: In 1927, Fritz Jahr, a Protestant pastor, philosopher, and educator in Halle an der Saale, published an article entitled "Bio-Ethics: A Review of the Ethical Relationships of Humans to Animals and Plants" and proposed a "Bioethical Imperative," extending Kant's moral imperative to all forms of life. Reviewing new physiological knowledge of his times and moral challenges associated with the development of secular and pluralistic societies, Jahr redefines moral obligations towards human and nonhuman forms of life, outlining the concept of (...) bioethics as an academic discipline, principle, and virtue. Although he had no immediate long-lasting influence during politically and morally turbulent times, his argument that new science and technology requires new ethical and philosophical reflection and resolve may contribute toward clarification of terminology and of normative and practical visions of bioethics, including understanding of the geoethical dimensions of bioethics. (shrink)
This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician or researcher, (...) teaching of ethics of research and therapy, and research and therapy on vulnerable populations, are compared with the regulations in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent regulations influenced by the Nuremberg Code. CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
In der modernen Medizin kommt es zunehmend zu Entscheidungskonflikten zwischen Intervention und Interventionsverzicht dort, wo nicht die medizinisch-technischen Möglichkeiten handlungsleitend sein sollen, sondern die am individuellen Patientenwohl sich orientierende bioethische Prognose entsprechend den klassischen arztethischen Prinzipien des primum nil nocere und des salus aegroti suprema lex. Schadensverbot und Heilauftrag sollen nicht heteronom und uniform vorgegeben werden, sondern sich am Willen des Patienten orientieren. Nicht selten macht jedoch die Ermittlung des mutmaßlichen Patientenwillens große Schwierigkeiten, vor allem bei Demenz, Koma, schwerem Trauma (...) und Multimorbidität in der Nähe des Todes. Vorsorgliche Betreuungsvollmachten und Behandlungsverfügungen, fälschlich oft 'Patiententestament' genannt, sind als Instrumente für stellvertretende Entscheidungen und zur Ermittlung des Patientenwohles in solchen Situationen vorgeschlagen worden. Der Beitrag analysiert die entscheidungstheoretischen, ethischen, rechtlichen und medizinischen Aspekte prospektiver Entscheidung über eine medizinische Behandlung in einem transkulturellen und interdisziplinären Vergleich von Entscheidungen und Diskussionen in den USA, Japan und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Es werden verschiedene Modelle und Betreuungsverfügungen mit unterschiedlicher rechtlicher und medizinischer Validität und Präzision sowie unterschiedlicher kultureller und individueller Akzeptanz entwickelt und diskutiert. (shrink)
First publication of a letter of Albert Einstein to Hans Vaihinger, dated May, 1919, concerning Vaihinger's concept of "Fiktionen", the role of Geometry in Poincaré's system, and the importance of "real culture" in the intellectual's style of life. The letter is introduced and annotated.
This paper reviews moral and cultural assessments which led to the definition of brain death and calls for a similar normative consensus regarding the moral recognition and legal protection of embryonal life related to criteria of brain life. This paper differentiates between cortical brain life I, i.e., the first existence of post-mitotic stationary neurons forming the early cortical plate (54th day post conception), and cortical brain life II, i.e., the beginning of cortical neuro-neuronal synapses (after the 70th day p.c.). The (...) latter are preconditional for establishing the communicative network within the cortex and with subcortical structures. The paper conservatively calls for a tentative moral consensus that could recognize brain life I, i.e., the 54th day p.c., as a stage prior to which embryo research generally would be acceptable in accordance with principles similar to those which led to the acceptance of brain death. Other developmental stages such as fertilization, nidation, viability, as well as the ‘potentiality’ principle are less significant for the moral recognition of early human life. Keywords: brain death, brain life, embryo research, embryonal tissue CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This paper reviews the usefulness of bioethical instruments such as the informed consent principle to handle ethical and political challenges of clinical trials in genotyping and DNA-banking and discusses an informed request model as well as other contractual relations between research institutions, patients, and their families.
In the spring of 1980 everyone in China wore the blue Mao uniform; the Cultural Revolution had been terminated a year before and the “Let 1000 Flowers Blossom” campaign introducing economic and cultural diversity and personal responsibility had just gotten off the ground. Ten lines of bicycles in each direction respectfully gave way for the few official, window-curtained limousines of the Red Flag or Shanghai type. Cadres and academics were interested in keeping up with what had happened in the rest (...) of the world during the three decades of Chinese self-isolation during the Civil War first and the Cultural Revolution thereafter. In the fall of 1985 the dresses were more colorful, and Beijing experienced lovers walking hand in hand, cadres preferring Nissan compact cars without curtains over full-sized, curtained Red Flags, and a real rush hour, mixing the ever increasing number of bicycles with official and private cars, trucks, and three-horse wagons bringing vegetables and meat from market oriented farmers into town for good profit. The blue Mao outfit becomes more and more the business dress of cadres and business executives or the clothing of the less fortunate; fabric and style indicate the precise social rank of the wearer. (shrink)
Biomedical ethics in the FRG is still in an embryonic stage. The Hippocratic tradition of paternalism is still dominant, general debates on Weltanschauungen have not yet been replaced by case-study methods and other means of resolving conflicts more effectively in pluralistic societies. Issues such as IVF and embryo research are predominantly treated in legal rather than in moral terms. Some new developments in moral assessment of prenatal care and care of the dying are reported. Allocational disputes over the future of (...) welfare-state health care systems are likely to continue without any major moral or political decision being reached. (shrink)
The earth is not just a piece of rock, water and soil; she is a living being. This fact is demonstrated by millennia of her life‘s history, growing in ages, having tempers, moods and seasons, and allowing all forms of life living on her and interacting with them and their interactions. Recent natural disasters and accidents, caused by humans in their drive to cultivate and to control, have again brought the powers of the earth and the land to our attention. (...) A new dimension in the visions and virtues of cultivation needs to extend on a global scale the Hippocratic ‗do no harm‘ virtue and principle from the singular doctor-patient interaction towards all forms of life, including the life of the earth.This paper interprets the Bioethical Imperative, developed by Fritz Jahr in 1927, into land ethics and earth ethics; it also discusses the concept of cultural geography of Ernst Kapp, 1845 in Germany, and the land ethics of Aldo Leopold, 1949 in the USA. Of particular new moral and cultural concern is the risk of radiation to the genetic heritage of all forms of life, to livable biotopes and interactive environments. The Bioethical Imperative includes Land Ethics and the Earth: ―Respect mother earth with all her forms of life, whether natural or man-made, basically as goals in themselves and treat them, if possible, as such.‖“The guiding rule for our actions may be the Bioethical Demand: Respect every living being on principle as an end in itself and treat it, if possible, as such!”- Fritz Jahr. (shrink)
Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer was born in Marburg Germany on October 14, 1812. Bayrhoffer first taught philosophy at Marburg University, there becoming a Full Professor in 1845. But in 1846, having been suspended from his teaching by reason of his politically free-thinking activities on behalf of the atheistic Lichtfreunde movement, he entered into Hessian politics, becoming - during its last week - the President of the Hesse Electorial Council. To escape political persecution in the period of the 1848 revolution, he, his (...) wife, and their six children emigrated to the United States in 1852. He purchased a farm of 140 acres in Jordan, Green Country, Wisconsin. The following year, his wife died. He soon remarried to a Charlotte Draz, who lived until 1864, being survived not only by her husband but by their two children. (shrink)
Die Diskussion um die Grenzen des Wachstums ist noch nicht zum Kern vorgedrungen; zur Frage nach den limits to growth der materia humana. Es wird insbesondere auf den Beitrag philosophischer Theorien und Weltanschauungen zum Baubban an der Resource materia humana hingewiesen. Im Interesse des Rechtes auf natürliche und kulturelle Ungleichheit zwischen Indidividuen, Völkern und Kulturen wird eine konflikttheoretisch und humanistisch begründete Neuorientierung philosophscher Argumentation empfohlen und auf die Leistungsfähigkeit des Aristotelischen Maßes der Mitte und des aufklärerischen Toleranzkonzeptes hingewiesen.
If not for the interest in the more professional aspects of Nietzsche’s rooting in the history of academic philosophy in Germany, this book would not have been written. Following Vaihinger’s remark that Nietzsche had studied Lange’s History of Materialism, and that he might have been influenced by chapter four of the second volume entitled “The Standpoint of the Ideal,” Salaquarda studied the relationship between Lange and Nietzsche more in detail. Stack follows Salaquarda, but credits Lange with an even greater influence (...) on Nietzsche’s post-Kantian concept of Ideal. Stack’s scholarly book gives us good insights into the lesser known topography of German philosophical history, which, due to an unfortunate fashionable concentration on recognizing only selected mountains from Kant to Hegel to Nietzsche, disregards the lower hills and the valleys. The rich yield of Stack’s book, therefore, lies in his exploration of a certain part of the terra incognita of nineteenth-century academic philosophy. (shrink)
This paper reports on recent regulations and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany bearing on perinatal medical ethics, embryo research and trophoblast biopsy. Some of the regulations are defensive responses to new moral opportunities. In contrast, this paper calls for a more aggressive moral cost-benefit assessment of high technology medicine, which would include large-scale research on embryos prior to the fiftieth day post-menstruation. Keywords: abortion, embryo research, moral triage, prenatal diagnosis, withholding treatment CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
Die faszinierenden Fortschritte molekulargenetischen Wissens, vor allem die weitere Entzifferung des menschlichen Genoms, stellen das individuelle Selbstverständnis vor die Forderung nach einer kopernikanischen Revolutionierung der Denkungsart und führen die Anforderungen an Mündigkeit und Selbstverantwortung in neue Dimensionen von Aufklärung und Selbstbestimmung. Die rasante Entwicklung prädiktiver und präventiver Leistungen moderner Risikofaktorenmedizin fordert vom medizinischen Laien Gesundheitsmündigkeit und vom medizinischen Experten neue Formen beratender und begleitender Dienste. Genetische Prädiktion schwerer Erbkrankheiten macht eine ethische Diskussion des Begriffs verantwortlicher Elternschaft unerläßlich, ebenso die Zurückweisung (...) von Forderungen nach einer staatlich administrierten oder geförderten Eugenik. Gesundheitspolitik und -finanzierung werden deshalb Prinzipien wie Selbstbestimmung und Subsidiarität, sowie das traditionelle Prinzip der Solidarität, in der Diskussion um Verantwortung und Finanzierung von Gesundheit neu ausmessen müssen. (shrink)
The paper presents an overview of political and professional committees in the Federal Republic of Germany dealing with issues of biomedical ethics. The prevailing tendencies of paternalistic atittudes, the worst-casescenario argumentation method, and the unfortunate practice of applying general principles rather than mid-level principles in the assessment of concrete challenges in treatment and regulation are analyzed. Keywords: conflict, control, consent, commission design, paternalism, political ethics, regulation, self-regulation CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
There are quite a number of rocky roads on which the old continent has embarked. There is, first, a harmonization of cultures and attitudes in the creation of a common European market of values and valuables, a harmonization undertaken in order to survive in an increasingly competitive global market. Second, there is a reactivation of specific European traditions in discourse, peaceable hermeneutics, solidarity, subsidiarity, tolerance in both conflict reduction and solution, and respect for self-determination and self-responsibility. Third, there is an (...) integration of theory and practice, of visions and reality, of national identity or pride and common European rights, and of obligations and cultural heritages. Last but not least, there is a question about the definition of European in a world which, at least in part, has been developed by successful European missionary work in the distribution of Age-of-Reason principles such as personal autonomy and social and ideational tolerance, the promotion of science-based technologies, and the creation of global markets for goods and services. (shrink)
in Western cultures in regard to post-mortem organ donation and the termination of care for patients meeting these strict criteria. But they are of minimal use in Asian cultures and in the ethics of caring for the persistent vegetative patient. This paper introduces a formula for a global Uniform Determination of Death statute, based on the ‘entire brain including brain stem’ criteria as a default position, but allowing competent adults by means of advance directives to choose other criteria for determining (...) death during the process of dying. Keywords: euthanasia, brain death criteria, higher brain death criteria, individual choice, multicultural society, self-determination CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
Marquard wrote this book in 1963 as a Habilitation Thesis with Hegel scholar Joachim Ritter under the title “On depotentiation [Depotentialisierung] of transcendental philosophy—some philosophical motives of a recent pyschologism in philosophy.” He elaborates the thesis that one aspect of the attractiveness of Freud’s psychoanalysis is its relationship with the transcendental natural philosophy of German Idealism: both classical philosophy of nature in German Idealism and Freud’s psychoanalysis, de-potentiate transcendental philosophy. As the philosophy of nature in Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel (...) is not widely known, Freud’s psychoanalysis makes the transcendental arguments against transcendentalism indirectly present, according to Marquard. In publishing the Habilitation project of 1963 in 1987, 24 years after its original concept was drafted, the thesis does not address the fashion fads of Freudianism in the Federal Republic of Germany during the last 20 years in the form of Freudian Marxism directly, rather it allows a critical and fresh look at the left-Hegelian Freud reception during those years indirectly, presenting the old thesis of 1963 in a 1987 perspective. (shrink)
The President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research published in March of 1983 its Report, Securing Access to Health Care: The Ethical Implications of Differences in the Availability of Health Services . Concluding that there are "ethical obligations" on behalf of society which are balanced by individual obligations, the Report provides an ethical framework for ensuring "ultimate responsibility" of the Federal government to arrange for equitable access to health and to a fair (...) share of cost. In doing so the Report neither makes justice nor beneficence the prime moral principle in public health care, it rather calls for a common sense approach in "approximating adequacy". But how to define equality without creating uniformity in a society rich in its diversity, including attitudes towards health? Keywords: justice, beneficence, right to health care, equality, distribution CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This paper discusses ethical and theological issues of Sterbehilfe, assistance in the process of dying versus assistance to die, in particular the challenges of comfort care and palliative for the dying. Advance Directives are evaluated as instruments to establish patients preferences, to guide caregivers and physicians, and to honor patient~s values, visions and beliefs. It is recommended that churches and pastors take a lead in addressing these issues and help patients and their families in preparing for and executing Advance Directives, (...) churches also should take a Iead in developing model forms. The appendix contains a sample of an integrated Patientenverfügrung, Advance Medical Directive including a durable power of attomey and a value-based wish-and-directive list, taking the German legal framework into account and based on monotheistic systems of regious orientation. (shrink)