If by personal immortality one means that the soul is naturally eternal and passes as a substance through physical death to another life, then the answer to this question is a firm No . Both Alfred North Whitehead and his most famous student Charles Hartshorne disavowed such personal immortality as philosophically incompatible with the basic tenets of process thought. For Whitehead, and all philosophers who claim to follow him, process is the ultimate metaphysical generality describing how actual entities instantiate themselves (...) from the causality of entities in their past to then become objectified as they influence successor actual entities. To claim that there are multiple exceptions to the sway of universal process in the form of eternal souls introduces a radical and unacceptable philosophical incoherence into the Whiteheadian metaphysical system. Hartshorne held that a belief in eternal souls was not only incompatible with process thought but also compromised the philosophy of Berkeley, Descartes and Kant. In addition, he considered such belief bad religion and argued forcibly against it. (shrink)
This book uses the friendly format of the computing language Prolog to teach a full formal predicate logic. With Prolog, the scope and limits of both logic and computing can be explored and experimented. Students learning formal logic in a Prolog format can begin using their already developed informal abilities in logic to program in Prolog and conversely learn enough formal logic to examine Prolog and computing in general so major fundamental theorems can be demonstrated. Cases such as Church's Thesis, (...) Church's Theorem, Turing's Halting Problem, and Godel's Incompleteness Theorem provide the author with the means to assess some of the philosophical implications of logic and computing. Henry designed the book for undergraduate students, but it is also useful for philosophers and theologians who wish to see how computer programming serves as a probe into philosophical matters. Contents: The Formalization of Logic; Propositional Logic; Predicate Logic; Prolog: Programming in Logic; Logic Machines; The Scope and Limits of Logic and Logic Machines; Philosophical Reflections; Appendix; Bibliography; Index. (shrink)
In their environment, plants are continuously submitted to natural stimuli such as wind, rain, temperature changes, wounding, etc. These signals induce a cascade of events which lead to metabolic and morphogenetic responses.In this paper the different steps are described and discussed starting from the reception of the signal by a plant organ to the final morphogenetic response. In our laboratory two plants are studied: Bryonia dioica for which rubbing the internode results in reduced elongation and enhanced radial expansion and Bidens (...) pilosa for which the response occurs at distance, hence pricking the cotyledon of a plantlet induces the growth inhibition of both the hypocotyl and the axillary bud of the pricked cotyledon. (shrink)
The measurement of food intake has long been used to describe ‘adaptation’ to low energy intakes in certain tropical peoples. However, the methods available to quantify food intake are unlikely to reflect accurately real energy intakes in free living peoples. Alternatively, estimating energy expenditure shows some promise—particularly the measurement of basal metabolic rate . The BMR may be measured effectively in males, but females show wide intra-individual variation in BMR during their menstrual cycle, which makes BMR measurements more difficult to (...) interpret in the context of adaptation. The use of double-labelled water may be the only method suitable to quantify and define ‘adaptation’ to low intakes in women. (shrink)
What explains the continuing hardship of so many black Americans? A distinguished group of scholars analyzes the long, complex structural and environmental causes of discrimination and their effects on African-Americans. The authors examine the impact of poverty, poor health, poor schools, poor housing, poor neighborhoods, and few job opportunities—and demonstrate how multiple causes reinforce each other and condemn African-Americans to positions of inferiority and poverty. Some of the contributors examine policies designed to correct problems, while others look at the changing (...) racial and ethnic composition in America and its implications for African-Americans, as other minorities surpass them in numbers and claim political, economic, and social attention. The late James Tobin has contributed a foreword to this important collection. (shrink)
Two hundred forty-four male undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology class completed surveys assessing animal abuse tendencies, bullying behaviors, and victimization by bullying during their K-12 school experience. Participants also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which evaluated their behavioral difficulties. Results revealed a significant relationship between animal abuse and bullying and victimization experiences. Moreover, animal abusers, bullies, and victims of bullying displayed significantly more behavioral problems when compared to nonabusers, nonbullies, and nonvictims. Multivariate analysis revealed a complex pattern (...) of main effects for animal abuse, bullying, and victimization on the SDQ subscales. In addition, a three-way interaction between animal abuse, bullying, and victimization was identified for the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale. These results can be utilized to help identify areas of psychological functioning that may be of concern for this population. (shrink)
U.S. researchers and scholars often point to two legal factors as significant obstacles to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research: the Department of Health and Human Services’ regulatory limitations specific to pregnant women's research participation and the fear of liability for potential harm to children born following a pregnant woman's research participation. This article offers a more nuanced view of the potential legal complexities that can impede research with pregnant women than has previously been reflected in the literature. (...) It reveals new insights into the role of legal professionals throughout the research pathway, from product conception to market, and it highlights a variety of legal factors influencing decision-making that may slow or halt research involving pregnant women. Our conclusion is that closing the evidence gap created by the underrepresentation and exclusion of pregnant women in research will require targeted attention to the role of legal professionals and the legal factors that influence their decisions. (shrink)
The assignment of this pseudo-explanatory function in a supernatural realm, beyond the pale of any kind of verification, seems, however, of dubious value and can hardly be said to do justice to the power and subtlety of Plato's myths. For it would not raise them appreciably above the level of the whimsical products of an artist's imagination, designed to please or to relieve the mind after a strenuous intellectual exercise, rather than to uncover significant philosophic truths.