Technik bestimmt auf die mannigfaltigste Weise unser Leben und Zusammenleben. Obgleich sie von Platon und Aristoteles bis in das zwanzigste Jahrhundert in Einzelaspekten betrachtet worden ist, wurde sie erst in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einem eigenständigen Gegenstand der Philosophie. Dennoch werden ihre philosophischen Probleme immer noch eher beiläufig behandelt. So geht es um die Klärung ganz zentraler und herausfordernder Aufgaben – von der menschlichen Schöpferkraft über eine Klärung, was ein technisches Artefakt ist, zum technischen Wissen, in all diesen Elementen verknüpft (...) mit dem Verantwortungsproblem. Das Ziel ist eine Darstellung dieser faszinierenden philosophischen Fragen vor dem Hintergrund der Tradition. (shrink)
This co-edited volume compares Chinese and Western experiences of engineering, technology, and development. In doing so, it builds a bridge between the East and West and advances a dialogue in the philosophy of engineering. Divided into three parts, the book starts with studies on epistemological and ontological issues, with a special focus on engineering design, creativity, management, feasibility, and sustainability. Part II considers relationships between the history and philosophy of engineering, and includes a general argument for the necessity of dialogue (...) between history and philosophy. It continues with a general introduction to traditional Chinese attitudes toward engineering and technology, and philosophical case studies of the Chinese steel industry, railroads, and cybernetics in the Soviet Union. Part III focuses on engineering, ethics, and society, with chapters on engineering education and practice in China and the West. The book’s analyses of the interactions of science, engineering, ethics, politics, and policy in different societal contexts are of special interest. The volume as a whole marks a new stage in the emergence of the philosophy of engineering as a new regionalization of philosophy. This carefully edited interdisciplinary volume grew out of an international conference on the philosophy of engineering hosted by the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. It includes 30 contributions by leading philosophers, social scientists, and engineers from Australia, China, Europe, and the United States. (shrink)
The mind-body problem is a central problem of modern philosophy. Leibniz’s Monadology as a model of a solution is picked up again and again even today. In order to characterize three of these completely different new monadologies of today, the basic difficulty of the mind-body-problem is outlined as a background, followed by a short sketch of the Leibnitian solution. - The first new monadology, here, is the metaphysical solution of U. Meixner, who chooses consciousness as a fundament, seeing a monad (...) as a stream of consciousness. This is contrasted with a second new monadology, namely N. Rescher’s process-theoretical approach, which takes the monad not as a substance, but as a process. The third new monadology is the quantum monadology of T. Nakagomi, where the monad is embedded in a quantum ontological concept that elaborates a reconciliation of the macroscopic, material world with a quantum theoretical world of consciousness, both sides seen as an interpretation. Finally there are some reflections on a merger of elements of these three concepts of monadology for an approach of today. (shrink)
Leibniz wrote more than 60 proposals, concepts, and outlines for academies for Holland, Germany, Austria and Russia. Unlike the academies in Paris, London or Rome he intended a narrow connection of theoria and praxis. This should be achieved by his Scientia generalis as a theoretical unification, whereas the aim consisted in a universal Harmony.
These proceedings present philosophical discussions, contributions to neuro- and cognitive sciences, as well as articles on dynamic systems and other relevant fields in the humanities that cover the new realities in society, politics, culture and general situation in Europe.
The concept of similarity is used to exemplify in what way Wolff conveys a new content to a traditional concept. Similarity functions in his system as a link between a priori ontology and a posteriori knowledge, because it is similarity on which relies Wolff's theory of abstraction, his doctrine of order (which also includes the concepts of perfection, of space and time) and even his characterization of human faculties of knowing (e.g. expectation of similar events, wit and penetration).
Complexity theories are on the way to establish a new worldview—processes instead of objects, history and uniqueness of everything instead of repetition and lawlikeness are the elements. These theories from deterministic chaos via the dissipative structures, the theory of catastrophes, self organization and synergetics are mathematical models, connected with a new understanding of science. They are characterized by new fundamental commitments of sciences. But at the same time, they are characterized by epistemic boundaries.
What I intend to show is that the Leibnizian language studies—the formal ones as well as those on natural languages—from his early plans for academies and language societies on up to his studies of etymology and to his interest in foreign languages and in logical, geometrical, arithmetical, and other formal calculi, has to be seen as an important contribution to the idea of enlightenment. Their importance was such that Christian Wolff was able to transform the Leibnizian ideas into the mighty (...) movement of Leibniz-Wolffian metaphysics, a movement paralleled to the tradition of Thomasius. Both tradiions later found their unification in Kant’s critical philosophy. (shrink)
The central thesis of this paper is that technological artifacts essentially depend on a special type of interpretation. Starting fom thedifference between science and engineering on the one side and between artifacts of fine arts and technological artifacts on the other side, it is shown that the latter ones need a ‘teleological interpretation’ which is singular and excludes a multitude of interpretations.
Mit dem Konzept des kategorialen Rahmens hat Stephan Körner eine Möglichkeit geschaffen, metaphysische Systeme zu vergleichen. Da kein metaphysisches System auf Modalbegriffe verzichten kann, wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit am Beispiel der Kritik Kants an der Wolffschen Schule gezeigt, daß Körners Konzept zu ergänzen ist um die jeweilige modale Kennzeichnung auf den Ebenen der ontologischen, logischen und epistemischen Modalitäten. So muß die Kantische Kopernikanische Wende als eine Kritik an der Wolffschen Modaltheorie gesehen werden, verbunden mit dem Entwurf einer eigenen Modalkonzeption, (...) die als neue Elemente erstens die Begründung der ontologischen Modalitäten auf epistemische statt auf logische Modalitäten und zweitens die Einführung der Wirklichkeit als gleichberechtigten Modus enthält. Der Weg dieser Kritik führt über eine Verwerfung des Wolffschen complementum possibilitatis und des ontologischen Gottesbeweises und zeigt, wie schrittweise eine Reflexion auf die Möglichkeit der Erkenntnis zu einer Umkehr des tradierten modaltheoretischen Begründungszusammenhangs führt. (shrink)
Analogy as a scientific method has been criticized during the last decades; only for heuristic purposes it has been accepted. On the other side especially proportional analogies have a long tradition in European thought since Plato and Aristotle, for, as Aristotle puts it, analogies allow a connection between different and unbridgeable ontological areas. As examples for such connections the analogia entis of Thomas of Aquino and the Kantian Analogies of Experience are discussed. They give us hints for a new view (...) of analogies, which during the Middle Ages were not only of heuristic value, but were accepted as a proof: Analogies do not only produce hypotheses, moreover, they build up new views of the world, they are the background of paradigms, for they create structures by introducing similarities and proportions. (shrink)
Nothing is as complex as the world – but soon we must master this complexity to be able to live in it. Our means to do so are the languages. However, they are so manifold and so differently in vocabulary, structure and in the way linked with the world that it is difficult to ascribe to them a common relation. Noam Chomsky’s empirical search for a deep structure grammar had no success. For Leibniz our actual world is infinitely complex, beginning (...) with the monad and its subordinated “worlds in the worlds”. Thus exactly our problem constellation of today can already be found there–namely how to master infinite complexity by languages. But what connects these languages? This will be discussed from (1) the representational function of signs concerning the connection between res / signum / notio / idea, via (2) the Ars characteristica and its formal-linguistic sign systems; the next step counts (3) for the natural languages and their functions, marked above all by an adaptation to new problems. The last step deals with the functions of languages, finally leading to the unity of reason. (shrink)
Modal concepts as possibility, necessity, contingency and reality belong to the most important means of reflection. They constitute philosophical systems - but they are not used in a systematic way to characterize technology. The central ontological problem consists in the fact that technology is based on new ideas, which at the beginning are a mere possibility, because the intended artifacts and processes never existed up to that moment. Even the blueprint expresses a possibility. But these possibilities must be realizable, since (...) technological artifacts or processes have to work properly in the world following physical andcausal necessity. Moreover, boundary conditions, sometimes seen as feasibility (a very special kind of conditioned possibility), have to take into account conditions of the real world (as material, energy, local conditions), cognitive conditions (theoretical knowledge, know how – i.e. dispositions, which are possibilities, too), social and cultural conditions (norm, values i.e. deontic possibilities). They all constitute the realm of technological possibility. Within this region the development of technology takes place. But at the same time they have influenced our thinking and our culture from the very beginning. (shrink)