Since we have learned that human organs can be used to treat severe health problems, only donation has been considered for organ procurement. Among the other possibilities that can be used after a person’s death, purchase or systematic removal have been a priori rejected. However, we will show that the appeal to individual altruism have resulted in some of the aporias of the present situation. Subsequently, we will consider how systematic organ removal from deceased persons can be made acceptable in (...) liberal and democratic societies. Finally, we will suggest that individual choices with regard to systematic organ removal could well be registered in a way that allows proper implementation of present French legislation. (shrink)
Brillant geschriebenes und nobelpreisgekröntes Hauptwerk Bergsons, das weit über die Lebensphilosophie hinaus auf die Literatur und Ästhetik der Folgezeit wirkte und auf Autoren wie Proust, Gide, T. S. Eliot und Musil großen Einfluß ausübte. Mit seinem epochemachenden Hauptwerk "L'évolution créatrice", für das er 1927 den Nobelpreis für Literatur erhielt, greift Bergson unmittelbar in die Diskussion über zeitgenössische Evolutionstheorien ein, die die Biologie um die Jahrhundertwende beherrschten. Gegenüber mechanistischen Konzepten wie dem Neo-Darwinismus, die er - mit großer Sachkenntnis im Detail - (...) als unzureichend für das Verständnis der Komplexität evolutionärer Prozesse kritisiert, versucht Bergson für die Philosophie die Deutungshoheit über den Lebensbegriff zurückzugewinnen.Die Grundfrage des Werks lautet: Gibt es etwas, das alle Lebewesen in ihrer Entwicklung gemeinsam haben und das insofern ein bestimmendes Merkmal des Lebens selbst ist? Bergson findet die Antwort im titelgebenden Begriff der "schöpferischen Evolution". Nicht nur ist die Evolution als schöpferisch zu denken, sondern zugleich der schöpferische Akt als "evolutiv". Als treibende Kraft und Ursache aller Veränderungen macht Bergson dabei den ursprünglichen "élan vital" aus, der zu einem Zentralbegriff seiner Philosophie wurde.Die Kritik am Szientismus seiner Zeit führt Bergson darüber hinaus zu einem neuen Zugang zur Lebenswirklichkeit, den er in der "Intuition" entdeckt. So wird die Auseinandersetzung mit der Evolutionstheorie zugleich zu einer großangelegten Neubestimmung der philosophischen Methode. L'évolution créatrice wurde 1912 von Gertrud Kantorowicz zum ersten Mal ins Deutsche übertragen. Ihre in Sprache und Terminologie stark vom George-Kreis geprägte Übersetzung wurde für diese Neuausgabe vollständig überarbeitet und enthält jetzt auch die in der ersten deutschen Ausgabe fehlenden Anmerkungen und Nachweise Bergsons. (shrink)
Henry Morris (1889-1961), the great educational philosopher, and initiator of the integrated community educational centre - embodied in the Cambridgeshire village college system - was county education officer and had his first 'memorandum' on the concept of community education printed by the Cambridge University Press. 1984 is both the 60th anniversary of his first memorandum and the 400th anniversary of the Press and this commemorative book will be published to coincide with a number of events to celebrate that. The book (...) is a collection of his papers, mainly about community education, edited by Professor Harry Re;e, who is closely associated with the Community Education Development Centre in Coventry. (shrink)
The requirements of education at Lagos. 15 Apr. 1892.--Primary, elementary, secondary, and supplementary education. 22 Jan. 1902.--Christian marriage. 26 May 1909.--Religious instruction in church schools. 28 May 1909.--Education of women. 18 May 1911.--The Rt. Rev. Bishop James Johnson, M.A., D.D. 1918.--The problems of education in Southern Nigeria. 9 Nov. 1920.--Our religion and our social life. 2 Oct. 1923.--Moral character. 5 July 1924.--The truth about my background and my career. 1924.--Religion as the basis of education. 1934.--Overseas scholarships for deserving Nigerian youths. (...) 3 Dec. 1935. (shrink)
This volume offers a translation with introduction and notes of Henry of Ghent's questions on the being and essence of God from his Summa of Ordinary Questions (Summa quaestionum ordinarium). These questions form the heart of Henry's philosophy of God, especially his "new way" of proving the existence of God and his claim that God is the first object known by the human intellect.
Few books have so firmly established their place in American literature as The Education of Henry Adams. When it was first published in 1918, it became an instant bestseller and went on to win the Pulitzer Prize. More than eighty years later, in an age of self-reflection and exhaustive memoirs, The Education still stands as perhaps the greatest American autobiography. The son of a diplomat, the grandson and great-grandson of two American presidents, a man of extraordinary gifts and learning in (...) his own right, Henry Adams recounts his life from his birth in 1838 and upbringing as a Boston Brahmin, through the Civil War, the nation's industrial expansion, and its emergence as a world power. In the process, he gives us a brilliant history of a changing country as well as a thoughtful, humane, often tender exploration of himself. From the original publisher, this edition of The Education of Henry Adams, newly introduced by Donald Hall, celebrates and honors this classic work on what it means to be an American. (shrink)
Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. (...) As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced ``I'' directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experiential events into the physical universe in a manner that: 1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, 2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, 3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and 4) explains how the consciously experienced ``I'' can direct human behaviour. (shrink)
George Herbert Mead, one of America’s most important and influential philosophers, a founder of pragmatism, social psychology, and symbolic interactionism, was also a keen observer of American culture and early modernism. In the period from the 1870s to 1895, Henry Northrup Castle maintained a correspondence with family members and with Mead—his best friend at Oberlin College and brother-in-law—that reveals many of the intellectual, economic, and cultural forces that shaped American thought in that complex era. Close friends of John Dewey, Jane (...) Addams, and other leading Chicago Progressives, the author of these often intimate letters comments frankly on pivotal events affecting higher education, developments at Oberlin College, Hawaii, progressivism, and the general angst that many young intellectuals were experiencing in early modern America. The letters, drawn from the Mead-Castle collection at the University of Chicago, were collected and edited by Mead after the tragic death of Henry Castle in a shipping accident in the North Sea. Working with his wife Helen Castle, he privately published fifty copies of the letters to record an important relationship and as an intellectual history of two progressive thinkers at the end of the nineteenth century. American historians, such as Robert Crunden and Gary Cook, have noted the importance of the letters to historians of the late nineteenth century. The letters are made available here using the basic Mead text of 1902. Additional insights into the connection between Mead, John Dewey, Henry and Harriet Castle, and Hawaii’s progressive kindergarten system are provided by the foundation’s executive director Alfred L. Castle. Marvin Krislov, president of Oberlin College, has added additional comments on the importance of the letters to understanding the intellectual relationship that flourished at Oberlin College. Published with the support of the Samuel N. and Mary Castle Foundation. (shrink)
With the help of American friends, he revised the book and published it anew six years later. The present volume is the third version of the biography, completed in 1908 but never published in Salt's lifetime.
I am going to be discussing a mode of moral responsibility that anglophone philosophers have largely neglected. It is a type of responsibility that looks to the future rather than the past. Because this forward-looking moral responsibility is relatively unfamiliar in the lexicon of analytic philosophy, many of my locutions will initially strike many readers as odd. As a matter of everyday speech, however, the notion of forward-looking moral responsibility is perfectly familiar. Today, for instance, I said I would be (...) responsible for watching my nieces while they swam. Neglecting this responsibility would have been a moral fault. When people marry, they undertake responsibilities, of moral import, of fidelity and mutual support. When people have children, they accrue moral responsibilities to feed, rear, and educate them. Not all forward-looking responsibilities are moral. While finishing this essay, I have had to keep an eye on a number of my administrative responsibilities, and, while reading it, you may well be occasionally distracted by some of your own. The notion of a responsibility that we accrue or take on, to look out for some range of concerns over some range of the future, is, then, perfectly familiar. Because this common notion of forward-looking responsibility has not been integrated into recent moral theory, however, my philosophical discussion of it will initially seem strange. (shrink)
This collection of 216 letters offers an accessible, single-volume distillation of the exchange between celebrated brothers William and Henry James. Spanning more than fifty years, their correspondence presents a lively account of the persons, places, and events that affected the Euro-American world from 1861 until the death of William James in August 1910. An engaging introduction by John J. McDermott suggests the significance of the Selected Letters for the study of the entire family.