How can citizens be made just? I focus on how modern constitutional democracies can entice, convince, and guide their citizens to become just. I rely chiefly on Rawls's theory of justice, as well as the work of sociologist Derek L. Phil lips. I argue that internal control by citizens themselves is the best option. This view is attractive because every citizen can play a part in establishing and maintaining the public conception of justice by being role models, engaging in dialogue (...) with fellow citizens, or by simply doing their part in maintaining just institutions. (shrink)
Le manuscrit dont nous donnons une première édition française fut rédigé en décembre 1862 et représente la première ébauche des trois premières sections du livre III du Capital. De fait, Marx l’a intitulé « Chapitre 3. Capital et Profit », en référence au plan rédigé un mois plus tard, dans lequel ce chapitre devient la « troisième section » du Capital, soit le futur Livre III lui-même. -/- Marx y traite en effet de la transformation de la plus-value en profit (...) et du taux de plus-value en taux de profit, de la transformation du profit en profit moyen et de la loi de la baisse tendancielle du taux de profit. Ce chapitre est accompagné de quelques pages intitulées Miscellanea, notes complémentaires aux développements du texte principal. À en juger par le sous-titre que Marx a donné au texte, Heft Ultimum (cahier ultimum), on peut penser qu'il en était suffisamment satisfait pour qu'il serve de matériau principal à la rédaction définitive. Néanmoins, bien que le texte présente une unité et une cohérence théoriques, il faut noter que le temps a marqué le manuscrit de son empreinte, certaines pages nous étant parvenues à l'état de fragment. -/- Concernant la transformation des valeurs en prix de production, le texte prend à revers l’histoire du long et fastidieux commentaire sur le problème du calcul de la transformation, en insistant sur l’oubli de l’origine de la plus-value provoqué par la forme profit et achevé dans le taux général de profit qui s’établit par la concurrence des capitaux. D’une manière générale, Marx manifeste en permanence dans ce texte son souci de bien distinguer l’essence des phénomènes économiques de leur mode d’apparition dans la réalité immédiate. C’est pour lui la seule tâche justifiant le caractère scientifique de l’économie politique. Les lois abstraites de la plus-value, en effet, ne peuvent être démontrées directement à partir du profit empirique – c’est ainsi que Marx qualifie le taux général de profit – dans la mesure où celui-ci rend invisibles les lois fondamentales de la production capitaliste. -/- . (shrink)
_Vi gennemførte i 2016 et omfattende empirisk studie på Aalborg Universitetshospital med henblik på at afdække de forskellige sundhedsprofessioners etiske holdninger. Hensigten var at afdække eventuelle forskelle mellem professionerne samt at få begrebsliggjort de etiske tankemønstre, der er tilstede i den kliniske praksis. Vi fandt i den indledende dataanalyse, at vi med signifikans kunne vise, at plejegruppen i højere grad bruger nærhedsetiske og omsorgsetiske vurderinger, til forskel fra lægegruppen, der er mere pligtetisk funderet__. Undersøgelsen blev sat op ved brug af (...) vignetmetoden, der giver mulighed for at indsamle kvantitative data, der er velegnede til en statistisk analyse, men som samtidig også muliggør en kvalitativ undersøgelse ved en efterfølgende hermeneutisk analyse af udvalgte besvarelser. I denne artikel studerer vi undersøgelsens resultater inden for sygeplejegruppen alene med det formål at uddrage, hvad deres vurderinger kommer an på, og at diskutere, hvordan disse faktorer indbyrdes forholder sig til hinanden og skaber sammenhæng. Med udgangspunkt i dette finder vi frem til, hvordan sygeplejerskernes etiske holdninger som helhed formes af de særlige værdier, som den nærhedsetiske profil understøtter, men som videre også giver et mere fleksibelt og nuanceret billede af sygeplejeetikken._ _Nøgleord:_ sygeplejeetik, vignetmetoden, hermeneutik, patientperspektiv, klinisk praksis _ _ _English title: _Factors that influence nurses' attitude to "good clinical practice" - a qualitative analysis of data from an empirical study at Aalborg University Hospital In 2016, we conducted a comprehensive empirical study at Aalborg University Hospital in order to uncover the ethical attitudes of various health professions. The intention was to uncover any differences between professions as well as to conceptualize the ethical thought patterns present in clinical practice. We found in the preliminary data analysis that we could show with significance that the group of care givers uses relational ethics and care ethics assessments to a greater extent as opposed to the more duty ethics based group of physicians. The study was set up using the vignette method, which allows for the collection of quantitative data suitable for statistical analysis, but which also allows for a qualitative study by a subsequent hermeneutical analysis of selected answers. In this article we study the results of the study within the nursing group solely for the purpose of extracting what their assessments depend on and discussing how these factors relate to each other and create some form of moral coherence. Based on this we find how nurses' ethical attitudes are shaped by the particular values that the relational ethical profile supports, but also how this profile is modified and flexible to the conditions of clinical settings and situations. In the end our interpretation provides us with a more nuanced picture of nursing ethics than a single theoretical perspective or a set of guidelines provide. _Keywords:_ nursing ethics, the vignette method, hermeneutics, patient perspective, clinical practice. (shrink)
På en let tilgængelig og anvendelig måde forsøger bogen Viden, videnskab og virkelighed at forklare studerende på videregående uddannelser, hvad det er de skal vide om videnskaben. Hvad er videnskab? Hvad er de videnskabelige idealer og normer? Hvordan fungerer videnskaben i samfundet i netværk af læreanstalter, virksomheder og andre institutioner? Hvordan vil de studerende selv komme i berøring med videnskaben og hvordan skal de forstå det videnskabelige i det som de laver? -/- Viden, videnskab og virkelighed forsøger at indkredse det (...) særlige ved moderne videnskab og præsenterer derfor også forskellige opfattelser af viden, virkelighed og videnskab inden for filosofi, videnskabsteori og samfundsvidenskab. Men samtidig giver bogen altså konkrete bud på, hvordan man som studerende mestrer refleksion, omsætter viden til praksis og samarbejder på tværs af faggrænser. -/- Bogen henvender sig til alle studerende på videregående uddannelser og til undervisning i videnskabsteori. (shrink)
How should we make choices when we know so little about our futures? L. A. Paul argues that we must view life decisions as choices to make discoveries about the nature of experience. Her account of transformative experience holds that part of the value of living authentically is to experience our lives and preferences in whatever ways they evolve.
This is an extremely thorough revision of the leading textbook of bioethics. The authors have made many improvements in style, organization, argument and content. These changes reflect advances in the bioethics literature over the past five years. The most dramatic expansions of the text are in the comprehensiveness with which the authors treat different currents in ethical theory and the greater breadth and depth of their discussion of public policy and public health issues. In every chapter, readers will find new (...) material and refinements of old discussions. This is evident in the many new sections on topics like communitarianism, ethics of care, relationship-based accounts, casuistry, case-based reasoning, principle-based common-morality theories, the justification of assistance in dying, rationing through priorities in the health care budget, and virtues in professional roles. The most extensive revisions are in chapters 1, 2 and 8. (shrink)
Dieser Artikel ist die Übersetzung des zuerst in 1950 veröffentlichten Schlüsseltextes “Humanisme og kristendom” des dänischen Philosophen und Theologen Knud E. Løgstrup. In diesem Text legt Løgstrup seine Konzeption der Debatte zwischen Humanismus und Christentum dar. Er argumentiert dafür, dass die beiden Positionen nicht als einander entgegengesetzt zu betrachten sind, da beide die Interdependenz und Verletzlichkeit des Menschseins als Grundlage für eine “stumme” Forderung nach Umsorge erkennen – auch wenn der Humanismus in dieser Forderung lediglich die Leistung sozialer Normen sehen (...) und das Christentum sie mit Lehren der Kirche verwechseln kann. So betrachtet, greift der Text als erster Entwurf jenen Ideen vor, die Løgstrup in seinem späteren Hauptwerk Den etiske fordring entwickeln sollte. (shrink)
I explore some of the ways that assumptions about the nature of substance shape metaphysical debates about the structure of Reality. Assumptions about the priority of substance play a role in an argument for monism, are embedded in certain pluralist metaphysical treatments of laws of nature, and are central to discussions of substantivalism and relationalism. I will then argue that we should reject such assumptions and collapse the categorical distinction between substance and property.
This article explores Gerardus van der Leeuw’s view of phenomenology of religion. The phenomenological method he defended is basically a hermeneutical approach in which an observer relates personally and even existentially to the “phenomena” he studies in order to determine their essence. In his anthropology a similar way of relating to the world is discussed: the “primitive mentality” that is characterized by the “need to participate”. Both phenomenology and mentalité primitive imply a critique of modern scholarship. This fundamental criticism of (...) the prevailing approach in the humanities including religious studies explains the growing distance between van der Leeuw and the majority of scholars of religion in the decades after his death in 1950. (shrink)
L’Homme presents what has been termed Descartes’ “physiological psychology”. It envisions and seeks to explain how the brain and nerves might yield situationally appropriate behavior through mechanical means. On occasion in the past 150 years, this aim has been recognized, described, and praised. Still, acknowledgement of this aspect of Descartes’ writing has been spotty in histories of neuroscience and histories of psychology. In recent years, there has been something of a resurgence. This chapter argues that, in seeking to explain psychological (...) functions such as sense perception, attention, memory, and emotional response, Descartes ascribed a range of active functions to the brain acting on its own (independently of mind). (shrink)
In the book "When I needed a neighbour were you there? Christians and the Challenge of Poverty" I highlight the overwhelming evidence that involvement with poor people and the issues of poverty is a fundamental part of what it means to be Christian. The life and teaching of Jesus Christ suggest that all Christians should be seriously concerned about the plight of poor people. Why? Let me explain. Jesus is the foundation of the Christian faith and role model for Christian (...) behaviour in the world. In his life on earth he showed deep compassion for all people marginalized by society – for the poor, for widows, children, and the sick. Many of his stories and actions illustrate the extent to which he prioritized the relief of human suffering in his own ministry. The emphasis in the ministry of Jesus on compassion for marginalized people was nothing new in ancient Israel. A constant theme in the Old Testament was an imperative to show concern for marginalized people, especially widows, orphans, strangers, and poor people. As in the New Testament, caring for society’s vulnerable members was tied to the central religious obligations required of the ancient Israelites. I seek to uncover ethical values in the biblical texts that can enrich our understanding of how best to deal with poverty. This book is primarily directed at non-poor Christians to persuade them to take the plight of poor people more seriously. It also aims to present biblical perspectives on poverty that can be empowering to those who personally face the challenges of poverty. (shrink)
Poverty violates fundamental human values through its impact on individuals and on human environments, and it goes against the core values of democratic societies. Drawing on numerous scientific studies as well as his own experience witnessing the systematic poverty in his home country of South Africa, H. P. P. [Hennie] Lötter presents a holistic profile of poverty and its effects on human lives all the while accounting for the complexity of each individual case. He argues that shared ethical values (...) must guide the planning and distribution of aid and that our society must reevaluate our notions of justice and reimagine the role of the state in order to enable collective human responsibility for poverty’s successful eradication. (shrink)
Robert Stern has argued that Levinas is a kind of command theorist and that, for this reason, Løgstrup can be understood to have provided an argument against Levinas. In this paper, I discuss Levinas’s use of the vocabulary of demand, order, and command in the light of Jewish philosophical accounts of such notions in the work of Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Emil Fackenheim. These accounts revise the traditional Jewish idea of command and I show that Levinas’s use of this (...) vocabulary is also revisionary. I show that in light of this tradition of discussion, Levinas’s use is not susceptible to the interpretation Stern proposes and thus that the Løgstrup-style argument cannot be used against Levinas. (shrink)
In this essay I will attempt to explain the significance of Stephen Bantu Biko's life. This I will do in terms of his intellectual contribution to the liberation of black people from the radically unjust apartheid society in South Africa. Firstly, I will discuss his contribution to liberate blacks psychologically from the political system of apartheid, pointing out how he broke through the normative and pragmatic acceptance of the situation in the radically unjust apartheid society. He experienced black people as (...) being defeated people, and he wanted to direct their attention to the fact that the cause of their unjust situation was other human beings and thus they could change it. Secondly, I point out how he gave black people a new self-understanding and self worth. One way of doing this was by means of community projects which fostered self-reliance. For Biko it was important that black people should act autonomously, and not let other people make decisions on their behalf. They also had to re-evaluate their cultural heritage to discover the positive aspects thereof. Lastly, I focus on his views on his ideal for a future just South Africa and show how important he regarded dialogue as a political tool. (shrink)
Mit dem Terminus 'ursprünglicher Raum' wird der Raum bezeichnet, der Kant innerhalb der transzendentalen Ästhetik als reine subjektive Form der Anschauung des äußeren Sinnes bestimmt. Man könnte ihn auch den 'ästhetischen Raum' nennen. Auf jeden Fall muss er vom (proto-)geometrischen Raum unterschieden werden, da letzterer eine Einheit voraussetzt die auf einer Synthesis beruht, und dadurch – weil bei Kant alle Synthesis unter den Kategorien steht – weniger ursprünglich zum Anschauungsvermögen gehört. Es ist diese Unterscheidung zwischen dem ursprünglichen Raum, der „Form (...) der Anschauung“ ist, und dem (proto-)geometrischen Raum, der „formale Anschauung“ ist, auf die Kant in einer bekannten Fußnote im §26 der transzendentalen Deduktion der B-Auflage anspielt. -/- Die Bedeutung der Unterscheidung zwischen (proto-)geometrischem und ursprünglichem Raum liegt unter anderem darin, dass sie stipuliert, dass das ursprüngliche Wesen des Raumes vor und unabhängig von dem erreichbar ist, was durch jedwede Mathematik der Ausdehnung von ihm ausgesagt wird. Das bedeutet nun aber nicht, dass diese Unterscheidung uns zwingt, anzunehmen, dass das ursprüngliche Wesen des Raumes auch von uns erreichbar ist. Und nehmen wir mal an, dass wir tatsächlich über eine Art Zugang zu diesem Wesen verfügen, dann noch stellt sich überdies die Frage, ob ein solcher Zugang sich innerhalb der Sphäre der Erkenntnis befindet, mit anderen Worten: ob das ursprüngliche Wesen des Raumes vom Philosophen auch wirklich erkannt – das heißt: in Erkenntnisurteile gefasst und ausgedrückt – werden kann. (shrink)
In this article the event of preaching is explored by making use of both older and newer sources. Whilst taking cognisance of continuous contextual changes and developments within the discipline of Homiletics, core hermeneutical, theological and homiletical aspects of preaching are revisited. The aim of this exploration is to formulate a preliminary theory of preaching that can be revisited and revised as part of a larger empirical homiletical investigation which makes use of Grounded Theory.Contribution: This article adheres to the journal’s (...) scope and vision by its focus on a theoretical reflection on the practice of preaching at the intersection of theology, hermeneutics and homiletics. (shrink)
This article is an investigation on how two theologians from the Early Church interpreted the withered fig tree, as narrated by the evangelist Matthew. The two theologians referred to are Origen of Alexandria, who belongs to the pre-Nicene era and represents the Alexandrian School, and Ps.-Chrysostom who belongs to the post-Nicene era, and represents the School of Antioch. Origen believed that when the fig tree withered, it referred to Israel’s withering. This interpretation of the narrative surrounding the withered fig tree (...) was very common in the Early Church. Ps.-Chrysostom makes it very clear that he cannot agree with this interpretation, which was quite common in the Early Church. He stated that it is wrong to liken the fig tree to the synagogue of the Jews. He argues that Jesus could not curse the synagogue, because he said that ‘The Son of Man did not come to destroy, but to seek and save the lost’. Moreover, if the synagogue withered, fruitful branches such as Paul, Stephen, Aquila and Priscilla could not have sprouted from the roots. These names are proof that God did not entirely reject the Jewish people. Ps.-Chrysostom then offers a different explanation to the question why the fig tree withered: He points out that Adam used the leaves of a fig tree to cover his nakedness. When Jesus caused the fig tree to wither, he wanted to show that he can give Adam a new garment of water and spirit that glistens like snow. Christ gave back to Adam what the serpent had robbed him of, namely ‘the angel-like life, the luxuriance of paradise, the garment of incorruptibility’.Contribution: The primary goal of this article is to explore the exegetical practices of two ancient theologians who came from two different schools and from two different eras. This study shows how they interpreted the account of the withered fig tree, based on their respective theological perspectives. (shrink)
Thought, according to Hegel, is not only the product of a faculty of a subject, or a means by which a thinking subject tries to grasp a world that is alien to him. It is also the very structure of the world, that is disclosed to a subject through the thinking activity of a subject. The fundamental question that crosses the whole post-Kantian philosophy is that of the relation between thought and reality, i.e. the question of whether reality depends on (...) the categorial requirements imposed by the thinking subject, or whether reality maintains some form of independence from the thinking subject. Seen from this standpoint, Hegel can be read both as an author who radicalizes Kant’s transcendental perspective, and also as a critic of that perspective. In other words, he can be seen as an idealist: according to Hegel, any philosophy is idealist if it claims that something finite, qua finite, is essentially connected with something other. He can also be seen as an anti-idealist: insofar as his philosophy aims to overcome a hyper-transcendentalist perspective, i.e. it is so since it rejects idealism as subjective idealism. Moreover, Hegel’s anti-idealism can be characterized as realism. This is because, if we admit that overcoming transcendentalism without falling back again on a pre-critical conception of thought and of reality involves an idea of thought which is not reducible to a "mentalistic" conception of it, we need to conceive of thought as something that is not alien to reality. Hegel conceives of thought as intimately connected with the world, as its own rational structure. This “realism” of thought is what makes Hegelian idealism, so to speak, anti-idealistic. Through this "realism" of thought Hegel pursues two goals. On the one hand, Hegel attempts to overcome a subjectivistic and instrumentalistic conception of thought, according to which a subject talks and relates to a reality that is always only a construction of him, and so it is necessarily the simulacrum of something that remains inaccessible in its truth. On the other hand, Hegel attempts to overcome a conception of reality characterized merely as alien and opposite to thought itself, and which is the counterpart of the subjectivistic and instrumentalistic conception of thought. By pursuing these two goals it should be gained a conception of reality which could warrant some form of objectivity, but which cannot be equated with the substantialistic conception of the pre-Kantian metaphysics. (shrink)
No one who cares about equal opportunity can derive much comfort from the present occupational distribution of working women. In the various industrial societies of the West, women comprise between one quarter and one-half of the national labor force. However, they tend to clustered in employment sectors – especially clerical, sales, and service J occupations – which rank relatively low in remuneration, status, autonomy, and other perquisites. Meanwhile, the more prestigious and rewarding managerial and professional positions, as well as the (...) major categories of blue-collar labor, remain largely a male preserve. In the same societies the average income earned by full-time female workers is one-half to two- J thirds that of their male counterparts. Although this disparity owes much to i other factors, including lower pay for work similar or even identical to that r standardly done by men, much of it can be explained only by the concentration of working women in traditional female job ghettos. (shrink)
Suppose that the ultimate point of ethics is to make the world a better place. If it is, we must face the question: better in what respect? If the good is prior to the right — that is, if the rationale for all requirements of the right is that they serve to further the good in one way or another — then what is this good? Is there a single fundamental value capable of underlying and unifying all of our moral (...) categories? If so, how might it defeat the claims of rival candidates for this role? If not, is there instead a plurality of basic goods, each irreducible to any of the others? In that case, how do they fit together into a unified picture of the moral life? These are the questions I wish to address, in a necessarily limited way. To many the questions will seem hopelessly old-fashioned or misguided. Some deontologists will wish to reverse my ordering of the good and the right, holding that the right constrains acceptable conceptions of the good. For many contractarians, neither the good nor the right will seem normatively basic, since both are to be derived from a prior conception of rationality. Finally, some theorists will reject the classification of moral theories in terms of their basic normative categories, arguing that the whole foundationalist enterprise in ethics should be abandoned. In the face of these challenges to the priority of the good, and in light of the many current varieties of moral skepticism and relativism, I cannot provide a very convincing justification for raising the questions I intend to discuss. (shrink)
During 1909 and 1910, Max Weber planned a major study of the con temporary newspaper business. Although the project eventually col lapsed, he did draft an outline proposal which is here translated into English for the first time.
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