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Heather Douglas [39]Heather E. Douglas [3]Heather Elaine Douglas [1]
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Heather Douglas
Michigan State University
  1.  88
    Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal.Heather Douglas - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  2. Inductive Risk and Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):559-579.
    Although epistemic values have become widely accepted as part of scientific reasoning, non-epistemic values have been largely relegated to the "external" parts of science (the selection of hypotheses, restrictions on methodologies, and the use of scientific technologies). I argue that because of inductive risk, or the risk of error, non-epistemic values are required in science wherever non-epistemic consequences of error should be considered. I use examples from dioxin studies to illustrate how non-epistemic consequences of error can and should be considered (...)
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  3. The Value of Cognitive Values.Heather Douglas - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):796-806.
    Traditionally, cognitive values have been thought of as a collective pool of considerations in science that frequently trade against each other. I argue here that a finer-grained account of the value of cognitive values can help reduce such tensions. I separate the values into groups, minimal epistemic criteria, pragmatic considerations, and genuine epistemic assurance, based in part on the distinction between values that describe theories per se and values that describe theory-evidence relationships. This allows us to clarify why these values (...)
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  4. The Irreducible Complexity of Objectivity.Heather Douglas - 2004 - Synthese 138 (3):453 - 473.
    The terms ``objectivity'''' and ``objective'''' are among the mostused yet ill-defined terms in the philosophy of science and epistemology. Common to all thevarious usages is the rhetorical force of ``I endorse this and you should too'''', orto put it more mildly, that one should trust the outcome of the objectivity-producing process.The persuasive endorsement and call to trust provide some conceptual coherenceto objectivity, but the reference to objectivity is hopefully not merely an attemptat persuasive endorsement. What, in addition to epistemological endorsement,does (...)
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  5. Rejecting the Ideal of Value-Free Science.Heather Douglas - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid, John Dupr’E. & Alison Wylie (eds.), Value-Free Science? Ideals and Illusions. Oxford University Press. pp. 120--141.
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  6. Reintroducing Prediction to Explanation.Heather E. Douglas - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (4):444-463.
    Although prediction has been largely absent from discussions of explanation for the past 40 years, theories of explanation can gain much from a reintroduction. I review the history that divorced prediction from explanation, examine the proliferation of models of explanation that followed, and argue that accounts of explanation have been impoverished by the neglect of prediction. Instead of a revival of the symmetry thesis, I suggest that explanation should be understood as a cognitive tool that assists us in generating new (...)
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  7.  28
    Resisting the Great Endarkenment: On the Future of Philosophy.Heather Douglas - 2018 - Philosophical Inquiries 2 (6):93-106.
    Elijah Millgram’s book The Great Endarkenment takes philosophy to task for failing to note the kinds of creatures we are (serial hyperspecializers) and what that means for philosophy. In this commentary, I will complicate the picture he draws, while suggesting a more hopeful path forward. First, I argue that we are not actually serial hyperspecializers. Nevertheless, we are hyperspecializers, and this is the main source of the looming endarkenment. I will suggest that a proper understanding of expertise, particularly the requirement (...)
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  8.  55
    From Tapestry to Loom: Broadening the Perspective on Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (8).
    After raising some minor philosophical points about Kevin Elliott’s A Tapestry of Values (2017), I argue that we should expand on the themes raised in the book and that philosophers of science need to pay as much attention to the loom of science (i.e., the institutional structures which guide the pursuit of science) as the tapestry of science. The loom of science includes such institutional aspects as patents, funding sources, and evaluation regimes that shape how science gets pursued, and that (...)
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  9. Pure Science and the Problem of Progress.Heather Douglas - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:55-63.
    How should we understand scientific progress? Kuhn famously discussed science as its own internally driven venture, structured by paradigms. He also famously had a problem describing progress in science, as problem-solving ability failed to provide a clear rubric across paradigm change—paradigm changes tossed out problems as well as solving them. I argue here that much of Kuhn’s inability to articulate a clear view of scientific progress stems from his focus on pure science and a neglect of applied science. I trace (...)
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  10. Weighing Complex Evidence in a Democratic Society.Heather Douglas - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (2):139-162.
    Weighing complex sets of evidence (i.e., from multiple disciplines and often divergent in implications) is increasingly central to properly informed decision-making. Determining “where the weight of evidence lies” is essential both for making maximal use of available evidence and figuring out what to make of such evidence. Weighing evidence in this sense requires an approach that can handle a wide range of evidential sources (completeness), that can combine the evidence with rigor, and that can do so in a way other (...)
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  11.  71
    State of the Field: Why Novel Prediction Matters.Heather Douglas & P. D. Magnus - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):580-589.
    There is considerable disagreement about the epistemic value of novel predictive success, i.e. when a scientist predicts an unexpected phenomenon, experiments are conducted, and the prediction proves to be accurate. We survey the field on this question, noting both fully articulated views such as weak and strong predictivism, and more nascent views, such as pluralist reasons for the instrumental value of prediction. By examining the various reasons offered for the value of prediction across a range of inferential contexts , we (...)
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  12.  67
    The Moral Terrain of Science.Heather Douglas - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):1-19.
    The moral terrain of science, the full range of ethical considerations that are part of the scientific endeavor, has not been mapped. Without such a map, we cannot examine the responsibilities of scientists to see if the institutions of science are adequately constructed. This paper attempts such a map by describing four dimensions of the terrain: (1) the bases to which scientists are responsible (scientific reasoning, the scientific community, and the broader society); (2) the nature of the responsibility (general or (...)
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  13.  28
    The Role of Values in Expert Reasoning.Heather Douglas - 2008 - Public Affairs Quarterly 22 (1):1-18.
  14.  63
    The Philosophy of Expertise by Robert Crease and Evan Selinger. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (4):552.
  15.  4
    The Integration of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Representations of Exact Quantity in Preschool Children.Carolina Jiménez Lira, Miranda Carver, Heather Douglas & Jo-Anne LeFevre - 2017 - Cognition 166:382-397.
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  16.  61
    Engagement for Progress: Applied Philosophy of Science in Context.Heather Douglas - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):317-335.
    Philosophy of science was once a much more socially engaged endeavor, and can be so again. After a look back at philosophy of science in the 1930s-1950s, I turn to discuss the current potential for returning to a more engaged philosophy of science. Although philosophers of science have much to offer scientists and the public, I am skeptical that much can be gained by philosophers importing off-the-shelf discussions from philosophy of science to science and society. Such efforts will likely look (...)
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  17.  86
    The Moral Responsibilities of Scientists (Tensions Between Autonomy and Responsibility).Heather E. Douglas - 2003 - American Philosophical Quarterly 40 (1):59 - 68.
  18. Inserting the Public Into Science.Heather Douglas - 2005 - In Sabine Maasen & Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making. Springer. pp. 153--169.
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  19.  64
    Cognitive and Social Values.Peter Machamer & Heather Douglas - 1999 - Science & Education 8 (1):45-54.
  20.  83
    Prediction, Explanation, and Dioxin Biochemistry: Science in Public Policy. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):49-63.
  21. Norms for Values in Scientific Belief Acceptance.Heather Douglas - unknown
    Although a strict dichotomy between facts and values is no longer accepted, less attention has been paid to the roles values should play in our acceptance of factual statements, or scientific descriptive claims. This paper argues that values, whether cognitive or ethical, should never preclude or direct belief on their own. Our wanting something to be true will not make it so. Instead, values should only be used to consider whether the available evidence provides sufficient warrant for a claim. This (...)
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  22. Science in a Democratic Society by Philip Kitcher. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axt006.
  23. Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 609-630.
     
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  24. Bullshit at the Interface of Science and Policy: Global Warming, Toxic Substances and Other Pesky Problems.Heather Douglas - 2006 - In Hardcastle Reisch (ed.), Bullshit and Philosophy. Open Court. pp. 213--226.
     
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  25.  23
    Book Review Kevin Elliott , Is a Little Pollution Good for You? Oxford: Oxford University Press (2011), 264 Pp., $65.00. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (3):425-428.
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  26.  34
    Hugh Lacey: Is Science Value Free?: Values & Scientific Understanding. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (2):386-389.
  27.  7
    Battered Women's Experiences of the Criminal Justice System: Decentring the Law.Heather Douglas - 2012 - Feminist Legal Studies 20 (2):121-134.
    This article takes up Smart’s suggestion to examine the way the law works in practice. It explores the context of current criminal prosecutions of domestic violence offences in Queensland, Australia. This article argues that legal method is applied outside the higher courts or “judge-oriented” practice and that the obstacles inherent to legal method can be identified in the practices of police, lower court staff, magistrates and lawyers. This article suggests that it may be difficult to deconstruct legal method, even by (...)
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  28. Boundaries Between Science and Policy.Heather Douglas - 2005 - Environmental Philosophy 2 (1):14-29.
    In the debate over the role of science in environmental policy, it is often assumed that science can and should be clearly demarcated from policy. In this paper, I will argue that neither is the case. The difficulty of actually differentiating the scientific arena from the policy arena becomes apparent the moment one attempts to actually locate the boundary. For example, it is unclear whether scientific summaries to be used by regulatory agencies are in the realm of science or policy. (...)
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  29.  3
    Philosophy of Science, Political Engagement, and the Cold War: An Introduction.Heather Douglas - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (2):157-160.
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  30.  39
    Science, Policy, Values: Exploring the Nexus.Heather E. Douglas - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):475-480.
    The importance of science for guiding policy decisions has been an increasingly central feature of policy-making for much of the past century. But which science we have available to us and what counts as adequate science for policy-making shapes substantially the specific impact science has on policy decisions. Policy influences which science we pursue and how we pursue it in practice, as well as how science ultimately informs policy. Values inform our choices in these areas, as values shape the research (...)
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  31. Science, Values, and Objectivity.Heather Douglas - 2004 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
     
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  32.  22
    Theodore L. Brown. Imperfect Oracle: The Epistemic and Moral Authority of Science. Xiv + 333 Pp., Bibl., Index. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. $75. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2010 - Isis 101 (4):931-932.
  33. Border Skirmishes Between Science and Policy.Heather Douglas - 2004 - In Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 220-44.
     
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  34.  50
    Fraud From the Frontlines: The Importance of Being Nice. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2011 - Metascience 20 (3):553-556.
    Fraud from the frontlines: the importance of being nice Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9492-2 Authors Heather Douglas, Department of Philosophy, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, 815 McClung Tower, Knoxville, TN 37996-0480, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  35.  17
    ‘She Knew What Was Expected of Her’: The White Legal System’s Encounter with Traditional Marriage.Heather Douglas - 2005 - Feminist Legal Studies 13 (2):181-203.
  36.  23
    Book Symposium on Expertise: Philosophical Reflections by Evan Selinger. [REVIEW]Stephen Turner, William Rehg, Heather Douglas & Evan Selinger - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):93-109.
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  37.  16
    With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility.Bernard Gert, Nicholas Evans, Heather Douglas & John Forge - 2010 - Metascience 19 (1):29-43.
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  38.  23
    Review of Hans Radder (Ed.), The Commodification of Academic Research: Science and the Modern University[REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2011 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2011 (2).
  39.  2
    Robert Crease and Evan Selinger: The Philosophy of Expertise. [REVIEW]Heather Douglas - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (4):552-555.
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  40.  1
    Boundaries Between Science and Policy: Descriptive Difficulty and Normative Desirability.Heather Douglas - 2005 - Environmental Philosophy 2 (1):14-29.
    In the debate over the role of science in environmental policy, it is often assumed that science can and should be clearly demarcated from policy. In this paper, I will argue that neither is the case. The difficulty of actually differentiating the scientific arena from the policy arena becomes apparent the moment one attempts to actually locate the boundary. For example, it is unclear whether scientific summaries to be used by regulatory agencies are in the realm of science or policy. (...)
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  41. Science, Values, and Citizens.Heather Douglas - 2017 - In Oppure Si Mouve: Doing History and Philosophy of Science with Peter Machamer. pp. 83-96.
    Science is one of the most important forces in contemporary society. The most reliable source of knowledge about the world, science shapes the technological possibilities before us, informs public policy, and is crucial to measuring the efficacy of public policy. Yet it is not a simple repository of facts on which we can draw. It is an ongoing process of evidence gathering, discovery, contestation, and criticism. I will argue that an understanding of the nature of science and the scientific process (...)
     
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