Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organisational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust.
It is well known that the model categories of universal Horn theories are locally presentable, hence essentially algebraic . In the special case of quasivarieties a direct translation of the implicational syntax into the essentially equational one is known . Here we present a similar translation for the general case, showing at the same time that many relationally presented Horn classes are in fact quasivarieties.
The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images (...) acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions—i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)—and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. (shrink)
Faced with the current pandemic situation, many thinkers examined not only the relationship between the political dimension and the present health emergency, and the related social and economic transformations, but also and above all the changes in the construction of identity and the self-perception that it has determined and will continue to determine. Giorgio Agamben and Byung-Chul Han, although starting from different analyses, agree on the return and on the tightening of devices that limit personal freedoms. The provocative question from (...) which we are starting is whether neoliberalism really wants a pandemic. The answer is particularly complex and is divided into three passages: the first part, in fact, is critically confronted with Agamben’s reflection; the second part starts from the analysis of Byung-Chul Han’s thought, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses; in the last part, the fallout from the point of view of identity processes is discussed above all through a critical analysis of the paradigms of resilience and victimization. (shrink)
The article deals with present day challenges related to the employ of technology in order to reduce the exposition of the human being to the risks and vulnerability of his or her existential condition. According to certain transhumanist and posthumanist thinkers, as well as some supporters of human enhancement, essential features of the human being, such as vulnerability and mortality, ought to be thoroughly overcome. The aim of this article is twofold: on the one hand, we wish to carry out (...) an enquiry into the ontological and ethical thinking of Hans Jonas, who was among the first to address these very issues with great critical insight; on the other hand, we endeavour to highlight the relevance of Jonas’ reflections to current challenges related to bioscience and biotechnological progress. In this regard, we believe that the transcendent and metaphysical relevance of the «image of man» introduced by Jonas is of paramount importance to understand his criticism against those attempts to ameliorate the human being by endangering his or her essence. (shrink)
The ideas of Hans Morgenthau dominated the study of international politics in the United States for many decades. He was the leading representative of Realist international relations theory in the last century and his work remains hugely influential in the field. In this engaging and accessible new study of his work, William E. Scheuerman provides a comprehensive and illuminating introduction to Morgenthau’s ideas, and assesses their significance for political theory and international politics. Scheuerman shows Morgenthau to be an uneasy (...) Realist, uncomfortable with conventional notions of Realism and sometimes unsure whether his reflections should be grouped under its rubric. He was a powerful critic of the existing state system and defended the idea of a world state. By highlighting Morgenthau’s engagement with the leading lights of European political and legal theory, Scheuerman argues that he developed a morally demanding political ethics and an astute diagnosis of the unprecedented perils posed by nuclear weaponry. Believing that the irrationalities of US foreign policy were rooted partly in domestic factors, he sympathized with demands for radical political and social change. Scheuerman illustrates that Morgenthau’s thinking has been widely misunderstood by both disciples and critics and that it offers many challenges to contemporary Realists who discount his normative aspirations. With the advent of the cosmopolitan goal of international reform, Morgenthau’s work serves up an unsettling mix of sympathy and hard-headed skepticism which remains crucially important in the development of the field. Lucidly and persuasively written, this book will be a valuable resource for students and scholars seeking to understand the continued importance of Morgenthau’s thinking. (shrink)
O presente artigo objetiva discutir a interpretação da filosofia de Nietzsche empreendida por Hans Vaihinger na obra Philosophie des Als Ob. De acordo com Vaihinger, ao longo de sua obra Nietzsche desenvolve uma “teoria da aparência valor das ficções frente à vida prática, na trilha deixada por Kant e Lange. Em virtude disso, a filosofia de Nietzsche pode ser considerada como o esboço da metafísica do “como se”, postura ficcionalista e pragmática desenvolvida por Vaihinger.
A transparência é um velho ideal moderno que as novas tecnologias rejuvenesceram e tornaram onipresente nas discussões atuais sobre poder, cultura digital e controle. Neste artigo, propomos uma análise da noção de transparência ao longo de quatro obras do filósofo contemporâneo Byung-Chul Han: Sociedade do cansaço, Topologia da violência, Sociedade da transparência e Psicopolítica. Este percurso nos permitirá sugerir uma genealogia desta noção na obra de Han. A noção de transparência será analisada como desdobramento da sociedade de desempenho, como forma (...) de violência, como fenômeno econômico e cultural e como dispositivo neoliberal. Tais abordagens propostas por Han supõem uma mudança do paradigma disciplinar elaborado por Foucault: assim a sociedade contemporânea seria mais uma sociedade do desempenho que uma sociedade disciplinar. Em nossas considerações finais, pontuaremos algumas críticas ao livro Psicopolítica. Se a transparência é um dispositivo que gera uma visibilidade seletiva para reproduzir uma ordem neoliberal, um discurso crítico sobre a transparência não deveria invisibilizar as concepções que se contrapõem a esse dispositivo. Nesta direção, aventamos quatro perspectivas que agrupam linhas de ações coletivas e individuais que confrontam o dispositivo neoliberal da transparência. (shrink)
O texto apresentado a seguir é uma traduçáo da conferência intitulada “The Burden and Blessing of Mortality” ( The Hastings Center Report , 22, n. 1, jan-fev. 1992, p. 34-40), que foi apresentada à Fundaçáo do Palácio Real [The Royal Palace Foundation], em Amsterdam, no dia 19 de março de 1991. Esta conferência foi traduzida para o alemáo por Reinhard Löw e revisada pelo próprio Jonas, aparecendo com o título “Last und Segen der Sterblichkeit” em Scheidewege 21, 1991/92, p. 26-40, (...) e mais tarde em um livro do próprio Jonas: Philosophische Untersuchungen und metaphysische Vermutungen [Investigações Filosóficas e Suposições Metafísicas] . Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag, 1992, p. 81-100. Por sua vez, o texto original, em inglês, veio ainda a fazer parte de uma coletânea de ensaios de Jonas, editada por Lawrence Vogel ( Mortality and Morality : a search for good after Auschwits. Ed. Lawrence Vogel. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1996, p. 87-97). (shrink)
BRENTANO'S APPROPRIATION OF THE Scholastic notion of intentionality, and of what Brentano called "the intentional (or mental) inexistence of an object," was early on exploited in a reading of Kant's theory of objects and appearances. Apparently the first systematic attempt was undertaken by Hans Vaihinger. However, Vaihinger's is radically different from more recent intentionalist readings of Kant. Albeit not in every respect, I propose that a return to this aspect of Vaihinger's approach supports a rewarding advance on such readings. (...) After a general introduction, I survey three instances of the latter—Prauss, Pereboom, and Sellars—in section 2 (and comment on some others in notes throughout). In sections 3 and 4, I then turn to Vaihinger's approach. (shrink)
The book focuses on the thinking of the philosopher of Jewish origins, Hans Jonas (1903-1993), and precisely on his “philosophical biology”. The overall thesis is that this topic, which occupies the second stage of his thinking, is coherent with the previous phase (which focused on ancient Gnosticism), as well as with the following (which was dedicated to the ethics of responsibility). The main evidence supporting this thesis is the key notion of “ontological revolution”, the development of which I try (...) to analyse in Jonas’ published and unpublished writings. This is the first innovative feature of the research. The second is my attempt to compare Jonas’ ideas of life and organism with the reflections of thinkers such as Aristotle, Spinoza, and Whitehead. (shrink)
More low-carbon products help fight climate change and environmental problems. Governments consider encouraging the manufacturer’s initiative of producing low-carbon products by providing subsidies. However, when the manufacturer sells low-carbon products through the e-commerce platform, fairness concerns arise because of the profit difference. So, this paper builds game models to study decision behavior in the low-carbon e-commerce supply chain when the manufacturer receives government carbon subsidies and has fairness concerns. Our findings show that consumers’ preference for low-carbon products will be conducive (...) to the operation of the supply chain. So it is necessary to popularize low-carbon products. The effect of government subsidies on supply chain decisions is different from fairness concerns. Government subsidies are positive factors in the supply chain operation, which can stimulate the manufacturer to make low-carbon products as expected and choose the high quality-high price development mode. This will help improve the profit of enterprises in the supply chain but cannot effectively stimulate the e-commerce platform to increase its service level. By contrast, the manufacturer’s fairness concerns are negative factors, which make the manufacturer prefer to adopt a low quality-low price development mode to improve their utility. This offsets the positive effect of government subsidies. It turns out that the profit of both node enterprises and the supply chain system has declined. But, fairness concerns are an important way to express the manufacturer’s demand. Finally, the joint allocation contract of cost and profit designed by comprehensively considering the effect of government subsidies and fairness concerns can make the supply chain coordinated. However, even as positive factors, only within a specific range do government subsidies help coordinate the supply chain, but not the more, the better. (shrink)
The western ancestral Mississippi shelf-margin delta fed the Bryant Canyon turbidite system in the intraslope basin province of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico during the penultimate glacial lowstand of sea level. The Bryant Canyon links a chain of 15 fill-and-spill minibasins on the continental slope. On the upper and lower continental slopes, minibasins are narrow, elongate, and follow salt ridges. On the middle slope, minibasins are larger semicircular basins. Three main depositional facies are recognized based on seismic-facies interpretation: ponded turbidites, (...) mass-transport deposits, and bypass channelized turbidites. Thick, intrabasinal, muddy MTD wedges sourced from high-relief internal walls of the minibasins alternate with and frequently cap externally derived deposits. Tabular extrabasinal MTD deposits originated from shelf-margin delta or canyon-wall failures upslope. The T and MTD facies deposits each make up approximately 40% of basin fill, and the C facies deposits comprise approximately 20%. The T facies deposits form perched lobes at canyon inlets into basins and ponded units on distal sides of basins. Channels in the C facies are similar in width and relief to channels in productive GOM subsurface minibasins. Syntectonic activity of salt diapirs typically began midway through filling of Bryant Canyon minibasins and then preferentially uplifted northern portions of basin deposits. Local salt-tectonic activity caused greater basin relief and thicker capping MTDs than in subsurface minibasins to the west or east. Bryant Canyon minibasins provide excellent modern analogs for subsurface Miocene to Pleistocene GOM chains of minibasins because of similar scales and depositional facies. The youngest Bryant T facies deposits and their overlying incised, thick, channel deposits contain the most sand-prone facies and suggest the best potential for petroleum reservoirs in subsurface minibasins. (shrink)
The information overload in E-Discovery proceedings makes reviewing expensive and it increases the risk of failure to produce results on time and consistently. New interactive techniques have been introduced to increase reviewer productivity. In contrast, the techniques presented in this article propose an alternative method that tries to reduce information during culling so that less information needs to be reviewed. The proposed method first focuses on mapping the email collection universe using straightforward statistical methods based on keyword filtering combined with (...) date time and custodian identities. Subsequently, a social network is constructed from the email collection that is analyzed by filtering on date time and keywords. By using the network context we expect to provide a better understanding of the keyword hits and the ability to discard certain parts of the collection. (shrink)
Jonas traz os princípios de uma nova ética de forma clara e objetiva, propondo o princípio de responsabilidade. A filosofia de Jonas tem sido fundamental para estabelecer uma análise importante do princípio da responsabilidade como imperativo ético do diálogo entre ciência e ética. Este trabalho, de caráter bibliográfico, produz uma análise epistemológica ao longo da história e observa as principais causas, os fatores e motivos que levaram o Planeta ao desequilíbrio ecológico e social. Para reverter esse cenário de grande destruição, (...) questionamentos e incertezas, esta pesquisa busca uma nova ética, que substitua todo o arcabouço conceitual da ética tradicional e que postule novos valores e conceitos. A principal forma de disseminação de um novo modelo ético é por meio da educação, pois somente uma educação livre de valores antropocêntricos, embasada em um novo conceito ético, poderá mudar o sistema político-econômico vigente e, dessa maneira, restabelecer o equilíbrio ecológico e social. (shrink)
Hans Hahn's long-neglected philosophy of mathematics is reconstructed here with an eye to his anticipation of the doctrine of logical pluralism. After establishing that Hahn pioneered a post-Tractarian conception of tautologies and attempted to overcome the traditional foundational dispute in mathematics, Hahn's and Carnap's work is briefly compared with Karl Menger's, and several significant agreements or differences between Hahn's and Carnap's work are specified and discussed.
N. D. Mermin has proposed an “elaboration” of Einstein's 1905 derivation that supposedly fixes the flaws that I identified in this derivation. By specific examples taken from Einstein's own later work, I show that Mermin's elaboration is fraught with misconceptions.
It is shown that both covariant harmonic oscillator formalism and quantum field theory are based on common physical principles which include Poincaré covariance, Heisenberg's space-momentum uncertainty relation, and Dirac's “C-number” time-energy uncertainty relation. It is shown in particular that the oscillator wave functions are derivable from the physical principles which are used in the derivation of the Klein-Nishina formula.
We publish here the letters between Gadamer and Ricoeur, as they are found in the Archives of the two philosophers. Starting from February 1964 and ending on October 2000, the thirty-five letters reproduced here cannot give a complete picture of their much richer correspondence and relations, because it seems that neither Ricoeur, nor Gadamer kept all the letters they received from one another. But altogether, they document their common concerns, their mutual respect, even their intellectual solidarity and finally the particular (...) context that brought them to write to one another, i.e. Ricoeur’s intention to publish a translation of Gadamer’s book, Truth and Method, in a new series he edited for the Seuil Publisher. This publishing and translation project will mark their entire correspondence. (shrink)