33 found
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  1.  24
    Evidence-Based Neuroethics, Deep Brain Stimulation and Personality - Deflating, but Not Bursting, the Bubble.Jonathan Pugh, Laurie Pycroft, Hannah Maslen, Tipu Aziz & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Neuroethics.
    Gilbert et al. have raised important questions about the empirical grounding of neuroethical analyses of the apparent phenomenon of Deep Brain Stimulation ‘causing’ personality changes. In this paper, we consider how to make neuroethical claims appropriately calibrated to existing evidence, and the role that philosophical neuroethics has to play in this enterprise of ‘evidence-based neuroethics’. In the first half of the paper, we begin by highlighting the challenges we face in investigating changes to PIAAAS following DBS, explaining how different trial (...)
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  2.  63
    The Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.Hannah Maslen, Jonathan Pugh & Julian Savulescu - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):215-230.
    There is preliminary evidence, from case reports and investigational studies, to suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation could be used to treat some patients with Anorexia Nervosa. Although this research is at an early stage, the invasive nature of the intervention and the vulnerability of the potential patients are such that anticipatory ethical analysis is warranted. In this paper, we first show how different treatment mechanisms raise different philosophical and ethical questions. We distinguish three potential mechanisms alluded to in the neuroscientific (...)
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  3. Brain Stimulation for Treatment and Enhancement in Children: An Ethical Analysis.Hannah Maslen, Brian Earp, Roi Cohen Kadosh & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Davis called for “extreme caution” in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to treat neurological disorders in children, due to gaps in scientific knowledge. We are sympathetic to his position. However, we must also address the ethical implications of applying this technology to minors. Compensatory trade-offs associated with NIBS present a challenge to its use in children, insofar as these trade-offs have the effect of limiting the child’s future options. The distinction between treatment and enhancement has some normative force here. (...)
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  4.  34
    Against Moral Responsibilisation of Health: Prudential Responsibility and Health Promotion.Rebecca C. H. Brown, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (2):114-129.
    In this article, we outline a novel approach to understanding the role of responsibility in health promotion. Efforts to tackle chronic disease have led to an emphasis on personal responsibility and the identification of ways in which people can ‘take responsibility’ for their health by avoiding risk factors such as smoking and over-eating. We argue that the extent to which agents can be considered responsible for their health-related behaviour is limited, and as such, state health promotion which assumes certain forms (...)
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  5.  38
    The Regulation of Cognitive Enhancement Devices : Extending the Medical Model.Hannah Maslen, Thomas Douglas, Roi Cohen Kadosh, Neil Levy & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 1 (1):68-93.
    This article presents a model for regulating cognitive enhancement devices. Recently, it has become very easy for individuals to purchase devices which directly modulate brain function. For example, transcranial direct current stimulators are increasingly being produced and marketed online as devices for cognitive enhancement. Despite posing risks in a similar way to medical devices, devices that do not make any therapeutic claims do not have to meet anything more than basic product safety standards. We present the case for extending existing (...)
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  6.  11
    Neuroprosthetic Speech: The Ethical Significance of Accuracy, Control and Pragmatics.Stephen Rainey, Hannah Maslen, Pierre Mégevand, Luc H. Arnal, Eric Fourneret & Blaise Yvert - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):657-670.
    :Neuroprosthetic speech devices are an emerging technology that can offer the possibility of communication to those who are unable to speak. Patients with ‘locked in syndrome,’ aphasia, or other such pathologies can use covert speech—vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalization—to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesizing the speech they would have spoken, but for their impairment.We provide an analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in speech mediated by neuroprosthetic devices. This analysis provides a framework for accounting for (...)
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  7.  53
    Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement : How Neuroscientific Research Could Advance Ethical Debate.Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller & Julian Savulescu - unknown
    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can (...)
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  8.  41
    Praiseworthiness and Motivational Enhancement: ‘No Pain, No Praise’?Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu & Carin Hunt - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):304-318.
    The view that exertion of effort determines praiseworthiness for an achievement is implicit in ‘no pain, no praise’-style objections to biomedical enhancement. On such views, if enhancements were t...
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  9.  28
    The Indirect Psychological Costs of Cognitive Enhancement.Nadira Faulmüller, Hannah Maslen & Filippo Santoni de Sio - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):45-47.
  10.  29
    Sugar, Taxes, & Choice.Carissa Véliz, Hannah Maslen, Michael Essman, Lindsey Smith Taillie & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (6):22-31.
    Population obesity and associated morbidities pose significant public health and economic burdens in the United Kingdom, United States, and globally. As a response, public health initiatives often seek to change individuals’ unhealthy behavior, with the dual aims of improving their health and conserving health care resources. One such initiative—taxes on sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB)—has sparked considerable ethical debate. Prominent in the debate are arguments seeking to demonstrate the supposed impermissibility of SSB taxes and similar policies on the grounds that they interfere (...)
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  11.  17
    Rationing Elective Surgery for Smokers and Obese Patients: Responsibility or Prognosis?Virimchi Pillutla, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):28.
    In the United Kingdom, a number of National Health Service Clinical Commissioning Groups have proposed controversial measures to restrict elective surgery for patients who either smoke or are obese. Whilst the nature of these measures varies between NHS authorities, typically, patients above a certain Body Mass Index and smokers are required to lose weight and quit smoking prior to being considered eligible for elective surgery. Patients will be supported and monitored throughout this mandatory period to ensure their clinical needs are (...)
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  12.  4
    Data as a Cross-Cutting Dimension of Ethical Importance in Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnologies.Stephen Rainey, Jan Christoph Bublitz, Hannah Maslen & Hannah Thornton - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):180-182.
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  13.  50
    Quarantine, Isolation and the Duty of Easy Rescue in Public Health.Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):182-189.
    We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue (...)
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  14. ‘Drugs That Make You Feel Bad’? Remorse-Based Mitigation and Neurointerventions.Jonathan Pugh & Hannah Maslen - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (3):499-522.
    In many jurisdictions, an offender’s remorse is considered to be a relevant factor to take into account in mitigation at sentencing. The growing philosophical interest in the use of neurointerventions in criminal justice raises an important question about such remorse-based mitigation: to what extent should technologically facilitated remorse be honoured such that it is permitted the same penal significance as standard instances of remorse? To motivate this question, we begin by sketching a tripartite account of remorse that distinguishes cognitive, affective (...)
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  15.  44
    Unexpected Complications of Novel Deep Brain Stimulation Treatments: Ethical Issues and Clinical Recommendations.Hannah Maslen, Binith Cheeran, Jonathan Pugh, Laurie Pycroft, Sandra Boccard, Simon Prangnell, Alexander Green, James FitzGerald, Julian Savulescu & Tipu Aziz - forthcoming - Neuromodulation.
    Background -/- Innovative neurosurgical treatments present a number of known risks, the natures and probabilities of which can be adequately communicated to patients via the standard procedures governing obtaining informed consent. However, due to their novelty, these treatments also come with unknown risks, which require an augmented approach to obtaining informed consent. -/- Objective -/- This paper aims to discuss and provide concrete procedural guidance on the ethical issues raised by serious unexpected complications of novel deep brain stimulation treatments. -/- (...)
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  16.  24
    Authenticity and the Stimulated Self: Neurosurgery for Anorexia Nervosa.Hannah Maslen, Jonathan Pugh & Julian Savulescu - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (4):69-71.
    Müller and colleagues (2015) address a range of ethical considerations associated with neurosurgical interventions for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), arguing for several protective measures to safeguard clinical research and practice. This is an important article, which provides a thorough review of current neurosurgical research and presents key insights into challenges associated with compromised decision-making capacities in the context of AN and the early average age of onset. However, it is somewhat striking that they neither use nor examine the (...)
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  17.  50
    Do-It-Yourself Brain Stimulation: A Regulatory Model.Hannah Maslen, Tom Douglas, Roi Cohen Kadosh, Neil Levy & Julian Savulescu - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):413-414.
  18.  30
    Influenza Vaccination Strategies Should Target Children.Ben Bambery, Thomas Douglas, Michael J. Selgelid, Hannah Maslen, Alberto Giubilini, Andrew J. Pollard & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (2):221-234.
    Strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates have typically targeted healthcare professionals and individuals in various high-risk groups such as the elderly. We argue that they should focus on increasing vaccination rates in children. Because children suffer higher influenza incidence rates than any other demographic group, and are major drivers of seasonal influenza epidemics, we argue that influenza vaccination strategies that serve to increase uptake rates in children are likely to be more effective in reducing influenza-related morbidity and mortality than those (...)
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  19.  19
    Nudging Immunity: The Case for Vaccinating Children in School and Day Care by Default.Alberto Giubilini, Lucius Caviola, Hannah Maslen, Thomas Douglas, Anne-Marie Nussberger, Nadira Faber, Samantha Vanderslott, Sarah Loving, Mark Harrison & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (4):325-344.
    Many parents are hesitant about, or face motivational barriers to, vaccinating their children. In this paper, we propose a type of vaccination policy that could be implemented either in addition to coercive vaccination or as an alternative to it in order to increase paediatric vaccination uptake in a non-coercive way. We propose the use of vaccination nudges that exploit the very same decision biases that often undermine vaccination uptake. In particular, we propose a policy under which children would be vaccinated (...)
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  20.  35
    Taxing Meat: Taking Responsibility for One’s Contribution to Antibiotic Resistance.Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu, Thomas Douglas, Patrick Birkl & Alberto Giubilini - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (2):179-198.
    Antibiotic use in animal farming is one of the main drivers of antibiotic resistance both in animals and in humans. In this paper we propose that one feasible and fair way to address this problem is to tax animal products obtained with the use of antibiotics. We argue that such tax is supported both by deontological arguments, which are based on the duty individuals have to compensate society for the antibiotic resistance to which they are contributing through consumption of animal (...)
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  21.  9
    Neurofeedback for Moral Enhancement: Irreversibility, Freedom, and Advantages Over Drugs.Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (2):120-122.
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  22.  8
    The Necessity of Objective Standards for Moral Enhancement.Filippo Santoni de Sio, Hannah Maslen & Nadira Faulmüller - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):15-16.
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  23.  3
    Governing the Global Antimicrobial Commons: Introduction to Special Issue.Steven J. Hoffman, Julian Savulescu, Alberto Giubilini, Claas Kirchhelle, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Isaac Weldon, Brooke Campus, Mark Harrison, Hannah Maslen & Angela McLean - forthcoming - Health Care Analysis:1-8.
    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest public health crises of our time. The natural biological process that causes microbes to become resistant to antimicrobial drugs presents a complex social challenge requiring more effective and sustainable management of the global antimicrobial commons—the common pool of effective antimicrobials. This special issue of Health Care Analysis explores the potential of two legal approaches—one long-term and one short-term—for managing the antimicrobial commons. The first article explores the lessons for antimicrobial resistance that can be (...)
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  24.  41
    The Case for Mandatory Flu Vaccination of Children.Ben Bambery, Michael Selgelid, Hannah Maslen, Andrew J. Pollard & Julian Savulescu - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (9):38 - 40.
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  25.  8
    When Should the Police Investigate Cases of Non-Recent Child Sexual Abuse?Hannah Maslen & Colin Paine - 2019 - Criminal Justice Ethics 38 (2):65-102.
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  26. Responsibility, Prudence and Health Promotion.Rebecca Charlotte Helena Brown, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Journal of Public Health 41 (3):561-565.
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  27.  47
    Lay Attitudes Toward Deception in Medicine: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence.Jonathan Pugh, Guy Kahane, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (1):31-38.
    Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked (...)
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  28.  14
    The Need for Further Fine-Grained Distinctions in Discussions of Authenticity and Deep Brain Stimulation.Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):W1-W3.
  29.  22
    In Defence of Drinking Alone.Hannah Maslen & Rebecca Roache - 2016 - The Philosophers' Magazine 75:13-15.
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  30.  15
    Would You Be Willing to Zap Your Child's Brain? Public Perspectives on Parental Responsibilities and the Ethics of Enhancing Children with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 9 (1):29-38.
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  31.  4
    Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value—CORRIGENDUM.Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (1):179-179.
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  32.  1
    Control and Ownership of Neuroprosthetic Speech.Hannah Maslen & Stephen Rainey - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-21.
    Implantable brain-computer interfaces are being developed to restore speech capacity for those who are unable to speak. Patients with locked-in syndrome or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis could be able to use covert speech – vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalisation – to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesising speech. User control has been identified as particularly pressing for this type of BCI. The incorporation of machine learning and statistical language models into the decoding process introduces a contribution to the (...)
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  33.  4
    First Phase 1 Optogenetic Trials Should Be Conducted in People Who Are Dying.Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (3):16-18.
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