the negative theoretical model of shame but accept it as a universal positive experience of communication that is fundamental in their self-improvement process. (shrink)
Strnad, Halina The death penalty for homosexual acts between men was imposed in ancient Jewish sex codes. The rationale for these biblical injunctions was to prohibit sexual acts that did not produce offspring. In ancient tribal groups survival depended on population supply and growth.
RubisCO is Earth's main enzyme responsible for CO2 fixation via carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate into organic matter. Besides the carboxylation reaction, RubisCO also catalyzes the oxygenation of RuBP by O2, which is probably as old as its carboxylation properties. Based on molecular phylogeny, the occurrence of the reactive oxygen species -removing system and kinetic properties of different RubisCO forms, we postulated that RubisCO oxygenase activity appeared in local microoxic areas, yet before the appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here, in reviewing the literature, (...) we present a novel hypothesis: the RubisCO early oxygenase activity hypothesis. This hypothesis may be compared with the exaptation hypothesis, according to which latent RubisCO oxygenase properties emerged later during the oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere. The reconstruction of ancestral RubisCO forms using ancestral sequence reconstruction techniques, as a promising way for testing of RubisCO early oxygenase activity hypothesis, is presented. RubisCO catalyzes carboxylation and oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. Carboxylating properties of RubisCO are an ancient way for CO2 fixation into organic matter. However, an evolutionary importance of oxygenase activity of RubisCO remains enigmatic. Here, we formulated RubisCO early oxygenase activity hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, RubisCO oxygenase activity appeared yet before the appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis. (shrink)
Easy and cheap access to the Internet and a wide array of new technologies, such as smartphones, have multiplied opportunities for online informal learning of English. Yet, despite sizeable research, few studies have examined the issue of OILE in the context of university students of different disciplines. The aim of this research study was to examine the role of online language use through smartphones among students of various disciplines and its possible effects on enhancement of their foreign language skills. The (...) study assumed both qualitative and quantitative methodology encompassing three research instruments: an online survey, the self-assessment language competence grid of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and a semi-structured interview. Data were collected with 377 students from two universities: University of Białystok, Poland and University of Osijek, Croatia. The research outcomes indicate that both Croatian and Polish students of different disciplines use their smartphones chiefly for receptive activities with infrequent use for language learning purposes and the predominant use of the mother tongue or English for the listed online activities through smartphones do not significantly affect the self-assessed level of their communicative competence in English. However, it can be stated that the choice of the preponderant language for online use through smartphones, especially for study-related issues, is conditioned by the students’ discipline of study. (shrink)
This essay is an attempt to offer at least a partial answer to the question concerning Leibniz's motivation for the need to create a universal language. It is relevant, among other things, due to Leibniz's claim which contradicts the idea of a universal language, in which he clearly stresses that “every language, even the poorest one, can express everything”, as well as owing to Leibniz's historical contribution to the idea of formalization and to the mechanization of the reasoning processes. This (...) paper is also an attempt to reconstruct the paradigm of language research pursued in a specific period of time in 17th century language theory. (shrink)
In September 2010, the International Organization for Standardization adopted a new International Guidance Standard on Organizational Social Responsibility — ISO 26000. This Article, written by a participant in the process of developing the standard over a five-year period, considers the points of intersection between ISO 26000 and public policy, international law, democracy, and the role of the state. The Article is grounded in an analysis of the standard’s negotiating history. The concluding Part reflects on the implications of these observed facts (...) for the development of appropriate descriptive and normative theoretical frameworks and proposes three innovations that could underpin a less problematic relationship between ISO, public policy and the role of the state. (shrink)
The aim of this short essay is to highlight and concisely explore—but not address in depth—some cultural aspects related to legal languages, legal interpretation and legal translation. We would like to consider briefly the following questions: How can elements of legal language, as exemplified by proper names and euphemisms, be connected with cultural factors influencing language units’ formation? How can judicial discourse reflect the culture of a given justice system? How can the legal interpretation affect the degree of legal culture? (...) Are theories of legal interpretation universal or applicable to specific legal cultures? What is the impact of culture on the context of legal translation? How can the cultural background affect the decision to use terms in translation? How does cyberculture impact legal translation? (shrink)
The development of the personality-oriented model of the Ukrainian education system based on the principle of child-centeredness, maximum consideration of the abilities, needs and interests of each child, its age-specific features of physical, mental and mental development actualizes the problem of the formation and development of authenticity of preschoolers. The essence of the author's technology of authenticity facilitation of the preschooler's personality as a system of scientifically substantiated procedures for the gradual development of the educational process in the unity of (...) content, principles, methods, forms, organizational and pedagogical conditions for the interaction of its subjects, the purpose of which is the ability of the preschooler's personality to live in harmony with its inner world, to act without changing your true "I". The technology is aimed at helping each child to realize itself as a self-worth, knowledge of its capabilities and natural potential in all spheres of life. The totality of the motivational-value, cognitive, operational and reflexive-personal criteria and their corresponding indicators for diagnosing the level of readiness of teachers of pre-school education institutions to form the authenticity of pupils are presented. The results of approbation of the author's elective course for the system of postgraduate pedagogical education "Theoretical and practical bases for the authenticity formation of preschoolers" are presented for the training of teachers of pre-school institutions for the effective implementation of this process. (shrink)
The article concentrates on answering the main question to be addressed, as stated in its title: which psychology serves us best? In order to achieve this goal, we pursue possible answers in history of psychology of religion and its interdisciplinary relationships with its sister disciplines, anthropology of religion and religious studies, resulting with sketching a typology of the main attitudes towards conceptualising psycho-cultural interface, prevalent among psychologists: the Universalist, the Absolutist and the Relativist stances. Next chosen examples from the field (...) of applied psychology are presented, as the role of the cultural factor within the history of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ development is discussed alongside presenting research on the phenomenon of ‘hearing voices’, in order to show the marked way for the future – the importance of including the cultural factor in psychological research on religion. (shrink)
Celem artykułu jest pokazanie możliwości zastosowania J.M. Bocheńskiego koncepcji zabobonu filozoficznego w analizie etycznych ocen i argumentacji. Dla osiągnięcia tego celu koncepcja Bocheńskiego jest najpierw omówiona, następnie wskazane są cechy myślenia etycznego sprzyjające jego podatności na zabobony filozoficzne oraz podjęty jest problem możliwości rozpoznawania i ograniczania zabobonów w refleksji nad moralnością.
Hermeneutyka Ramanudży (1075-1140?), indyjskiego filozofa i teologa, głównego teoretyka odłamu wedanty wiśisztadwajta, opiera się na intrygującym splocie interpretacji języka i rzeczywistości przezeń przedstawionej. W tym splocie kategorie ontologiczne wspierają interpretację treści indyjskiego objawienia (śruti), a samo objawienie jest jedynym nośnikiem prawdy o strukturze rzeczywistości transcendentnej oraz jej relacji do świata. Ramanudża jest hermeneutą, lecz jego hermeneutyka ma określony cel, to jest rozumienie i rozumiejącą interpretację objawienia, które pozwala urzeczywistnić najważniejszy cel ludzkiego życia, a mianowicie duchowe wyzwolenie. W odkrywaniu sensus spiritualis (...) indyjskiego objawienia Ramanudża operuje swoistą „ontologią rozumienia”, sterującą antycypacją i odkrywaniem tego sensu. (shrink)
Legal concepts and notions are deeply affected by religions, ethics, philosophy and the culture of a particular nation. As Friedman Comparing legal cultures, Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1997, p. 34) highlights, understanding legal culture is a crucial factor as it both affects their translation and interpretation and consequently has an impact on the application of law. This increases in importance, for example, in the context of the principle of mutual trust and recognition of judgments assumed by the European Union as the cornerstone (...) of judicial co-operation in the European Union, which would not be possible without the trust in each other’s justice system and the respect for the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States. In that vein, ‘the Third Space’, where legal concepts and notions of multiple origins meet and where their meanings are negotiated, transformed, translated and integrated into various socio-political and cultural contexts has acquired an immense significance. Although there may be natural similarities between legal professions in the European Union, they could differ quite substantially as they are deeply rooted in the history and societal evolution of a country; therefore, they are generally regulated at a national, not a European level. In light of the above, the author intends to perform an in-depth analysis of key terminology in the field of names of legal professions which exist in the Member States of the European Union. The author focuses on the terms which refer to the legal profession of lawyers as they might pose obstacles in translation and interpretation due to different functions and roles these legal professionals play in their legal systems or due to the lack of their equivalents in other legal systems. The terminology is compared to present similarities and differences in their meaning, particularly putting some emphasis on socio-political and cultural contexts. The research methods encompass the analysis of relevant literature and the terminological analysis of the research material, which includes the information on legal professions provided by particular Member States on the European e-Justice portal and relevant national regulations in that respect. Finally, the author draws the conclusion that a thorough analysis of the functions and roles of a particular legal profession in socio-political and cultural contexts is required before the translation and interpretation of the term is provided as it helps to avoid ambiguity and makes legal communication precise. (shrink)
Wagowska, Halina I don't remember when I first heard about William Cooper, but I recall my amazement and then a kind of elation. He was an Aborigine, a leader fighting for basic human rights denied to his people. And he was a lone voice in Australia protesting against the Nazi persecution of Jews in Germany and Austria. I saw it as an affirmation of the brotherhood of the oppressed and persecuted.
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