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Profile: Hannes Rusch (University of Marburg, Technische Universität München)
  1. Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects.Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  2. Do Bankers Have Deviant Moral Attitudes? Negative Results From a Tentative Survey.Hannes Rusch - 2015 - Rationality, Markets and Morals 6:6-20.
    Bankers have a reputation for deviating from standard morals. It is an open question, though, if this claim can be substantiated. Here, it is tested directly if bankers respond differently to moral dilemmas. Evaluations of the moral acceptableness of behavioural options in two trolley cases by bankers (n = 23) are compared to those of ordinary people (n = 274). An apparent difference in response behaviour between the groups can be fully explained by a difference in the response behaviour of (...)
     
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  3.  40
    A Threshold for Biological Altruism in Public Goods Games Played in Groups Including Kin.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, altruistic self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and contribution to the production of public goods in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories trying to explain human prosocial preferences and behavior. Many of these focus on direct and indirect reciprocity, assortment, or (cultural) group selection. Here, I investigate analytically how genetic relatedness changes the incentive structure of that paradigmatic game which is conventionally used to model and experimentally investigate collective action problems: the public (...)
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  4. Erkenntnis als Ergebnis biologischer Entwicklung: Die Grundzüge der Evolutionären Erkenntnistheorie im Überblick.Wolfgang Buschlinger & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - Ethik Und Unterricht 2014 (2):10-14.
    In diesem Artikel stellen wir die Evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie kurz vor. Wir gehen dazu in zwei Schritten vor: In Schritt 1 charakterisieren wir die Evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie anhand ihrer Antworten auf die Grundfragen an jede Erkenntnistheorie. In Schritt 2 stellen wir all jene philosophischen Positionen dar, mit denen die Evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie eng verbunden ist.
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  5.  19
    The Two Sides of Warfare: An Extended Model of Altruistic Behavior in Ancestral Human Intergroup Conflict.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - Human Nature 25 (3):359-377.
    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (i) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve (...)
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  6.  35
    Asymmetries in Altruistic Behavior During Violent Intergroup Conflict.Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Evolutionary Psychology 11 (5):973-993.
    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of altruistic behavior in intergroup conflict in humans frequently make use of the assumption that warfare can be modeled as a symmetrical n-person prisoner’s dilemma, abstracting away the strategic differences between attack and defense. In contrast, some empirical studies on intergroup conflict in hunter-gatherer societies and chimpanzees indicate that fitness relevant risks and potential benefits of attacks and defenses might have differed substantially under ancestral conditions. Drawing on these studies, it is hypothesized that the success (...)
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  7.  27
    An Evolutionary Perspective on the Long-Term Efficiency of Costly Punishment.Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):811-831.
    Many studies show that punishment, although able to stabilize cooperation at high levels, destroys gains which makes it less efficient than alternatives with no punishment. Standard public goods games (PGGs) in fact show exactly these patterns. However, both evolutionary theory and real world institutions give reason to expect institutions with punishment to be more efficient, particularly in the long run. Long-term cooperative partnerships with punishment threats for non-cooperation should outperform defection prone non-punishing ones. This article demonstrates that fieldwork data from (...)
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  8.  37
    What Makes People Go to War? Defensive Intentions Motivate Retaliatory and Preemptive Intergroup Aggression.Robert Böhm, Hannes Rusch & Özgür Gürerk - 2015 - MPRA Papers 64373.
    Although humans qualify as one of the most cooperative animal species, the scale of violent intergroup conflict among them is unparalleled. Explanations of the underlying motivation to participate in an intergroup conflict, however, remain unsatisfactory. While previous research shows that intergroup conflict increases ‘in-group love’, it fails to identify robust triggers of ‘out-group hate’. Here, we present a controlled laboratory experiment, which demonstrates that ‘out-group hate’ can be provoked systematically. We find direct and causal evidence that the intention to protect (...)
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  9.  3
    The Logic of Animal Intergroup Conflict: A Review.Hannes Rusch & Sergey Gavrilets - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.
    We review the literature on various approaches to modeling animal intergroup conflict behavior in theoretical biology, highlight the intricacies emerging in the process of adding due biological realism to such models, and point out recent empirical findings that can inspire future theorizing.
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  10.  52
    What Niche Did Human Cooperativeness Evolve In?Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Ethics and Politics 15 (2):82-100.
    The Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) is widely used to model social interaction between unrelated individuals in the study of the evolution of cooperative behaviour in humans and other species. Many effective mechanisms and promotive scenarios have been studied which allow for small founding groups of cooperative individuals to prevail even when all social interaction is characterised as a PD. Here, a brief critical discussion of the role of the PD as the most prominent tool in cooperation research is presented, followed by (...)
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  11.  31
    An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism.Hannes Rusch & Charlotte Störmer - 2015 - Militaire Spectator 184 (3):140-150.
    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts, i.e. wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group hostility might have co-evolved. Groups with more cooperatively aggressive men, they suggest, were more likely to prevail in the frequent lethal quarrels of human pre-history, and these men, therefore, more likely to have passed on their (...)
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  12.  45
    Indirect Reciprocity, Golden Opportunities for Defection, and Inclusive Reputation.Max Albert & Hannes Rusch - 2013 - MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, reputation mechanisms can stabilize cooperation even in severe cooperation problems like the prisoner’s dilemma. Under certain circumstances, conditionally cooperative strategies, which cooperate iff their partner has a good reputation, cannot be invaded by any other strategy that conditions behavior only on own and partner reputation. The first point of this paper is to show that an evolutionary version of backward induction can lead to a breakdown of this kind of indirectly reciprocal cooperation. Backward induction, (...)
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  13.  42
    The Systematic Place of Morals in Markets [Letter].Christoph Luetge & Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Science 341 (6147):714.
    Comment on Armin Falk & Nora Szech "Morals and Markets", Science 340(6133), 707-711, 2013.
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  14.  27
    A Brief History of Experimental Ethics.Niklas Dworazik & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - In Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.), Experimental Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 38-56.
    Recent years have seen a continual rise of interest in the empirical study of questions traditionally located in moral philosophy, i.e., studies in Experimental Ethics. In this chapter we briefly outline the recent history of this field. To do so we have to cross disciplinary borders to quite some extent. Tracing the beginnings of Experimental Ethics back to early works in moral psychology, we delineate a sequence of theories which eventually flow into current Experimental Ethics. We then briefly review four (...)
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  15.  38
    Naturalistische Zumutungen.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - Aufklärung Und Kritik 2014 (1):103-122.
    Diese Arbeit untersucht die Frage, welche möglichen Auslöser für emotional bedingte Voreingenommenheit es auf Seiten der Kritiker des heutigen philosophischen Naturalismus gibt. Sie findet diese zum einen in bestimmten Ergebnissen einzelner wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen, den sogenannten ›Kränkungen‹, die fälschlicherweise dem philosophischen Naturalismus angelastet werden, und zum anderen in den programmatischen Voraussetzungen des philosophischen Naturalismus, den ›naturalistischen Zumutungen‹. Nach einer kurzen Darstellung des naturalistischen Programms werden diese beiden Gruppen exemplifiziert, voneinander abgegrenzt und zwei Ansätze zur Klärung von Missverständnissen der naturalistischen Position vorgeschlagen.
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  16.  35
    Evolutionary Aesthetics: An Introduction to Key Concepts and Current Issues.Hannes Rusch & Eckart Voland - 2013 - Aisthesis 6 (2):113-133.
    In this article we try to give a philosophically reflected introductory overview of the current theoretical developments in the field of evolutionary aesthetics. Our aim is not completeness. Rather, we try to depict some of the central assumptions and explanatory tools frequently used in evolutionary accounts of human aesthetical preferences and address a number of currently debated, open research questions.
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  17.  22
    Ancestral Kinship Patterns Substantially Reduce the Negative Effect of Increasing Group Size on Incentives for Public Goods Provision.Hannes Rusch - 2015 - University of Cologne, Working Paper Series in Economics 82.
    Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and voluntary contribution to public goods provision in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories on the evolution of altruistic in-group beneficial behavior in humans. Many of these theories abstract away from the effects of kinship on the incentives for public goods provision, though. Here, it is investigated analytically how genetic relatedness changes the incentive structure of that paradigmatic game which is conventionally used to model and experimentally (...)
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  18.  30
    Using Artificial Neural Networks for the Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems.Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Ecology and Society 18 (2).
    The literature on common pool resource (CPR) governance lists numerous factors that influence whether a given CPR system achieves ecological long-term sustainability. Up to now there is no comprehensive model to integrate these factors or to explain success within or across cases and sectors. Difficulties include the absence of large-N-studies (Poteete 2008), the incomparability of single case studies, and the interdependence of factors (Agrawal and Chhatre 2006). We propose (1) a synthesis of 24 success factors based on the current SES (...)
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  19.  12
    Spillovers From Coordination to Cooperation – Evidence for the Interdependence Hypothesis?Hannes Rusch & Christoph Luetge - 2016 - Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences 10 (4):284-296.
    It has recently been proposed that the evolution of human cooperativeness might, at least in part, have started as the cooptation of behavioral strategies evolved for solving problems of coordination to solve problems with higher incentives to defect, i.e. problems of cooperation. Following this line of thought, we systematically tested human subjects for spillover effects from simple coordination tasks (2x2 Stag Hunt games, SH) to problems of cooperation (2x2 Prisoner’s Dilemma games, PD) in a laboratory experiment with rigorous controls to (...)
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  20.  17
    Philosophy as the Behaviorist Views It?Hannes Rusch - 2014 - In Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.), Experimental Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 264-282.
    This chapter discusses future directions which the current developments within philosophy might take. It does so on the background of historical parallels to the controversy around experimental philosophy. Historical debates in psychology and economics contain astonishing similarities to today’s discussions in philosophy. After a brief historical overview, four central criticisms which experimental philosophy is subject to are systematically reviewed. It is shown that three of these are not specifically philosophical. Rather, they neccessarily accompany and drive every introduction of experimental methods (...)
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  21.  21
    Experimentelle Und Evolutionäre Ethik: Eine Neue Synthese in der Moralphilosophie?Hannes Rusch, Christoph Luetge & Eckart Voland - 2014 - In Matthias Maring (ed.), Bereichsethiken im interdisziplinären Dialog. KIT Scientific Publishing. pp. 163-179.
    Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Darstellung des systematischen Zusammenhangs des mit dem Aufkommen der Experimentellen Philosophie neu entstandenen Teilbereichs der Experimentellen Ethik mit der spätestens seit den 1980er Jahren wieder populär gewordenen Evolutionären Ethik, einer Teildisziplin des philosophischen Naturalismus. Nach einer kurzen Charakterisierung beider ethischer Teilbereiche wird am Beispiel der metaethischen Frage nach der Objektivität moralischer Urteile dafür argumentiert, dass die partikulären Ergebnisse experimenteller Methoden in der Moralphilosophie erst in einer umfassenderen Perspektive auf menschliches Handeln vollständig interpretierbar werden: Ohne eine (...)
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  22.  4
    What Niche Did Human Cooperativeness Evolve In?Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Etica E Politica 15 (2):82-100.
    The Prisoner’s Dilemma is widely used to model interaction between unrelated individuals in the study of the evolution of cooperativeness. Many mechanisms have been studied which allow for small founding groups of cooperative individuals to prevail even when all social interaction is characterised as a PD. Here, a brief critical discussion of the role of the PD as the most prominent tool in cooperation research is presented, followed by two new objections to such an exclusive focus on PD-based models. It (...)
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  23.  10
    What Makes People Go to War? Defensive Intentions Motivate Retaliatory and Preemptive Intergroup Aggression.Robert Böhm, Hannes Rusch & Özgür Gürerk - 2016 - Evolution and Human Behavior 37 (1):29-34.
    Although humans qualify as one of the most cooperative animal species, the scale of violent intergroup conflict among them is unparalleled. Explanations of the underlying motivations to participate in an intergroup conflict, however, remain unsatisfactory. While previous research shows that intergroup conflict increases individually costly behavior to the benefit of the in-group, it has failed to identify robust triggers of aggressive behavior directed at out-groups. Here, we present a controlled laboratory experiment which demonstrates that such aggression can be provoked systematically (...)
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  24.  13
    The Evolutionary Interplay of Intergroup Conflict and Altruism in Humans: A Review of Parochial Altruism Theory and Prospects for its Extension.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 281 (1794): 20141539.
    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesised that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of ‘parochial altruism’. After a brief synopsis of (...)
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  25.  11
    Historical and Experimental Evidence of Sexual Selection for War Heroism.Hannes Rusch, Joost M. Leunissen & Mark van Vugt - 2015 - Evolution and Human Behavior 36 (5):367-373.
    We report three studies which test a sexual selection hypothesis for male war heroism. Based on evolutionary theories of mate choice we hypothesize that men signal their fitness through displaying heroism in combat. First, we report the results of an archival study on US-American soldiers who fought in World War II. We compare proxies for reproductive success between a control sample of 449 regular veterans and 123 surviving Medal of Honor recipients of WWII. Results suggest that the heroes sired more (...)
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  26.  11
    Biological and Experimental Perspectives on Self-Interest: Reciprocal Altruism and Genetic Egoism.Hannes Rusch & Ulrich J. Frey - 2013 - In Christoph Luetge (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 313-335.
    The question on how the diverse forms of cooperative behavior in humans and nonhuman animals could have evolved under the pressure of natural selection has been a challenge for evolutionary biology ever since Darwin himself. In this chapter, we briefly review and summarize results from the last 50 years of research on human and nonhuman cooperativeness from a theoretical (biology) and an experimental perspective (experimental economics). The first section presents six concepts from theoretical biology able to explain a variety of (...)
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  27.  8
    Human Agricultural Economy is, and Likely Always Was, Largely Based on Kinship. Why?Hannes Rusch & Eckart Voland - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:34-35.
    Commentary on J. Gowdy & L. Krall "The economic origins of ultrasociality": We question the sequence of evolutionary transitions leading to ultrasociality in humans proposed by Gowdy & Krall. Evidence indicates that families are, and likely always have been, the primary productive units in human agricultural economies, suggesting that genetic relatedness is key to understanding when the suppression of individual autonomy to the benefit of subsistence groups, i.e. extended families, evolved.
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  28.  12
    Modeling Ecological Success of Common Pool Resource Systems Using Large Datasets.Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - World Development 59:93-103.
    The influence of many factors on ecological success in common pool resource management is still unclear. This may be due to methodological issues. These include causal complexity, a lack of large-N-studies and nonlinear relationships between factors. We address all three issues with a new methodological approach, artificial neural networks, which is discussed in detail. It allows us to develop a model with comparably high predictive power. In addition, two success factors are analyzed: legal security and institutional fairness. Both factors show (...)
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  29.  4
    Order Ethics: An Experimental Perspective.Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl - 2016 - In Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.), Order Ethics – An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy. Springer. pp. 67-78.
    In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended institutions, all of which are empirical questions to a good extent. We illustrate our arguments by presenting a small selection of experiments from economics that we consider highly informative for Order (...)
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  30.  8
    Comparing Forests Across Climates and Biomes: Qualitative Assessments, Reference Forests, and Regional Inter-Comparisons.Carl Salk, Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - PLoS ONE 9 (4):e94800.
    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests’ potential carbon stock, biodiversity, and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species’ traits and land use history. Methods like forest changes over time , and comparison with 'pristine' reference forests have been proposed to compare (...)
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  31.  2
    Naturalistic Impositions.Hannes Rusch - 2010 - In Ulrich J. Frey (ed.), The Nature of God ––– Evolution and Religion. Tectum. pp. 129-157.
    This article investigates the question of why there is emotional resistance to research results such as the theory of evolution and to philosophical naturalism. A depiction of how this emotional resistance expresses itself is followed by a brief account of the core theses of philosophical naturalism. The emotional reactions to research results then are differentiated from reactions to philosophical naturalism and a first overview of the irritant positions of naturalism is given. Finally two misunderstandings about the aims of philosophical naturalism (...)
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  32. Philomat / Apparat für weltanschauliche Diagnostik.Wolfgang Buschlinger, Bettina Conradi & Hannes Rusch - 2009 - Hirzel.
    Sind Sie Naturalist, Metaphysikerin oder Rationalist? Existentialistin, Materialist oder Deterministin? Sie wissen es nicht? Der Philomat ist ein Apparat für weltanschauliche Diagnostik. Er sagt Ihnen, wie Sie denken, wenn Sie denken. Er stellt Ihnen Fragen aus ganz alltäglichen Zusammenhängen und ermittelt anhand Ihrer Antworten, welche philosophischen Überzeugungen Ihr Denken leiten. Sie erfahren, wie Ihre ganz persönliche Art zu denken in der Philosophie heißt, welche Konsequenzen mit ihr verbunden sind, welche Philosophen so denken wie Sie und wo Sie Ihre Überzeugungen vertiefen (...)
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  33.  47
    Experimental Ethics.Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.) - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This volume gives an overview of the rising field of Experimental Ethics. It is organized into five main parts: PART I – Introduction: An Experimental Philosophy of Ethics? // PART II – Applied Experimental Ethics: Case studies // PART III – On Methodology // PART IV – Critical Reflections // PART V – Future Perspectives. Among the contributors: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Eric Schwitzgebel, Ezio di Nucci, Jacob Rosenthal, and Fernando Aguiar.
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