Results for 'Health technology assessment'

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  1.  31
    Health Technology Assessment : Ethical Aspects.Dario Sacchini, Andrea Virdis, Pietro Refolo, Maddalena Pennacchini & Ignacio Carrasco de Paula - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):453-457.
    “HTA is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner. Its aim is to inform the formulation of safe, effective, health policies that are patient focused, and seek to achieve best value” (EUnetHTA 2007). Even though the assessment of ethical aspects of a health technology is listed as one of the objectives of a (...)
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  2.  16
    NICE and Fair? Health Technology Assessment Policy Under the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 1999–2018.Victoria Charlton - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (3):193-227.
    The UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence is responsible for conducting health technology assessment on behalf of the National Health Service. In seeking to justify its recommendations to the NHS about which technologies to fund, NICE claims to adopt two complementary ethical frameworks, one procedural—accountability for reasonableness —and one substantive—an ‘ethics of opportunity costs’ that rests primarily on the notion of allocative efficiency. This study is the first to empirically examine normative changes to (...)
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  3.  38
    Reducing Normative Bias in Health Technology Assessment: Interactive Evaluation and Casuistry.Rob P. B. Reuzel, Gert-Jan van Der Wilt, Henk A. M. J. ten Have & Pieter F. de Vries Robbé - 1999 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (3):255-263.
    Health technology assessment (HTA) is often biased in the sense that it neglects relevant perspectives on the technology in question. To incorporate different perspectives in HTA, we should pursue agreement about what are relevant, plausible, and feasible research questions; interactive technology assessment (iTA) might be suitable for this goal. In this way a kind of procedural ethics is established. Currently, ethics too often is focussed on the application of general principles, which leaves a lot (...)
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  4.  20
    Health Technology Assessment Between Our Health Care System and Our Health: Exploring the Potential of Reflexive HTA.John Grin - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):157-174.
    In this contribution, I wish to explore the potential of health technology assessment and ethics for increasing our capacity to pre-empt the shortcomings and undesired consequences of modern health care while maintaining its benefits. Central is the presumption that in case of some health problems this cannot be done unless we explicitly reconsider some features of the modern health care system, especially those related to its strong reliance on scientific rationality and the strong role (...)
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  5.  19
    Health Technology Assessment: Trying to Bring Empirical and Ethical Inquiry Together. [REVIEW]G. J. van der Wilt - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (2-3):195-206.
    A comprehensive assessment of a health technology requires that a wide variety of questions are addressed. These range from whether the use of a technology results in achievement of its intended effects (e.g., better tumour control, pain relief, improved mobility, etc.) at acceptable costs and without incurring undue risks to the patient, to whether its use may challenge existing social arrangements and values (e.g., individual responsibility for preserving good health, the value of human life, etc.). (...)
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  6.  4
    Does Consumer Engagement in Health Technology Assessment Enhance or Undermine Equity?Narcyz Ghinea, Wendy Lipworth & Ian Kerridge - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):87-94.
    Consumer engagement in decisions about the funding of medicines is often framed as a good in and of itself and as an activity that should be universally encouraged. A common justification for calls for consumer engagement is that it enhances equity. In this paper we systematically critique this assumption. We show that consumer engagement may undermine equity as well as enhance it and show that a simple relationship cannot be assumed but must be justified and demonstrated. In concluding, we present (...)
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  7.  5
    Health Technology Assessment: Trying to Bring Empirical and Ethical Inquiry Together.G. Wilt - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):195-206.
    A comprehensive assessment of a health technology requires that a wide variety of questions are addressed. These range from whether the use of a technology results in achievement of its intended effects at acceptable costs and without incurring undue risks to the patient, to whether its use may challenge existing social arrangements and values. Clearly, this is a major challenge, since it requires the use of quite different methods of inquiry. In the past decades, we have (...)
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  8.  32
    The Normative Basis of (Health) Technology Assessment and the Role of Ethical Expertise.Armin Grunwald - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):175-193.
    The role of normative reflection and the possibilities of ethical inquiry in technology assessment have been under discussion in the TA community for several years. As an outcome of this discussion the necessity of explicitly dealing with normativity in TA has widely been acknowledged. However, it is still quite unclear in which way this should be done. This paper is dedicated to the role (and limitations) of ethical expertise in this field, especially in HTA. By methodological analysis an (...)
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  9.  50
    On Value-Judgements and Ethics in Health Technology Assessment.Bjørn Hofmann - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):277-295.
    The widespread application of technology in health care has imposed a broad range of challenges. The field of health technology assessment (HTA) is developed in order to face some of these challenges. However, this strategy has not been as successful as one could hope. One of the reasons for this is that social and ethical considerations have not been integrated in the HTA process. Nowadays however, such considerations have been included in many HTAs. Still, the (...)
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  10.  6
    Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Challenge for Applied Philosophy.Georges-Auguste Legault, Jean-Pierre Béland, Monelle Parent, Suzanne K.-Bédard, Christian A. Bellemare, Louise Bernier, Pierre Dagenais, Charles-Étienne Daniel, Hubert Gagnon & Johane Patenaude - 2019 - Open Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):331-351.
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  11. An International Review of Health Technology Assessment Approaches to Prescription Drugs and Their Ethical Principles.Leah Z. Rand & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):583-594.
    In many countries, health technology assessment organizations determine the economic value of new drugs and make recommendations regarding appropriate pricing and coverage in national health systems. In the US, recent policy proposals aimed at reducing drug costs would link drug prices to six countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, and the UK. We reviewed these countries’ methods of HTA and guidance on price and coverage recommendations, analyzing methods and guidance documents for differences in the methodologies HTA (...)
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  12.  10
    Ethics and Health Technology Assessment.Richard Ashcroft - 1999 - Monash Bioethics Review 18 (2):15-24.
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  13.  23
    Integrating Ethical Enquiry and Health Technology Assessment: Limits and Opportunities for Efficiency and Equity.Pedro Gallo - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):103-117.
    This paper aims at discussing some contributions, limitations and opportunities that efficiency and equity studies could make to form a better understanding of ethical issues involved in health technology assessment (HTA). Prenatal detection of Down syndrome is used as a case study for further discussions regarding efficiency and equity, as well as other ethical principles including beneficence, non-maleficence and autonomy. The development and use of adequate methods and the need for context appraisal are two imperative issues in (...)
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  14.  14
    Steps Toward Improving Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Proposed Framework.Nazila Assasi, Jean-Eric Tarride, Daria O’Reilly & Lisa Schwartz - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):34.
    BackgroundWhile evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment has gained much attention during the past years, the integration of ethics in HTA practice still presents many challenges. In response to the increasing demand for expansion of health technology assessment methodology to include ethical issues more systematically, this article reports on a multi-stage study that aimed at construction of a framework for improving the integration of ethics in HTA.MethodsThe framework was developed through the following (...)
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  15.  4
    Eliciting Value-Judgments in Health Technology Assessment: An Applied Ethics Decision Making Paradigm.Georges-Auguste Legault, Suzanne K.-Bédard, Jean-Pierre Béland, Christian A. Bellemare, Louise Bernier, Pierre Dagenais, Charles-Étienne Daniel, Hubert Gagnon, Monelle Parent & Johane Patenaude - 2021 - Open Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):307-325.
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  16. Ethical Inquiry and (Health) Technology Assessment: The Social Shaping Perspective.W. Oortwijn, R. Reuzel & M. Decker - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2:91.
     
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  17.  62
    The Ethics of Assessing Health Technologies.Gert Jan van der Wilt, Rob Reuzel & H. David Banta - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (1):101-113.
    Health technology assessment consists of thesystematic study of the consequences of theintroduction or continued use of the technology in aparticular context, with the explicit objective toarrive at a judgment of the value or merit of thetechnology. Ideally, it is aimed at assessing allaspects of a given technology or group oftechnologies, including non-technical, e.g.socio-ethical, aspects. However, methods for assessingsocio-ethical implications of health technology arerelatively undeveloped and few mechanisms exist totake action based on the results (...)
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  18.  22
    Medical Technology Assessment and the Role of Economic Evaluation in Health Care.E. M. M. Adang, A. Ament & C. D. Dirksen - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):287-294.
  19.  6
    Machine Learning Healthcare Applications (ML-HCAs) Are No Stand-Alone Systems but Part of an Ecosystem – A Broader Ethical and Health Technology Assessment Approach is Needed.Helene Gerhards, Karsten Weber, Uta Bittner & Heiner Fangerau - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (11):46-48.
    ML-HCAs have the potential to significantly change an entire healthcare system. It is not even necessary to presume that this will be disruptive but sufficient to assume that the mere adaptation of...
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  20.  11
    Revisiting the Fact/Value Dichotomy: A Speech Act Approach to Improve the Integration of Ethics in Health Technology Assessment.Georges-Auguste Legault, Suzanne K.-Bédard, Christian A. Bellemare, Jean-Pierre Béland, Louise Bernier, Pierre Dagenais, Charles-Étienne Daniel, Hubert Gagnon, Monelle Parent & Johane Patenaude - 2018 - Open Journal of Philosophy 8 (5):578-593.
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  21.  9
    Steps Toward Improving Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Proposed Framework.Nazila Assasi, Jean-Eric Tarride, Daria O’Reilly & Lisa Schwartz - forthcoming - Most Recent Articles: Bmc Medical Ethics.
    While evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment has gained much attention during the past years, the integration of ethics in HTA practice still presents many challenges. In response...
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  22.  10
    Clinical Studies of Innovative Medical Devices: What Level of Evidence for Hospital‐Based Health Technology Assessment?Aurélie Boudard, Nicolas Martelli, Patrice Prognon & Judith Pineau - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):697-702.
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  23.  47
    Biomedical and Bioethical Issues in Parliamentary TA and in Health Technology Assessment.Leonhard Hennen - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):207-220.
    HTA and TA institutions at national parliaments (PTA) both share the same origin and of course have objectives and some of their methods in common. Nevertheless both TA branches developed in some distance during the 1970s and 1980s. Drawing on the case of biomedicine this paper outlines the differences between HTA and PTA, highlighting the “clinical perspective” of HTA and the “societal perspective” of PTA. It is shown that biomedicine which has developed rapidly during the last decade has hardly been (...)
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  24.  32
    Bentham in a Box: Technology Assessment and Health Care Allocation.Albert R. Jonsen - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):172-174.
  25.  29
    Technology Assessment and Resource Allocation for Predictive Genetic Testing: A Study of the Perspectives of Canadian Genetic Health Care Providers.Alethea Adair, Robyn Hyde-Lay, Edna Einsiedel & Timothy Caulfield - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):6-.
    With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews (...)
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  26.  2
    Is Therapeutic Germline Editing Value-Based Healthcare? An Early Health Technology Assessment.Federico Pennestrì - 2020 - Phenomenology and Mind 19:194.
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  27.  24
    Interactive Technology Assessment of Paediatric Cochlear Implantation.Rob Reuzel - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):119-137.
    Interactive technology assessment is a novel approach to evaluating (health) technology, which philosophically draws from the works of Rawls and Habermas. That is, it seeks to organise a practical setting for discursive ethics in order to find a legitimate basis for policy to be pursued when the technology under scrutiny features a moral controversy. Interactive technology assessment involves a cycle of interviews with all stakeholders, who are explicitly asked to respond (anonymously) to the (...)
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  28.  17
    3. Bentham in a Box: Technology Assessment and Health Care Allocation.Albert R. Jonsen - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):172-174.
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  29.  4
    Assessing the Thin Regulation of Consumer-Facing Health Technologies.Nicolas P. Terry - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S1):94-102.
    This article addresses the data protection and product safety regulatory models currently applied to consumer-facing health technologies. It explains how the design and structures of existing data protection and safety regulation in the U.S. have resulted in exceptionally thin protection for the users of consumer-facing devices and products that rely on or that facilitate consumer collection or aggregation of health and wellness data. It also examines some appealing legislative alternatives to the current thin model used in the U.S. (...)
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  30.  2
    International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care.Marc D. Silverstein - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):151-152.
  31.  31
    The Role of Ethics in Interdisciplinary Technology Assessment.Michael Decker - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):139-156.
    Technology Assessment (TA) is a problem oriented endeavour dealing with political, societal, ecological, etc. problems. Only in rare cases is one individual scientific discipline sufficient to assess these problems. Usually the perspectives of different scientific disciplines have to be combined in order to develop interdisciplinary based recommendations to act. In this paper a quality controlled interdisciplinary discussion process is described which encourages an expert group to generate argumentation chains cross-cutting the disciplinary boundaries. The role of ethical reflection in (...)
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  32. Empirical and Normative Aspects of Medical Technology Assessment. The Case of Reduced-Size Liver Transplantations with Living Donors.Gert J. Van Der Wilt - 1995 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (3).
    Medical technology assessment deals with the evaluation of novel or existing health care procedures. This paper addresses the interdependence between factual and normative issues, using the controversies about acceptability and desirability of reduced-size liver transplantations with living donors as example.
     
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  33.  37
    Service Robots on Their Way? First Steps of an Interdisciplinary Technology Assessment.Michael Decker & Ulrike Henckel - 2012 - Poiesis and Praxis 9 (3-4):177-180.
    Interdisciplinary research calls together different scientific disciplines in order to answer a research question which cannot be answered by an individual discipline alone. Technology Assessment (TA) is a problem-oriented approach (Bechmann and Frederichs 1996) dealing with the non-technical aspects of technology development, in order to gain knowledge about the (un-)intended consequences, the (un-)desired impacts, the main and side-effects and the chances and risks of (new) technologies. Moreover, by applying TA, scientists can develop potential solutions to solve societal (...)
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  34. Which Framework to Use? A Systematic Review of Ethical Frameworks for the Screening or Evaluation of Health Technology Innovations.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Yvonne Denier, Evelyne Mertens & Chris Gastmans - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-35.
    Innovations permeate healthcare settings on an ever-increasing scale. Health technology innovations impact our perceptions and experiences of health, care, disease, etc. Because of the fast pace these HTIs are being introduced in different healthcare settings, there is a growing societal consensus that these HTIs need to be governed by ethical reflection. This paper reports a systematic review of argument-based literature which focused on articles reporting on ethical frameworks to screen or evaluate HTIs. To do this a four (...)
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  35.  8
    Limits of Remote Working: The Ethical Challenges in Conducting Mental Health Act Assessments During COVID-19.Lisa Schölin, Moira Connolly, Graham Morgan, Laura Dunlop, Mayura Deshpande & Arun Chopra - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (9):603-607.
    COVID-19 has created additional challenges in mental health services, including the impact of social distancing measures on care and treatment. For situations where a detention under mental health legislation is required to keep an individual safe, psychiatrists may consider whether to conduct an assessment in person or using video technology. The Mental Health Act 2003 does not stipulate that an assessment has to be conducted in person. Yet, the Code of Practice envisions that detention (...)
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  36.  8
    Polymorphism-Screening: Genetic Testing for Predisposition—Guidance for Technology Assessment[REVIEW]Claudia Wild - 2008 - Poiesis and Praxis 5 (1):1-14.
    Health policy is increasingly confronted with the demand for financing genetic testing on inherited susceptibility to disease. Tests on polymorphism/snp associated with multicausal and chronic conditions are already offered in private commercial institutions or in academic hospitals. The increasing pressure on public health services to offer SNP testing leads to first methodological approaches for a generally valid regulatory framework applicable for inclusion or refusal of genetic tests into the public health services. Systematic search in Medline, Embase and (...)
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  37.  10
    Ethically Sound Technology? Guidelines for Interactive Ethical Assessment of Personal Health Monitoring.E. Palm, A. Nordgren, M. F. Verweij & G. Collste - unknown
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  38.  30
    Debating the Desirability of New Biomedical Technologies: Lessons From the Introduction of Breast Cancer Screening in the Netherlands. [REVIEW]Marianne Boenink - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (1):84-102.
    Health technology assessment (HTA) was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to facilitate decision making on the desirability of new biomedical technologies. Since then, many of the standard tools and methods of HTA have been criticized for their implicit normativity. At the same time research into the character of technology in practice has motivated philosophers, sociologists and anthropologists to criticize the traditional view of technology as a neutral instrument designed to perform a specific function. Such (...)
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  39.  20
    Ethical analysis in HTA of complex health interventions.Kristin Bakke Lysdahl, Wija Oortwijn, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Pietro Refolo, Dario Sacchini, Kati Mozygemba, Ansgar Gerhardus, Louise Brereton & Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    In the field of health technology assessment, there are several approaches that can be used for ethical analysis. However, there is a scarcity of literature that critically evaluates and compares the strength and weaknesses of these approaches when they are applied in practice. In this paper, we analyse the applicability of some selected approaches for addressing ethical issues in HTA in the field of complex health interventions. Complex health interventions have been the focus of methodological (...)
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  40.  66
    Ethical Issues in the Economic Assessment of Health Care Technologies.Jean-Paul Moatti - 1999 - Health Care Analysis 7 (2):153-165.
    This paper challenges traditional views which oppose health economics and medical ethics by arguing that economic assessment is a necessary complement to medical ethics and can help to improve public participation and democratic processes in choices about resource allocation for health care technologies. In support of this argument, four points are emphasized: (1) Most current biomedical ethical debates implicitly deal with economic issues of resource allocation. (2) Clinical decisions, which usually respect the Hippocratic code of ethics, are (...)
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  41.  6
    Science, Technology, and Human Health: The Value of STS in Medical and Health Humanities Pedagogy.Julia Knopes - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (4):461-471.
    As the number of medical and health humanities degree programs in the United States rapidly increases, it is especially timely to consider the range of specific disciplinary perspectives that might benefit students enrolled in these programs. This paper discusses the inclusion of one such perspective from the field of Science and Technology Studies The author asserts that STS benefits students in the medical and health humanities in four particular ways, by: challenging the “progress narrative” around the advancement (...)
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  42.  17
    Capability Sensitive Design for Health and Wellbeing Technologies.Naomi Jacobs - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3363-3391.
    This article presents the framework Capability Sensitive Design, which consists of merging the design methodology Value Sensitive Design with Martha Nussbaum's capability theory. CSD aims to normatively assess technology design in general, and technology design for health and wellbeing in particular. Unique to CSD is its ability to account for human diversity and to counter injustices that manifest in technology design. The basic framework of CSD is demonstrated by applying it to the hypothetical design case of (...)
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  43.  24
    An Assessment of Animal Health Projects: U.S. Agency for International Development, 1960–93. [REVIEW]Joyce M. Turk - 1995 - Agriculture and Human Values 12 (2):81-89.
    What are the more significant broad-based needs of animal health programs in developing countries? Essentially they are: health management programs, delivery systems, disease surveillance and monitoring of livestock movements, and improved technologies that are cost-effective and environmentally sound.Responsible program planning elicits important considerations that strengthen final results if integrated early into project design. Examples of these considerations include•the potential for intervention;•producers' requirements for animal health services;•present and future effect(s) of disease;•trends in livestock production and marketing;•affect of improved (...)
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  44. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems.Yves R. Filion & Bryan W. Karney - 2005 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 25 (3):247-253.
    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow a holistic assessment of system performance. Although many decisions relating to the planning and design of water distribution systems do implicitly consider human (...)
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  45.  1
    Assessing the Intention to Use Sports Bracelets Among Chinese University Students: An Extension of Technology Acceptance Model With Sports Motivation.Yi Wang, Xiaotian Zhang & Li Wang - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The use of mobile technology, such as sports bracelets, is gaining popularity as it modifies the ways and processes of learning and teaching in college physical education. However, little empirical evidence can be seen in literature to demonstrate crucial factors that influence university students’ acceptance of sports bracelets. Guided by the technology acceptance model, this study hence aimed at explaining university students’ intention to use sports bracelets. In total, 445 university students in China responded to a 19-item survey (...)
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  46.  8
    Radiography on Wheels Arrives to Nursing Homes - an Economic Assessment of a New Health Care Technology in Southern Sweden.Alexander Dozet, Bodil Ivarsson, Karin Eklund, Rosemarie Klefsgård & Mats Geijer - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (6):994-1001.
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  47.  28
    Framework for the Analysis of Nanotechnologies’ Impacts and Ethical Acceptability: Basis of an Interdisciplinary Approach to Assessing Novel Technologies.Johane Patenaude, Georges-Auguste Legault, Jacques Beauvais, Louise Bernier, Jean-Pierre Béland, Patrick Boissy, Vanessa Chenel, Charles-Étienne Daniel, Jonathan Genest, Marie-Sol Poirier & Danielle Tapin - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):293-315.
    The genetically manipulated organism crisis demonstrated that technological development based solely on the law of the marketplace and State protection against serious risks to health and safety is no longer a warrant of ethical acceptability. In the first part of our paper, we critique the implicitly individualist social-acceptance model for State regulation of technology and recommend an interdisciplinary approach for comprehensive analysis of the impacts and ethical acceptability of technologies. In the second part, we present a framework for (...)
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  48.  11
    Rethinking Risk Assessment for Emerging Technology First-in-Human Trials.Anna Genske & Sabrina Engel-Glatter - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (1):125-139.
    Recent progress in synthetic biology has enabled the development of novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of human disease. In the near future, first-in-human trials will be indicated. FIH trials mark a key milestone in the translation of medical SynBio applications into clinical practice. Fostered by uncertainty of possible adverse events for trial participants, a variety of ethical concerns emerge with regards to SynBio FIH trials, including ‘risk’ minimization. These concerns are associated with any FIH trial, however, due to the (...)
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  49.  47
    Ethics of Resource Allocation: Instruments for Rational Decision Making in Support of a Sustainable Health Care.Claudia Wild - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):296-309.
    In all western countries health care budgets are under considerable constraint and therefore a reflection process has started on how to gain the most health benefit for the population within limited resource boundaries. The field of ethics of resource allocation has evolved only recently in order to bring some objectivity and rationality in the discussion. In this article it is argued that priority setting is the prerequisite of ethical resource allocation and that for purposes of operationalization, instruments such (...)
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  50.  9
    Challenging Themes in American Health Information Privacy and the Public’s Health: Historical and Modern Assessments.James G. Hodge & Kieran G. Gostin - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):670-679.
    Protecting the privacy of individually-identifiable health data is a dominant health policy objective in the new millennium. Technological, economic, and health-related reasons substantiate the development of a national electronic health information infrastructure. Through this emerging infrastructure, billions of pieces of health data of varying sensitivities are exchanged annually to provide health care services and service transactions, conduct health research, and promote the public’s health. These multi-purpose, rapid exchanges of electronic health data, (...)
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