Watersheds constitute a special case of multiple-use common pool resources (CPRs). In a textual sense, watersheds tend to be mosaics of privately owned and managed patches of land. At the same time, however, watersheds are also ecosystems in which multiple resources and people interact through an infinity of bio-physical processes. Through such interaction, new watershed-level qualities emerge that, together with other factors, condition watershed users' continued resource use and access. In this perspective, watersheds become common-pool resources. Hence, watershed users do (...) not only manage their individual plots, crops, forests, etc., knowingly or not, they manage landscape patterns and bio-physical processes that transcend their private property. In this context, drawing on experiences gained through participatory action research in a micro-watershed in the Andean hillsides of southern Colombia, this paper describes a process aimed at fostering collective watershed management. The paper illustrates the importance of platforms as a mechanism for negotiating and coordinating collective action by multiple users and discusses the issues of representation on such platforms as well as the importance of third party facilitation. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 87 - 116 In Stoic physics, blending is the relation between active pneuma and passive matter; natural bodies from rocks and logs to plants, animals and the cosmos itself are blends of pneuma and matter. Blending structures the Stoic cosmos. I develop a new interpretation of the Stoic theory of blending, based on passages from Hierocles. The theory of blending, I argue, has been misunderstood. Hierocles allows us to see in detail how the (...) theory is supposed to work and how it fits into Stoic physics. (shrink)
Hermann Lotze has truly said that “among all the errors of the human mind” the “strangest” is doubting its “own existence,” or regarding it “at second hand as the product of an external Nature” which can be known only “indirectly” while the mind knows itself directly. Yet this denial is found both in the Occident and in the Orient. Moreover, while in the latter it stems largely from an extreme form of idealism in terms of a reductionistic pantheism, in the (...) former it is almost altogether the result of an analytical, reductive naturalism. More specifically, in the West this impersonalistic tendency has really been the result of two movements which have merged in certain contemporary schools. (shrink)
Worldwide implementation of the centrat concept sustainable development has given rise to very different interpretations, some extending to central issues within the field of ecological ethics. This is especially true of the two economic approaches termed >Strong weak weak strong< sustainability theory merits interdisciplinary consideration through a theologically oriented ethics of sustainable development.
In this paper it is demonstrated how the understanding of resilience is enhanced and shaped when using the concepts of oikos and life-modes. Instead of applying a rather problematic welfare capitalism model, which partially provides a negative social reproduction and production, it is suggested to apply a household/family model. The household/family model outlines that positive social reproduction and production, including real and productive values, potentially creates an essential bond between viable household, family, work, socialisation, and network based communities, resulting in (...) socially, economically, mentally, and ecologically sustainable survival of families and livelihoods over generations. Furthermore, it is stressed that serious fallacies will occur if resilience is solely understood and explained in terms of individual resources and characteristics. Nonetheless, it is recognised that non-cognitive traits such as persistence are important. Offspring is more strongly socialised and positioned in intact and viable families by transmitting and practicing a set of long-term reproduction and production strategies, which compared to upper strata are less common in the lower and middle strata. Thus, resilience is unequal. (shrink)
The aim of this book is to distinguish meaningfully between two basic aspects of Kant’s moral theory. These he stated in terms of the German words Wille and Willkür. While Wille means the ability of the self to legislate in the moral rather than in the strictly legal sense, Willkür signifies that freedom to choose and act which makes a person a free moral agent. Throughout the book Hochberg emphasizes the significance of this moral freedom. Without it, morality itself would (...) be utterly impossible, for human beings would be as much at the mercy of their passions and instincts as the brutes. (shrink)
This book is part of a series on outstanding philosophers. The General Editor of the Series is Stephen Körner. The author of this volume on Leibniz is Reader in Philosophy at the Open University in the United Kingdom.
The present article offers a discussion of the question 'Why study Cohen?′. The author′s first and preliminary answer to the question is that the study of Hermann Cohen′s thought is relevant for contemporary philosophy for at least five reasons. They include Cohen′s improvement of critical idealism of the subject which he substitutes with his idealism of the idea; the exposition of thought as an ethics of law; the articulation of the notion of anticipation as the principle of time, history, and (...) interpretation; the exposition of critical idealism as a form of idealism that is not violent, totalitarian or reductive, but idealism in terms of alterity and the other, instead; the role of history and especially the history of the religion of Judaism in the construction of the religion of reason and the conception of Judaism. (shrink)