17 found
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  1. Dimensions of Naturalness.Helena Siipi - 2008 - Ethics and the Environment 13 (1):pp. 71-103.
    This paper presents a way of classifying different forms of naturalness and unnaturalness. Three main forms of (un)naturalness are found as the following: history- based (un)naturalness, property-based (un)naturalness and relation-based (un)naturalness. Numerous subforms (and some subforms of the subforms) of each are presented. The subforms differ with respect to the entities that are found (un)natural, with respect to their all-inclusiveness, and whether (un)naturalness is seen as all-or-nothing affair, or a continuous gradient. This kind of conceptual analysis is needed, first, because (...)
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  2.  38
    The Extinction and De-Extinction of Species.Helena Siipi & Leonard Finkelman - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (4):427-441.
    In this paper, we discuss the following four alternative ways of understanding the outcomes of resurrection biology. Implications of each of the ways are discussed with respect to concepts of species and extinction. Replication: animals created by resurrection biology do not belong to the original species but are copies of it. The view is compatible with finality of extinction as well as with certain biological and ecological species concepts. Re-creation: animals created are members of the original species but, despite their (...)
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  3.  80
    Is Natural Food Healthy?Helena Siipi - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (4):797-812.
    Is food’s naturalness conceptually connected to its healthiness? Answering the question requires spelling out the following: (1) What is meant by the healthiness of food? (2) What different conceptual meanings the term natural has in the context of food? (3) Are some of those meanings connected to the healthiness of food? In this paper the healthiness of food is understood narrowly as food’s accordance with nutritional needs of its eater. The connection of healthiness to the following five food-related senses of (...)
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  4. The Phenomenon of Biodiversity.Julia Koricheva, Helena Siipi, Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen - 2004 - In Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.), Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  5.  46
    Consumer Autonomy and Availability of Genetically Modified Food.Helena Siipi & Susanne Uusitalo - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (2):147-163.
    The European Union’s policies regarding genetically modified food are based on the precautionary principle and the requirement of respecting consumers’ autonomy. We ask whether the requirement of respecting consumers’ autonomy regarding GMF implies that both GMF and non-GMF products should be available in the market. According to one line of thought, consumers’ choices may be autonomous even when the both types of products are not available. A food market with only GMF or only non-GMF products does not strictly speaking compel (...)
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  6.  50
    Consumer Autonomy and Sufficiency of Gmf Labeling.Helena Siipi & Susanne Uusitalo - 2008 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (4):353-369.
    Individuals’ food choices are intimately connected to their self-images and world views. Some dietary choices adopted by consumers pose restrictions on their use of genetically modified food (GMF). It is quite generally agreed that some kind of labeling is necessary for respecting consumers’ autonomy of choice regarding GMF. In this paper, we ask whether the current practice of mandatory labeling of GMF products in the European Union is a sufficient administrative procedure for respecting consumers’ autonomy. Three issues concerning this question (...)
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  7.  62
    Naturalness in Biological Conservation.Helena Siipi - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (6):457-477.
    Conservation scientists are arguing whether naturalness provides a reasonable imperative for conservation. To clarify this debate and the interpretation of the term natural, I analyze three management strategies – ecosystem preservation, ecosystem restoration, and ecosystem engineering – with respect to the naturalness of their outcomes. This analysis consists in two parts. First, the ambiguous term natural is defined in a variety of ways, including (1) naturalness as that which is part of nature, (2) naturalness as a contrast to artifactuality, (3) (...)
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  8.  56
    Is Genetically Modified Food Unnatural?Helena Siipi - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):807-816.
    This paper argues for the following four claims: the terms “natural” and “unnatural” are ambiguous. Genetically modified food is unnatural in some senses of the term “unnatural”. Natural food should be favored over unnatural food in some senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. Genetically modified food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not genetically modified. The claims are defended by distinguishing four different senses of the terms “natural” (...)
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  9.  38
    Non-Backward-Looking Naturalness as an Environmental Value.Helena Siipi - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):329 - 344.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 329-344, October 2011.
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  10.  25
    Ethical Compatibility of GM Crops with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Values of Farmers: A Review.Irene Vanninen, Helena Siipi, Marjo Keskitalo & Maria Erkkila - 2009 - Open Ethics Journal 3 (3):104-117.
  11.  32
    Opposition and Acceptance of GM-Food and GM-Medicine.Helena Siipi & Veikko Launis - 2009 - Open Ethics Journal 3 (3):97-103.
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  12.  5
    European Electronic Personal Health Records Initiatives and Vulnerable Migrants: A Need for Greater Ethical, Legal and Social Safeguards.Oliver Feeney, Gabriele Werner‐Felmayer, Helena Siipi, Markus Frischhut, Silvia Zullo, Ursela Barteczko, Lars Øystein Ursin, Shai Linn, Heike Felzmann, Dušanka Krajnović, John Saunders & Vojin Rakić - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (1):27-37.
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  13.  54
    Naturalness in Biodiversity Management.Helena Siipi - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:173-178.
    Decline of biodiversity—richness, variety and variability of living beings—is an issue of concern world wide. Nevertheless, not all biological diversity is valued by conservation biologists. Most of them reject an idea of creation of so called A-areas—i.e. maximally rich and diverse biotic areas which have been produced by methods like genetic engineering and species introduction. Reasons for this are considered. A-areas are artefacts: their existence has been intentionally brought about by intentionally modifying their properties in order to produce an entity (...)
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  14.  23
    Moral Relevance of Range and Naturalness in Assisted Migration.Helena Siipi & Marko Ahteensuu - 2016 - Environmental Values 25 (4):465-483.
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  15.  28
    Gregory E. Kaebnick, Ed. The Ideal of Nature: Debates About Biotechnology and the Environment.Helena Siipi - 2012 - Environmental Ethics 34 (4):459-460.
  16.  11
    Artefacts and Living Artefacts.Helena Siipi - 2003 - Environmental Values 12 (4):413-430.
    The concept of an artefact is central to several bioethical arguments. In this paper, I analyse this concept with respect to living and also non- living entities. It is shown that a close relationship between bringing an entity into existence and its intentional modification is necessary for its artefactuality. The criterion is further improved by analyses of the nature of intentionality in artefact production and the differences between artefacts and their side-effects. Further, in order to clarify the meaning of the (...)
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  17.  19
    A Critical Assessment of Public Consultations on GMOs in the European Union.Marko Ahteensuu & Helena Siipi - 2009 - Environmental Values 18 (2):129-152.
    The paper highlights shortcomings in the public consultation practices on the deliberate release and placing on the market of GMOs in the European Union and in one of its member countries, Finland. It is argued that current GMO consultation practices do not meet the aims and objectives on which their introduction is typically justified. Specifically, they do not serve democracy, increase consensus, enable better decisions to be made, or establish trust. We conclude that there is a clear need for the (...)
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