The rise of modern science has evoked responses from both Muslim and Western thinkers. Since science is a central feature of modernity, their responses to science can also be read as their responses to modernity. These intellectual responses can best be gauged through discourses in the history and philosophy of science since the 1970s.Although the history and philosophy of science are commonly understood as academic disciplines that study science in its historical and philosophical aspects, discourse in the history and philosophy (...) of science can nevertheless be seen as part of the wider discourse on modernity. Scholars have attempted to define the meaning and content of modernity and what... (shrink)
In this dissertation, I examine the origins and nature of Mach's philosophy, or rather theory, of science. I show how it relates to, and is informed by, his own works in physiology, psychophysics, physics, and the history and psychology of science. I argue that Mach's theory of science grew out of his concern to provide a single, unified--albeit coherent--perspective on both the life and physical sciences. Corresponding to this conceptual unification of perspectives in the different branches of knowledge, lies Mach's (...) belief in the unity of the so-called 'organic' and 'inorganic' worlds. I demonstrate how Mach grappled with these issues, tracing the evolutionary development of his thought, which vacillates between the two poles of the physical and the psychological, culminating in his neutral monism. My main findings, which differ from previous accounts of Mach, consist in the following: Mach can be considered as a precursor of Logical Positivism only in the sense that they both reject metaphysics, and believe that the world can be constructed out of simple entities. However, significant differences can be discerned between Mach and the Logical Positivists, viz.: Mach's emphasis on history and psychology--rather than logic--in understanding the nature of scientific knowledge, Mach is not a scientific realist, and he asserts the primacy of sensations over physical objects. Mach's notion of "philosophy", and hence of "philosophy of science", differs in character from contemporary mainstream philosophy of science which is based on analytic philosophy. For Mach, philosophy is not first philosophy and its function is not to provide justification or foundation for science. In this sense Mach anticipates the naturalization of epistemology and the philosophy of science. ;Finally, I show how his reaction towards atomism can be understood within this broader context of his attempt to provide a unified view of knowledge. I defend Mach's stand on atomism on the grounds that his objection is not so much against the development of the atomic theory, but against a realist construal of the atom and the mechanistic-reductionistic world-view implied by it. (shrink)
Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified.
Current organizations are underpinned by utilitarian ethics of Modernity. Pure economic motive driven organizations detach themselves from larger societal interest. Rising number of corporate scandals and intraorganizational income inequalities are breeding similar trends in society at large. Current organizations base their competitive advantage on resources and capabilities which boils down to economic supremacy at all cost whether it is named I/o or RBV of the firm. This theoretical article posits Ethics-based Trust as the main competency and capability for attaining sustained (...) competitive advantage. It in no way condemns utility view of the firms but treats it as a natural yet secondary outcome of genuine ethicality of the firm. Cultivating an ethical culture in the firm through identifying antecedents, organizational practices, and the outcomes where profitability is an automatic but secondary outcome under the supremacy of ethics is detailed in the multilevel model presented in this article. The main call of this article is to posit ethics and morality over and above short-term profits so that organizations fulfill their trustee role for society through enacting socio-humanistic theories within organizations. A brief analysis of the proposed ethical theory of firm is undertaken in light of the “schooling” notion in the contemporary organization theory literature. (shrink)
En este trabajo abordamos la cuestión de la inflación tropológica a partir de los trabajos de Hans Kellner y el debate suscitado a partir de ellos con Wallace Martin. Se trata de la proyección indefinida de los tropos desde el lenguaje hacia dominios que lo exceden, tales como la conciencia o un periodo histórico. Nuestro objetivo es revisitar los problemas que acarrea la inestabilidad y la proliferación tropológica con el fin de evaluar el estatus de la solución aportada por la (...) tropología tetrádica contemporánea. Sostenemos que la tesis de la base figurativa del lenguaje siempre debe dar cuenta de la inestabilidad que introducen los tropos en los intercambios lingüísticos. En este sentido, la tétrada tropológica debe ser evaluada a partir de su productividad heurística, de lo que permite o no hacer con el lenguaje, y no como la versión correcta o definitiva de la clasificación de los tropos. Finalmente, todo esto supone el rechazo de la clásica oposición entre lógica y retórica o tropología como una manera de estabilizar el significado. Para ello, dividimos este trabajo en tres apartados: en el primero presentamos las características de la cuestión de la inflación tropológica y lo ejemplificamos con los trabajos de R. Jakobson y H. White; en el segundo, analizamos algunos problemas implicados en la tesis de la base figurativa del lenguaje que da lugar a la inflación tropológica, especialmente el problema de la inestabilidad del significado; en el tercero, presentamos dos objeciones realizadas por Wallace Martin a los trabajos de Kellner con el fin de ilustrar algunas de las dificultades que acarrea este problema. (shrink)
O artigo apresenta uma visão panorâmica dos documentos da Conferência dos Bispos latino-americanos, realizada em Medellín, no ano de 1968. Inicialmente, distingue o Medellín histórico do Medellín simbólico. A seguir, recorda como Assembleia foi bem preparada e se realizou de forma participativa. Então, demonstra a relação de continuidade com o Vaticano II. De outro lado, Medellín não foi uma mera aplicação do Concílio, mas sim uma recepção criativa. No núcleo do artigo, demonstra-se como o método VER-JULGAR-AGIR foi utilizado nos vários (...) documentos de Medellín, alocados em três eixos: promoção humana, evangelização e crescimento da fé, Igreja visível e suas estruturas. Por fim, ele se detém em dois documentos: Pobreza na Igreja e Liturgia. Encerra-se com algumas conclusões abertas, de caráter pastoral. (shrink)
O artigo faz uma síntese das discussões a respeito da relação entre consciência planetária, sustentabilidade e religião , a partir dos últimos congressos e publicações da SOTER, de eventos recentes de Teologia e Ciências da Religião e da Cúpula dos Povos (2012). Realiza um nivelamento conceitual dos termos envolvidos na questão. Caracteriza “consciência planetária”, a partir da Carta da Terra. Apresenta um panorama acerca do tema “sustentabilidade”, mostrando as principais diferenças e os pontos comuns das principais correntes. Responde a dúvidas, (...) questionamentos e objeções, tais como: se é apropriado designar o ser humano como Filho da Terra; em que sentido a Terra pode ser designada como mãe; liames entre globalização e planetarização; como se relacionam “ecologia” e “consciência planetária”. Delineia quais as tarefas da educação no atual contexto. Por fim, condensa os desafios e perspectivas das religiões em relação à evolução da consciência planetária, na Carta das religiões sobre o cuidado da Terra, da Cúpula dos Povos . Palavras-chave: Consciência planetária. Ecoteologia. Sustentabilidade. Religião e cidadania.This article summarizes the discussions on the relationship between planetary consciousness, sustainability and religion, taking into accounts the recent conferences and publications of SOTER, recent events of Theology, Sciences of Religion and the People's Summit (2012). The text also performs a flatness of conceptual terms involved in the issue. For this purpose, the article characterizes planetary consciousness from the Earth Charter, an overview of the topic sustainability and showing the main differences and commonalities of the major currents. It also answers to some questions and objections such as: a) is it appropriate to designate the human being as the Son of Earth? b) In what way should the earth be designated as a mother? c) What are the bonds between globalization and planetarization? d) How "ecology" and "planetary consciousness" are related? Finally, the article outlines the tasks of education in the current context and summarizes the challenges and prospects of religion in relation to the evolution of planetary consciousness in the Charter of religions regarding the care of Earth. Keywords: Planetary consciousness. Ecotheology. Sustainability. Religion and citizenship. (shrink)
The State of Nature in Comparative Political Thought addresses non-Western conceptions of the “state of nature”, revealing how basic questions related to political thought are reflected in Chinese, Islamic, Indic, and other cultural contexts. It contributes to the burgeoning field of comparative political theory, and should be of interest to political theorists, regional specialists, students of globalization, as well as anyone interested in non-Western approaches to basic political questions.
This article studies the politics and ethics in Ibn Ṭufayl’s twelfth-century allegory, Risālat Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān. I discuss this allegory alongside Ibn Sīnā’s own Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān and Absāl and Salāmān, first, to show that their representations of politics are not reducible to epistemology, and second, to argue that Ibn Ṭufayl inverts the political principles depicted in Ibn Sīnā’s two tales. The paper focuses on how the characters in each allegory interact with one another, and it reconstructs the neglected politics (...) and ethics of the allegories’ seemingly minor characters. I argue that in Ibn Tufayl’s descriptions of Ḥayy’s failure to convert the neighboring islanders, the islanders consistently act in accordance with three political ideals: association, hospitality, and friendship. The islanders’ reactions to Ḥayy’s arrival and to his attempts to ‘educate’ them show each of these ideals broken down into an antinomy. Ibn Tufayl’s critique of these political ideals turns on their internal potential for self-subversion. (shrink)
One of the exciting developments in political theory in the last decades is that the boundaries of the discipline gradually but vigorously expanded beyond “the West,” as evident in the rise of work that is often labeled “comparative.” Basic to this shift is the recognition that various thinkers, ideas, and contexts—usually marked as “non-Western”—have been peripheral to, and remain marginalized in, the discipline of political theory. However, the discipline’s framing of the “comparative” as the study of “non-Western political thought” tends (...) to take for granted the boundary between “West” and “non-West.” The primacy of this assumed correspondence between “comparative” and “non-Western” is most visible and problematic in the ongoing institutionalization of the “comparative turn.” I understand comparative political theory as an immanent critique of political theory: the discipline presents itself as global, but in practice it is too often confined to studying a few places, histories, and bodies of knowledge. The “comparative” calls for political theorists to more reliably study politics and power anywhere. To take “comparative” to mean the study of equivalent, coherent forms of “non-Western” otherness is to elide the historicity of “the Western” and the ways in which it has been made in relation to non-Europeans. (shrink)
In recent decades, the trope that classical Muslim thinkers anticipated or influenced modern European thought has provided an easy endorsement of their contemporary relevance. This article studies how Arab editors and intellectuals, from 1882 to 1947, understood the twelfth-century Andalusian philosopher Ibn Ṭufayl, and Arabo-Islamic philosophy generally. This modern generation of Arab scholars also attached significance to classical Arabic texts as precursors to modern European thought. They invited readers to retrospectively identify with Ibn Ṭufayl and his treatise, Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān. (...) Comparisons of Ibn Ṭufayl to European thinkers, and re-presentations of Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān as the precedent or genesis of European thought, facilitated these editors’ global imaginaries, anti-colonial projects and political fantasies. This article tracks these projects and fantasies through the afterlife of Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān from early printings and generalist surveys to later editions and studies, as Ibn Ṭufayl’s significance became sutured into his imagined importance for Europe, and for going beyond Europe. (shrink)
Corporations are facing a growing demand for the transparency of political contributions. In the United States, this demand has largely focused on the implementation of a mandatory disclosure law. It rests on the assumption that legal enforcement can make it easier to observe the ties between corporations and political parties. In this study, I challenge this assumption. I build my case by first developing a conceptual foundation of corporate political transparency. I argue that in the absence of economic benefits, legal (...) enforcement has a limited effect on CPT. Instead of encouraging transparency, mandatory disclosure can lead to the concealment of corporate political contributions. To develop a model of concealment, I borrow the characterizations of disguise from theatrical drama. Using the context of Indian firms, I show the limitation of mandatory disclosure and the efficacy of regulatory incentive. My study highlights the need for a broader debate on CPT to understand the relative implications of regulatory policies. (shrink)
In this paper I shall be looking at the state of science before and after the 17th century especially with regard to the question of the nature of scientific knowledge, specifically scientific paradigms. I will argue that some of the major differences between modern science and pre-modern science are due to (i) methodological changes, (ii) the rise of paradigmatic monism in modern science as opposed to paradigmatic pluralism in pre-modern science, (iii) the integration of science with technology after the 17th (...) century. These changes, I maintain, also redefine the role of scientific knowledge in society and culture, and bring in its wake certain problems and challenges, which in turn elicit different types of responses. Pre-modern science, I argue, are admirably suited to play a cultural and religious role, partly because of a lack of a pragmatic criterion of knowledge, and the emphasis on rational coherence. This makes enchantment of nature through science, possible. However, with the further evolution of science, especially the introduction of the experimental method and the emphasis on empiricism in the 17th century, scientific knowledge now has to conform to different criteria of knowledge -pragmatic in partleading to 'paradigmatic monism' and the consequent loss of enchantment in our conception of nature. The rise of the new science beginning in the 17th century thus brings in its wake a new set of epistemological and cultural challenges which were met with in different ways. I will then comment on the different types of responses made against the rise of the new science. (shrink)
Nugayev critically analyzes current conceptions of scientific change. Then he constructs his own normative model and compares it with actual problematic situations. In particular, he analyzes critically the replacement of Lorentz’s theory with the special theory of relativity. Key words: Popper, Duhem, Schlesinger, Lakatos, Kuhn .
The article is devoted to the nature of science. To what extent are science and mathematics affected by the society in which they are developed? Philosophy of science has accepted the social influence on science, but limits it only to the context of discovery (a "locational" approach). An opposite "attributive" approach states that any part of science may be so influenced. L. Graham is sure that even the mathematical equations at the core of fundamental physical theories may display social attributes. (...) He has used the investigations of the famous Soviet physicist V. Fock on the General Theory of Relativity which were under the influence of Marxism. The Goal of the article is to demonstrate: 1) Why Soviet science is not an appropriate subject-matter for testing the thesis of social constructivism, 2) That differnt levels of science and different stages in the development of science undergo social influences in different degrees ranging from very significant and unavoidable to absolutely trivial and easy eliminated. (shrink)
The rapid growth of covert activities via communications network brought about an increasing need to provide an efficient method for data hiding to protect secret information from malicious attacks. One of the options is to combine two approaches, namely steganography and compression. However, its performance heavily relies on three major factors, payload, imperceptibility, and robustness, which are always in trade-offs. Thus, this study aims to hide a large amount of secret message inside a grayscale host image without sacrificing its quality (...) and robustness. To realize the goal, a new two-tier data hiding technique is proposed that integrates an improved exploiting modification direction method and Huffman coding. First, a secret message of an arbitrary plain text of characters is compressed and transformed into streams of bits; each character is compressed into a maximum of 5 bits per stream. The stream is then divided into two parts of different sizes of 3 and 2 bits. Subsequently, each part is transformed into its decimal value, which serves as a secret code. Second, a cover image is partitioned into groups of 5 pixels based on the original EMD method. Then, an enhancement is introduced by dividing the group into two parts, namely k1 and k2, which consist of 3 and 2 pixels, respectively. Furthermore, several groups are randomly selected for embedding purposes to increase the security. Then, for each selected group, each part is embedded with its corresponding secret code by modifying one grayscale value at most to hide the code in a -ary notational system. The process is repeated until a stego-image is eventually produced. Finally, the χ2 test, which is considered one of the most severe attacks, is applied against the stego-image to evaluate the performance of the proposed method in terms of its robustness. The test revealed that the proposed method is more robust than both least significant bit embedding and the original EMD. Additionally, in terms of imperceptibility and capacity, the experimental results have also shown that the proposed method outperformed both the well-known methods, namely original EMD and optimized EMD, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of 55.92 dB and payload of 52,428 bytes. (shrink)
Entendiendo la Estética en su sentido etimológico de "ciencia del sentir", el estudio de la teoría de la sensibilidad se convierte en indispensable para el conocimiento de una estética dada. Sin embargo, rara vez se han estudiado las teorías de la sensibilidad y del conocimiento en la cultura árabe islámica clásica en su dimensión estética, con lo que conceptualizaciones difundidas acerca de la estética árabe e islámica suelen caer en la imprecisión y el juicio apriorístico. Aquí presentamos una aproximación a (...) dicha temática a través de la obra de grandes pensadores andalusíes como Ibn Hazm, Ibn Bayya, Ibn Tufayl, Ibn Rusd, Hazim al-Qartayanni, Ibn `Arabi o Ibn Jaldun, en cuya obra se aprecia una clara, aunque diversa, intención de configurar un sujeto humano perceptor y conocedor, ética y estéticamente definido, con psicologías y conceptos que más tarde hallaremos también en la construcción de la Estética en occidente . (shrink)
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