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Profile: Hasok Chang (Cambridge University)
  1.  34
    Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress.Hasok Chang - 2004 - Oup Usa.
    In Inventing Temperature, Chang takes a historical and philosophical approach to examine how scientists were able to use scientific method to test the reliability of thermometers; how they measured temperature beyond the reach of thermometers; and how they came to measure the reliability and accuracy of these instruments without a circular reliance on the instruments themselves. Chang discusses simple epistemic and technical questions about these instruments, which in turn lead to more complex issues about the solutions that were developed.
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  2. Preservative Realism and its Discontents: Revisiting Caloric.Hasok Chang - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):902-912.
    A popular and plausible response against Laudan's “pessimistic induction” has been what I call “preservative realism,” which argues that there have actually been enough elements of scientific knowledge preserved through major theory‐change processes, and that those elements can be accepted realistically. This paper argues against preservative realism, in particular through a critical review of Psillos's argument concerning the case of the caloric theory of heat. Contrary to his argument, the historical record of the caloric theory reveals that beliefs about the (...)
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  3. The Persistence of Epistemic Objects Through Scientific Change.Hasok Chang - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (3):413-429.
    Why do some epistemic objects persist despite undergoing serious changes, while others go extinct in similar situations? Scientists have often been careless in deciding which epistemic objects to retain and which ones to eliminate; historians and philosophers of science have been on the whole much too unreflective in accepting the scientists’ decisions in this regard. Through a re-examination of the history of oxygen and phlogiston, I will illustrate the benefits to be gained from challenging and disturbing the commonly accepted continuities (...)
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  4.  40
    The Hidden History of Phlogiston: How Philosophical Failure Can Generate Historiographical Refinement.Hasok Chang - 2010 - Hyle 16 (2):47 - 79.
    Historians often feel that standard philosophical doctrines about the nature and development of science are not adequate for representing the real history of science. However, when philosophers of science fail to make sense of certain historical events, it is also possible that there is something wrong with the standard historical descriptions of those events, precluding any sensible explanation. If so, philosophical failure can be useful as a guide for improving historiography, and this constitutes a significant mode of productive interaction between (...)
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  5. The Philosophical Grammar of Scientific Practice.Hasok Chang - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (3):205 - 221.
    I seek to provide a systematic and comprehensive framework for the description and analysis of scientific practice?a philosophical grammar of scientific practice, ?grammar? as meant by the later Wittgenstein. I begin with the recognition that all scientific work, including pure theorizing, consists of actions, of the physical, mental, and ?paper-and-pencil? varieties. When we set out to see what it is that one actually does in scientific work, the following set of questions naturally emerge: who is doing what, why, and how? (...)
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  6.  7
    VI—Operational Coherence as the Source of Truth.Hasok Chang - 2017 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (2):103-122.
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  7.  92
    Operationalism.Hasok Chang - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8.  16
    Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism and Pluralism.Hasok Chang - 2012 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science.
  9.  75
    Introduction: Philosophy of Science in Practice. [REVIEW]Rachel Ankeny, Hasok Chang, Marcel Boumans & Mieke Boon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):303-307.
    Introduction: philosophy of science in practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Article Pages 303-307 DOI 10.1007/s13194-011-0036-4 Authors Rachel Ankeny, School of History & Politics, University of Adelaide, Napier Building, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia Hasok Chang, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge, CB2 3RH UK Marcel Boumans, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65-67, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Mieke Boon, Department of Philosophy, University of (...)
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  10. Causality and Realism in the EPR Experiment.Hasok Chang & Nancy Cartwright - 1993 - Erkenntnis 38 (2):169 - 190.
    We argue against the common view that it is impossible to give a causal account of the distant correlations that are revealed in EPR-type experiments. We take a realistic attitude about quantum mechanics which implies a willingness to modify our familiar concepts according to its teachings. We object to the argument that the violation of factorizability in EPR rules out causal accounts, since such an argument is at best based on the desire to retain a classical description of nature that (...)
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  11.  38
    Sensory Measurements: Coordination and Standardization.Ann-Sophie Barwich & Hasok Chang - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (3):200-211.
    Do sensory measurements deserve the label of “measurement”? We argue that they do. They fit with an epistemological view of measurement held in current philosophy of science, and they face the same kinds of epistemological challenges as physical measurements do: the problem of coordination and the problem of standardization. These problems are addressed through the process of “epistemic iteration,” for all measurements. We also argue for distinguishing the problem of standardization from the problem of coordination. To exemplify our claims, we (...)
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  12.  34
    Ontological Principles and the Intelligibility of Epistemic Activities.Hasok Chang - 2009 - In Henk De Regt, Sabina Leonelli & Kai Eigner (eds.), Scientific Understanding: Philosophical Perspectives. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 64--82.
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  13.  71
    Incommensurability: Revisiting the Chemical Revolution.Hasok Chang - 2012 - In Vasso Kindi & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Kuhn's the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited. Routledge. pp. 153.
  14. Scientific Progress: Beyond Foundationalism and Coherentism.Hasok Chang - 2007 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 82 (61):1-20.
    Scientific progress remains one of the most significant issues in the philosophy of science today. This is not only because of the intrinsic importance of the topic, but also because of its immense difficulty. In what sense exactly does science makes progress, and how is it that scientists are apparently able to achieve it better than people in other realms of human intellectual endeavour? Neither philosophers nor scientists themselves have been able to answer these questions to general satisfaction.
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  15.  26
    The Chemical Revolution Revisited.Hasok Chang - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:91-98.
  16.  14
    Compositionism as a Dominant Way of Knowing in Modern Chemistry.Hasok Chang - 2011 - History of Science 49 (3):247-268.
  17.  38
    Acidity: The Persistence of the Everyday in the Scientific.Hasok Chang - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):690-700.
  18. Contingent Transcendental Arguments for Metaphysical Principles.Hasok Chang - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83 (63):113-133.
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  19. A Case for Old-Fashioned Observability, and a Reconstructed Constructive Empiricism.Hasok Chang - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):876-887.
    I develop a concept of observability that pertains to qualities rather than objects: a quality is observable if it can be registered by human sensation (possibly with the aid of instruments) without involving optional interpretations. This concept supports a better description of observations in science and everyday life than the object-based observability concepts presupposing causal information-transfer from the object to the observer. It also allows a rehabilitation of the traditional empiricist distinction between observations and their interpretations, but without a presumption (...)
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  20. Circularity and Reliability in Measurement.Hasok Chang - 1995 - Perspectives on Science 3:153-172.
  21.  26
    Ask Not What Philosophy Can Do for Chemistry, but What Chemistry Can Do for Philosophy.Hasok Chang, Alfred Nordmann, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent & Jonathan Simon - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):373-383.
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  22. The Quantum Counter-Revolution: Internal Conflicts in Scientific Change.Hasok Chang - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (2):121-136.
    Many of the experiments that produced the empirical basis of quantum mechanics relied on classical assumptions that contradicted quantum mechanics. Historically this did not cause practical problems, as classical mechanics was used mostly when it did not happen to diverge too much from quantum mechanics in the quantitative sense. That fortunate circumstances, however, did not alleviate the conceptual problems involved in understanding the classical experimental reasoning in quantum-mechanical terms. In general, this type of difficulty can be expected when a coherent (...)
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  23. Beyond Case-Studies: History as Philosophy.Hasok Chang - unknown
    What can we conclude from a mere handful of case studies? The field of HPS has witnessed too many hasty philosophical generalizations based on a small number of conveniently chosen case studies. One might even speculate that dissatisfaction with such methodological shoddiness contributed decisively to a widespread disillusionment with the whole HPS enterprise. Without specifying clear mechanisms for history-philosophy interaction, we are condemned to either making unwarranted generalizations from history, or writing entirely "local" histories with no bearing on an overall (...)
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  24. A Misunderstood Rebellion.Hasok Chang - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (5):741-790.
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  25.  8
    What the Ravens Really Teach Us : The Intrinsic Contextuality of Evidence.Hasok Chang & Grant Fisher - 2011 - In Philip Dawid, William Twining & Mimi Vasilaki (eds.), Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. Oup/British Academy.
    This chapter advances a contextual view of evidence, through a reconsideration of Hempel's paradox of confirmation. The initial view regarding Hempel's paradox is that a non-black non-raven does confirm ‘All ravens are black’, but only in certain contexts. The chapter begins by reformulating the paradox as a puzzle about how the same entity can have variable evidential values for a given proposition. It then offers a three-stage solution to the reformulated paradox. The situation makes better sense when we reach a (...)
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  26.  75
    Hasok Chang. 2012. Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism and Pluralism.Hasok Chang - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (2):331-334.
  27. How to Take Realism Beyond Foot-Stamping.Hasok Chang - 2001 - Philosophy 76 (1):5-30.
    I propose a reformulation of realism, as the pursuit of ontological plausibility in our systems of knowledge. This is dubbed plausibility realism, for convenience of reference. Plausibility realism is non-empiricist, in the sense that it uses ontological plausibility as an independent criterion from empirical adequacy in evaluating systems of knowledge. Ontological plausibility is conceived as a precondition for intelligibility, nor for Truth; therefore, the function of plausibilty realism is to facilitate the kind of understanding that is not reducible to mere (...)
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  28.  34
    Infrared Metaphysics: Radiation and Theory-Choice. Part.Hasok Chang & Sabina Leonelli - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (4):687-706.
    We continue our discussion of the competing arguments in favour of the unified theory and the pluralistic theory of radiation advanced by three nineteenth-century pioneers: Herschel, Melloni, and Draper. Our narrative is structured by a consideration of the epistemic criteria relevant to theory-choice; the epistemic focus highlights many little-known aspects of this relatively well-known episode. We argue that the acceptance of light-heat unity in this period cannot be credibly justified on the basis of common evaluative criteria such as simplicity and (...)
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  29. Measurement and the Disunity of Quantum Physics.Hasok Chang - 1993 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    I present philosophical reflections arising from a study of laboratory measurement methods in quantum physics. More specifically, I investigate three major methods of measuring kinetic energy, from the period during which quantum physics was developed and came to be widely accepted: magnetic deflection, electrostatic retardation, and material retardation. The historical material serves as a provocative focus at which many broader philosophical topics come together: the empirical testing of theories, the universal validity of physical laws, the interaction between theoretical and experimental (...)
     
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  30. Can Planck's Constant Be Measured with Classical Mechanics?Hasok Chang - 1997 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (3):223 – 243.
    An interesting case of the complex interaction between theory and experiment can be found in many experiments in quantum physics employing classical reasoning. It is expected that this practice would lead to quantitative inaccuracy, unless the measurements' results were averaged. Whether or not this inaccuracy is significant depends critically on the details of the particular experimental situation. The example of Millikan's photoelectric experiment, in which he obtained a precise value of Planck's constant, provides a good case for illustrating the process (...)
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  31.  1
    The Making of Measurement: Editors’ Introduction.Daniel Jon Mitchell, Eran Tal & Hasok Chang - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 65:1-7.
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  32.  46
    Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry.Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
  33.  17
    History and Philosophy of Science as a Continuation of Science by Other Means.Hasok Chang - 1999 - Science and Education 8 (4):413-425.
  34.  17
    Infrared Metaphysics: The Elusive Ontology of Radiation. Part 1.Hasok Chang & Sabina Leonelli - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (3):477-508.
    Hardly any ontological result of modern science is more firmly established than the fact that infrared radiation differs from light only in wavelength; this is part of the modern conception of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation reaching from radio waves to gamma radiation. Yet, like many such evident truths, the light-infrared unity was an extremely difficult thing to establish. We examine the competing arguments in favour of the unified and pluralistic theories of radiation, as put forward in the first (...)
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  35.  50
    Complementary Science.Hasok Chang - 2008 - The Philosophers' Magazine 40 (40):17-24.
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  36.  3
    Acidity: Modes of Characterization and Quantification.Klaus Ruthenberg & Hasok Chang - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 65:121-131.
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  37. Reductionism and the Relation Between Chemistry and Physics.Hasok Chang - 2015 - In Ana Simões, Jürgen Renn & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Relocating the History of Science. Springer Verlag.
     
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  38.  1
    A Misunderstood Rebellion: The Twin-Paradox Controversy and Herbert Dingle's Vision of Science.Hasok Chang - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (5):741-790.
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  39.  1
    A Misunderstood Rebellion.Hasok Chang - 1992 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (5):741-790.
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  40.  32
    On the Applicability of the Quantum Measurement Formalism.Hasok Chang - 1997 - Erkenntnis 46 (2):143-163.
    Customary discussions of quantum measurements are unrealistic, in the sense that they do not reflect what happens in most actual measurements even under ideal circumstances. Even theories of measurement which discard the projection postulate tend to retain two unrealistic assumptions of the von Neumann theory: that a measurement consists of a single physical interaction, and that the topic of every measurement is information wholly contained in the quantum state of the object of measurement. I suggest that these unrealistic assumptions originate (...)
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  41.  3
    Ursula Klein; Carsten Reinhardt .Objects of Chemical Inquiry. Xvii + 382 Pp., Figs., Index. Sagamore Beach, Mass.: Science History Publications, 2014. $52. [REVIEW]Hasok Chang - 2016 - Isis 107 (1):143-144.
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  42.  2
    Complementary Science.Hasok Chang - 2008 - The Philosophers' Magazine 40:17-24.
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  43.  3
    Seeking Ultimates: An Intuitive Guide to Physics.Hasok Chang - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (2):368-371.
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  44.  1
    Infrared Metaphysics: Radiation and Theory-Choice. Part 2.Hasok Chang & Sabina Leonelli - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (4):687-706.
    We continue our discussion of the competing arguments in favour of the unified theory and the pluralistic theory of radiation advanced by three nineteenth-century pioneers: Herschel, Melloni, and Draper. Our narrative is structured by a consideration of the epistemic criteria relevant to theory-choice; the epistemic focus highlights many little-known aspects of this relatively well-known episode. We argue that the acceptance of light-heat unity in this period cannot be credibly justified on the basis of common evaluative criteria such as simplicity and (...)
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  45.  1
    Infrared Metaphysics: The Elusive Ontology of Radiation. Part 1.Hasok Chang & Sabina Leonelli - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (3):477-508.
    Hardly any ontological result of modern science is more firmly established than the fact that infrared radiation differs from light only in wavelength; this is part of the modern conception of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation reaching from radio waves to gamma radiation. Yet, like many such evident truths, the light-infrared unity was an extremely difficult thing to establish. We examine the competing arguments in favour of the unified and pluralistic theories of radiation, as put forward in the first (...)
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  46.  2
    The Quantum Counter-Revolution: Internal Conflicts in Scientific Change.Hasok Chang - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (2):121-136.
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  47.  1
    Einstein and Our WorldDavid Cassidy.Hasok Chang - 1996 - Isis 87 (2):383-384.
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  48. Einstein and Our World by David Cassidy. [REVIEW]Hasok Chang - 1996 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 87:383-384.
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  49. Second Biennial Conference of the Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice.Hasok Chang, Marcel Boumans, Mieke Boon & Rachel Ankeny - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):233-235.
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