Our article is an overview of a selection of findings in physics relating to the issue of time—we do not present in it any “time theory” of our own. After making some general remarks on the issue of time, we present historical outline and a brief description of the current state of time interval measurements. Subsequently, we go on to discuss certain consequences of both theories of relativity: special and general. Here, time is a geometrical component of space-time continuum. Following (...) section is dedicated to time in the so-called Hamiltonian formulations of the theory of particles, where it appears as a parameter of evolution. The last section contains remarks referring to certain attempts of going beyond the recognized physical theories relating to the question of time. (shrink)
SummaryErnest Gellner was, by all accounts, one of the most unconventional thinkers of the twentieth century. Not only was the content of his theories often strikingly original, but he also arrived at them by use of a singularly personal thought-style. The article describes the most salient features of this thought-style: his quest for overviews, on the one hand, and for penetrating and unexpected insights, on the other, his opposition to what he perceived as humanistic complacency, his academic elitism, and much (...) else. In the final section, an assessment of the most conspicuous feature of Gellner's thought-style—his tendency to downplay the importance of detail and to focus on high-level theory—is given. It is argued that this characteristic served Gellner better in philosophy and the history of ideas than in the social sciences. (shrink)
This article uses a feminist lens to examine Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and former United States President Donald Trump’s responses to COVID-19. It argues that both populist leaders mobilised masculinity as a resource in statecraft. Both initially responded to the pandemic with dismissiveness and denialism. For the rest of his term, Trump diminished the harms of COVID and emphasised ‘protecting the economy’. Duterte, however, eventually embraced the fear of COVID, imposed a strict lockdown, and secured emergency powers. This article first (...) analyses differences in the masculinities the two politicians performed. It then explores how this performance of masculinity contributed to structuring public discourses in relation to the pandemic and situates it in neoliberal governance more broadly. For example, the performance of invincibility constructed others’ vulnerability and illness as an individual weakness rather than socially and relationally produced. Trump’s co-optation of the language of freedom encouraged protests against health measures and positioned medical experts as the ‘real threat’. In contrast, Duterte’s securitised approach made it difficult for citizens to protest repressive laws enacted by his government. Duterte’s ‘war on COVID’ was marked by his demand for obedience and discipline, thereby constituting anyone who questioned the harmful effects of a police-led lockdown as a threat to national security. Finally, the article reflects on the ways China’s growing role in global politics affects notions and practices of populist masculinities. Both leaders flexed diplomatic masculinity differently in relation to China: Duterte touted his personal closeness to China as a path to securing resources for the Philippines, while Trump’s vilification of China constructed COVID as a ‘foreign enemy’ as opposed to a crisis he was responsible for. Ultimately, these masculine responses undermined dissent and centred muscularity, either in the form of individual resilience or securitisation and policing, as the solution to the pandemic. (shrink)
Henryk Skolimowski pays particular attention to the problem of ecological culture. He is convinced that only societies characterized by ecological culture are able to cope successfully with the most difficult problem of modernity which is the issue of the environment. The necessary condition for building man’s ecological culture, aside from equipping him with ecological knowledge as well as a system of values along with their normative equivalents, consists in shaping the pro-ecological attitude which manifests itself in particular actions. The (...) objective of the article is to present Skolimowski’s ideas on the essence of ecological culture and on the necessary actions to be undertaken to shape thinking, axiology, individual and social behavior in its light. (shrink)
The aim of the article is to analyze the mobility of Antonio Santa Croce – titular archbishop of Seleucia and apostolic nuncio in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1627–1630. The authors reconstructed the papal diplomat’s journey from Rome to Poland in 1627, his return trip to the Tiber in 1630, as well as his two trips to Poland – a monthlong trip to Prussia in 1627, undertaken in connection with the ongoing war for the mouth of the Vistula River, (...) and Polish-Swedish negotiations conducted with the participation of Dutch mediators, and a two-month tour of Mazovia, which was in fact an escape from the plague that struck the Kingdom of Poland in the second half of 1629. The study is based on Santa Croce’s correspondence with the Secretariat of State of the Holy See, which was overseen by Cardinal-nephew, Franscesco Barberini. The correspondence is stored in the Archivio Apostolico Vaticano and in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. A significant part of it was published in the Acta Nuntiaturae Polonae series. An interesting complementary source was the Diario di Roma by Giacinto Gigli, in which the diarist immortalized Santa Croce’s entry into the Eternal City in the summer of 1630. In addition, the authors have made use of the literature, devoted to the travels of papal representatives, including the works of Fr. Henryk Damian Wojtyski, Teresa Chynczewska-Hennel, and Tadeusz Fitych. The authors have analyzed manuscripts for the mobility of the nuncio of Santa Croce, thus completing his itinerary. The article pays attention to the descriptions of the places he visited and the personas of the people with whom the papal representative met during his travels. It also outlines some themes that will be pursued in future research, which concern the organizational sphere of the nunciature while the papal representative was away from the court. The article can be a valuable addition to the study of travel in modern times, as well as a contribution to the issue of the mobility of diplomats during their missions. (shrink)
The article reviews the book Religiöse Erfahrung zwischen Emotion und Kognition: William James’ Karl Girgensohns, Rudolf Otto und Carl Gustav Jungs Psychologie des religiösen Erlebens [Religious Experience between Emotion and Cognition: William James, Karl Girgensohns, Rudolf Otto and Carl Gustav Jung on the Psychology of Religious Experience], by Henryk Machoń.
Archive Materials of Mieczysław Wallis are in the collection of Combined Libraries of Philosophy and Sociology Faculties of the University of Warsaw, the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Science and the Polish Philosophical Society. There are two files devoted to Henryk Elzenberg. They contain a rich historical material, not published before and not known to many people. It is a valuable source of knowledge in the field of the history of Polish philosophy. Wallis’s notes (...) provide a lot of unique informations both on Elzenberg’s private life and also his activity in the scientific community. Furthermore, they present his philosophical concepts, as well as his motions of life and adversities he had to cope with. M. Wallis’s memoirs are an unusual record of the friendship and scientific co-operation of the two scholars that lasted for a few decades. Wallis’s work creates also an intellectual testimony of the epoch, in which they both lived and worked. (shrink)
Classic expression theory identified the emotional content of works of art with the feelings of the artists and the recipients. This content thus appeared to be external to the work itself. Consequently, formalism declared it to be irrelevant to a work’s value. A way out of this predicament – one which the Polish aesthetician Henryk Elzenberg (1887–1967) was among the first to propose – was suggested by the idea that physical, sensory objects can themselves possess emotional qualities. Thanks to (...) Bouwsma and Beardsley, this concept – of expressiveness as a quality – became common in Anglo-American aesthetics from the 1950s onwards. At the same time, these authors demanded that the term ‘expression’ be expunged from the language of aesthetics. But the widespread tendency to conceptualize the emotional content of art in terms of the expression of a certain subject (most often the artist) still requires some explanation – interpretation, rather than negation. One interpretation construes the expressiveness of works of art in terms of the expression of a fictitious subject, the ‘work’s persona’, conceived by Elzenberg in the 1950s and 1960s. This article discusses his concept and explains some of its more complex aspects, before addressing the emergence of a very similar concept within Anglo-American aesthetics. This concept was gradually elaborated in the 1970s and 1980s, but only in the 1990s did it become more fully developed and widely discussed. (shrink)
This paper explores the thesis that the concept of cultural techniques should be strictly limited to symbolic technologies that allow for self-referential recursions. Writing enables one to write about writing itself; painting itself can be depicted in painting; films may feature other films. In other words, cultural techniques are defined by their ability to thematize themselves; they are second-order techniques as opposed to first-order techniques like cooking or tilling a field. To illustrate his thesis, Macho discusses a sequence of historical (...) examples, from body signs and death masks to digital code and ID papers. These examples serve to reiterate another basic proposal that is already announced in the paper’s title. The recursive, self-observing qualities of cultural techniques make them a ‘technology of the self’ and thus render them indispensable for the generation, repetition and maintenance of identity. (shrink)
Historically, Ehrenfest’s theorem is the first one which shows that classical physics can emerge from quantum physics as a kind of approximation. We recall the theorem in its original form, and we highlight its generalizations to the relativistic Dirac particle and to a particle with spin and izospin. We argue that apparent classicality of the macroscopic world can probably be explained within the framework of standard quantum mechanics.
The wager for values proposed by Henryk Elzenberg seems to be an interesting and important problem in axiological thinking. That is why one should take a close look at Elzenberg’s reasoning and at certain consequences of such point of view. We analyze this problem as a parallel to Pascal’s Wager for God. One should live and act as if God existed—it is an effect of Pascal’s Wager. One should live and behave as if perfect values existed—this is the essence (...) of Elzenberg’s wager. Paralel analysis of both standpoints lets us formulate numerous hypotheses and statements especially in axiology. (shrink)
"This book was not conceived with the intention of treating exhaustively the complete philosophical foundation of psychology. Rather, its purpose is practical, namely, to present the philosophical roots of scientific psychology in a simple manner and in concise form. It is addressed to students of psychology in colleges and graduate schools, particularly to those who have not had a broad training in philosophy. During some years of teaching psychology and the history of psychology, the author has found that students in (...) general, and especially those without a background in philosophy, will encounter considerable difficulty in understanding the philosophical antecedents of psychological schools and theories. At the same time, it has been this author's conviction that such an understanding is essential in the study of the history of psychology"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). (shrink)
The article exposes the main theses of the ethical theory of Henryk Elzenberg, an eminent Polish philosopher and ethicist. The author outlines Elzenberg’s conception of ethics, the two types of values he differentiated, namely the „perfective” and the utilitarian, and the two ethical systems, the perfectionistic and the hedonistic, which characterises these two values. Finally, the author discusses the differentiation between goodness and beauty as the two perfective values as proposed by Elzenberg.