The objective of this report is twofold. In the first place it aims to demonstrate that a four-dimensional local U(1) gauge invariant relativistic quantum mechanical Dirac-type equation is derivable from the equations for the classical electromagnetic field. In the second place, the transformational consequences of this local U(1) invariance are used to obtain solutions of different Maxwell equations.
Context: Consistency of mathematical constructions in numerical analysis and the application of computerized proofs in the light of the occurrence of numerical chaos in simple systems. Purpose: To show that a computer in general and a numerical analysis in particular can add its own peculiarities to the subject under study. Hence the need of thorough theoretical studies on chaos in numerical simulation. Hence, a questioning of what e.g. a numerical disproof of a theorem in physics or a prediction in numerical (...) economics could mean. Method: An algebraic simple model system is subjected to a deeper structure of underlying variables. With an algorithm simulating the steps in taking a limit of second order difference quotients the error terms are studied at the background of their algebraic expression. Results: With the algorithm that was applied to a simple quadratic polynomial system we found unstably amplified round-off errors. The possibility of numerical chaos is already known but not in such a simple system as used in our paper. The amplification of the errors implies that it is not possible with computer means to constructively show that the algebra and numerical analysis will ‘on the long run’ converge to each other and the error term will vanish. The algebraic vanishing of the error term cannot be demonstrated with the use of the computer because the round-off errors are amplified. In philosophical terms, the amplification of the round-off error is equivalent to the continuum hypothesis. This means that the requirement of (numerical) construction of mathematical objects is no safeguard against inference-only conclusions of qualities of (numerical) mathematical objects. Unstably amplified round-off errors are a same type of problem as the ordering in size of transfinite cardinal numbers. The difference is that the former problem is created within the requirements of constructive mathematics. This can be seen as the reward for working numerically constructive. (shrink)
In the paper we look into the epistemology of quantum theory. The starting point is the previously established mathematical ambiguity. The perspective of our study is the way that Schrödinger described Einstein’s idea of physics epistemology. Namely, physical theory is a map with flags. Each flag must, according to Einstein in Schrödinger’s representation, correspond to a physical reality and vice versa. With the ambiguity transformed to quantum-like operators we are able to mimic quantum theory. Therefore we have created little flags. (...) The question is raised whether nature itself is ambiguous. The created flags point at ambiguous nature. Or, nature is not ambiguous and the ambiguity can be repaired in mathematics. (shrink)
The biochemistry of geotropism in plants and gravisensing in e.g. cyanobacteria or paramacia is still not well understood today . Perhaps there are more ways than one for organisms to sense gravity. The two best known relatively old explanations for gravity sensing are sensing through the redistribution of cellular starch statoliths and sensing through redistribution of auxin. The starch containing statoliths in a gravity field produce pressure on the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. This enables the cell to sense direction. (...) Alternatively, there is the redistribution of auxin under the action of gravity. This is known as the Cholodny-Went hypothesis , . The latter redistribution coincides with a redistribution of electrical charge in the cell. With the present study the aim is to add a mathematical unified field explanation to gravisensing. (shrink)
Contrary to Bell’s theorem it is demonstrated that with the use of classical probability theory the quantum correlation can be approximated. Hence, one may not conclude from experiment that all local hidden variable theories are ruled out by a violation of inequality result.
In the paper we will employ set theory to study the formal aspects of quantum mechanics without explicitly making use of space-time. It is demonstrated that von Neuman and Zermelo numeral sets, previously efectively used in the explanation of Hardy’s paradox, follow a Heisenberg quantum form. Here monadic union plays the role of time derivative. The logical counterpart of monadic union plays the part of the Hamiltonian in the commutator. The use of numerals and monadic union in the classical probability (...) resolution of Hardy’s paradox  is supported with the present derivation of a commutator for sets. (shrink)
As is well known, Einstein was dissatisfied with the foundation of quantum theory and sought to find a basis for it that would have satisfied his need for a causal explanation. In this paper this abandoned idea is investigated. It is found that it is mathematically not dead at all. More in particular: a quantum mechanical U(1) gauge invariant Dirac equation can be derived from Einstein's gravity field equations. We ask ourselves what it means for physics, the history of physics (...) and for the actual discussion on foundations. (shrink)
Abstract In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a 4 × 4 Hermitian Schrödinger equation from with and . The latter operator replacement is a common procedure in a quantum description of the total energy. In the derivation we don’t make use of Dirac’s method of four vectors. Moreover, the root operator isn’t squared either. Instead, use is made of the algebra of operators to derive a Hermitian matrix Schrödinger equation. We believe that new physics can be (...) obtained from an alternative quantization of the relativistic total energy. Note e.g. the pion physics behind the Klein–Gordon equation and the antimatter behind the Dirac quantization of the total relativistic energy. In this paper, for the sake of clarity, a time-only dependence of the electromagnetic potential vector is assumed. It is also demonstrated that a “latent” Lorentz invariance exists related to a derived expression for amplitude and phase. (shrink)
In the paper it is demonstrated that Bell’s theorem is an unprovable theorem. The unprovable characteristic has, on the chemical side, repercussions for e.g. spin chemistry and the related magneto-reception studies. We claim that the unprovability of this basic mathematics cannot be ignored by the physics and chemical research community. The demonstrated mathematical multivaluedness could be an overlooked aspect of nature.