Organization in a tangled world -- Process views of organization -- Alfred North Whitehead on process -- Bruno Latour on relativizing the social, and the becoming of networks -- Niklas Luhmann on autopoiesis and recursiveness in social systems -- James March on decision processes and organization : a logic of streams -- Karl Weick on organizing and sensemaking -- A scheme for process based organizational analysis -- Some implications for organizational analysis.
Cultural difference has been largely ignored within bioethics, particularly within the end-of-life discourses and practices that have developed over the past two decades in the U.S. healthcare system. Yet how should culturebe taken into account?
Vaalijärjestelmä on yksi keskeisimmistä demokraattisen järjestelmän instituutioista, joka vaikuttaa merkittävästi siihen, kuka vaalit voittaa ja kuka häviää. Eerik Lagerspetz analysoi kirjassaan Social Choice and Democratic Values laajasti äänestyssääntöjen vaikutusta demokraattisiin päätöksiin. Lagerspetzin teos on tärkeä monestakin syystä, mutta erityisesti siksi, että se yhdistää harvoin keskenään keskustelevia normatiivisen demokratiateorian ja sosiaalisen valinnan teorian perinteitä. Pohdin artikkelissani äänestysmenettelyjen valintaa. Keskityn siihen, millä säännöillä äänestysmenettely valitaan, en niinkään sitä, ketkä valinnan tekevät. Tarkastelen aluksi sitä, miten äänestyssäännön valinta poikkeaa muista poliittisista valinnoista. Tämän jälkeen (...) pohdin, millä menettelyillä valinta voidaan tehdä ja lopuksi tarkastelen kahta empiiristä tutkimusta siitä, miten äänestysmenettelyjä valitaan. (shrink)
Codes of professional ethics and cases designed to teach ethical decision making are written for individual professionals and ignore the systems level of analysis. They typically employ a lineal view of causality and overvalue placement of blame as a component of ethical problem solving. This article takes a systems approach to ethical problems and identifies aspects of systems that promote or impede ethical decision making. Psychological abuse of children is used as an example of a problem requiring a coordinated, systemic (...) response to ethical issues such as autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality. (shrink)
This paper analyzes the main features of rational choice theory and evaluates it with respect to the conceptions of Lakatos' research program and Laudan's research tradition. The analysis reveals that the thin rationality assumption, the axiomatic method and the reduction to the micro level are the only features shared by all rational choice models. On these grounds, it is argued that rational choice theory cannot be characterized as a research program. This is due to the fact that the thin rationality (...) assumption cannot be understood as a hard core in Lakatos' terms. It is argued that Laudan's conception of a research tradition better characterizes rational choice theory. On the basis of this conclusion, certain important criticisms of rational choice theory are answered. First, the criticisms concerning the core assumptions of rational choice theory are countered. It is argued that this critique is based on a misunderstanding of rational choice theory as a unified set of models, such as Lakatos' research program. Second, Green and Shapiro's rational choice 'pathologies' - inconsistent predictions, post hoc theory development and arbitrary domain restrictions - are evaluated. Contrary to Green and Shapiro, it is argued that post hoc theory development is a more preferable strategy for developing RCT than domain restrictions based on ex ante rules. (shrink)
Theories of deliberative democracy maintain that outcomes of democratic deliberation are fairer than outcomes of mere aggregation of preferences. Theorists of impartial justice, especially Rawls and Sen, emphasize the role of deliberative processes for making just decisions. Democratic deliberation seems therefore to provide a model of impartial decision-making applicable in the real world. However, various types of cognitive and affective biases limit individual capacity to see things from others’ perspectives. In this paper, two strategies of enhancing impartiality in real world (...) decision-making are discussed. The first involves decision-making processes which detach decision-makers from their particular interests, whereas the second aims to enhance the quality of democratic deliberation and empathetic reasoning. We conclude that new forms of democratic deliberation may be necessary if we hold on to the aspiration of making decisions which are both democratic and impartial. (shrink)
This Handbook presents key ideas of philosophers and social theorists whose ideas inform process approaches to organization studies. Each chapter addresses the background and context of this thinker, their work (with a focus on the processual elements), and the potential contribution to organization and management research.
The Handbook examines 34 philosophical thinkers, both those commonly linked to process thinking, such as Whitehead, Bergson and James, and those that are not as often addressed from a process perspective such as Dilthey and Tarde. Each chapter addresses the background and context of this thinker, their work, and the potential contribution to organization and management research.
The family of cognitive models sometimes referred to as the “Learning Pyramid” enjoys a considerable level of authority within several areas of educational studies, despite that nobody knows how they originated or whether they were supported by any empirical evidence. This article investigates the early history of these models. Through comprehensive searches in digital libraries, we have found that versions of the Learning Pyramids have been part of educational debates and practices for more than 160 years. These findings demonstrate that (...) the models did not originate from empirical research. We also argue that the contemporary Learning Pyramids, despite their continued modifications and modernizations, have failed to keep up with the developments of cognitive psychology. The conception of memory implied by the Learning Pyramids deviates significantly from the standard picture of human memory. (shrink)
Accountability is present in many types of social relations; for example, the accountability of elected representatives to voters is the key characteristic of representative democracy. We distinguish between two institutional mechanisms of accountability, i.e., opportunity to punish and requirement of a justification, and examine the separate and combined effects of these mechanisms on individual behavior. For this purpose, we designed a decision-making experiment where subjects engage in a three-player trust game with two senders and one responder. We ask whether holding (...) the responder accountable increases senders’ and responders’ contributions in a trust game. When restricting the analysis to the first round, the requirement of justification seems to have a positive impact on senders’ contributions. When the game is played repeatedly, the experience of previous rounds dominates the results and significant treatment effects are no longer seen. We also find that responders tend to justify their choices in terms of reciprocity, which is in line with observed behavior. Moreover, the treatment combining punishment and justification hinders justifications that appeal to pure self-interest. (shrink)
Several uncorroborated, false, or misinterpreted conceptions have for years been widely distributed in academic publications, thus becoming scientific myths. How can such misconceptions persist and proliferate within the inimical environment of academic criticism? Examining 613 articles we demonstrate that the reception of three myth-exposing publications is skewed by an ‘affirmative citation bias’: The vast majority of articles citing the critical article will affirm the idea criticized. 468 affirmed the myth, 105 were neutral, while 40 took a negative stance. Once misconceptions (...) proliferate wide and long enough, criticizing them not only becomes increasingly difficult, efforts may even contribute to the continued spreading of the myths. (shrink)
This article examines the diffusion and present day status of a family of unsubstantiated learning-retention myths, some of which are referred to as ‘the learning pyramid’. We demonstrate through an extensive search in academic journals and field-specific encyclopaedias that these myths are indeed widely publicised in academia and that they have gained a considerable level of authority. We also argue that the academic publishing of these myths is potentially harmful to both professional as well as political deliberations on educational issues, (...) and therefore should be criticized and counteracted. (shrink)
Low-wage migrant workers in Singapore are legally entitled to healthcare provided by their employers and supported by private insurance, separate from the national UHC system. In practice, they face multiple barriers to access. In this article, we describe this policy-practice gap from the perspective of HealthServe, a non-profit organisation that assists low-wage migrant workers. We outline the healthcare financing system for migrant workers, describe commonly encountered barriers, and comment on their implications for the global UHC movement’s key ethical concepts of (...) fairness, equity, and solidarity. (shrink)
An ontological approach as a tool for managing the processes of constructing mathematical models based on interval data and further use of these models for solving applied problems is proposed in this article. Mathematical models built using interval data analysis are quite effective in many applications, as they have “guaranteed” predictive properties, which are determined by the accuracy of experimental data. However, the application of mathematical modeling methods is complicated by the lack of software tools for the implementation of procedures (...) for constructing this type of mathematical models, creating an ontological model that operates by the categories of the subject area of mathematical modeling, regardless of the modeling object proposed in this article. This approach has made it possible to generate tools for mathematical modeling of various objects based on the interval data analysis for any software development environment selected by the user. The technology of creating the software on the basis of the developed ontological superstructure for mathematical modeling using the interval data for different objects, as well as various forms of user interface implementation, is presented in this article. A number of schemes, which illustrate the technology of using the ontological approach of mathematical modeling based on interval data, are presented, and the features of its interpretation when solving environmental monitoring problems are described. (shrink)
In this paper we shall introduce the variety FWHA of frontal weak Heyting algebras as a generalization of the frontal Heyting algebras introduced by Leo Esakia in . A frontal operator in a weak Heyting algebra A is an expansive operator r preserving finite meets which also satisfies the equation?? b V, for all a,b? A. These operators were studied from an algebraic, logical and topological point of view by Leo Esakia in . We will study frontal operators in weak (...) Heyting algebras and we will consider two examples of them. We will give a Priestley duality for the category of frontal weak Heyting algebras in terms of relational spaces where is a WH space , and R is an additional binary relation used to interpret the modal operator. We will also study the WH- algebras with successor and the WTf- algebras with gamma. For these varieties we will give two topological dualities. The first one is based on the representation given for the frontal weak Heyting algebras. The second one is based on certain particular classes of WH-spaces. (shrink)
In 1963 Duchamp described his vertical installation of three Readymades at the Pasadena Art Museum as “readymade talk of what goes on in the Large Glass.” Elsewhere, he spoke of the Readymades as “vehicles for unloading ideas,” and during the years 1912-15 his mind was filled with ideas as he invented the “playful physics” for his techno-scientific allegory of quest, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass]. This essay argues that the “ideas” being unloaded in the (...) Readymades were rooted in his extensive study of contemporary science and technology as well as the biographical experience of his stay at Herne Bay on the English seacoast during August 1913. Readymades addressed include the Bicycle Wheel, With Hidden Noise, Paris Air, and Fresh Widow. Central themes include string or thread, traced from his preoccupation with tennis during his holiday, and the impact of the electrical spectacle of the illuminated Pier Pavilion at Herne Bay. (shrink)
The overall aim of this article is to explore the analytical potential and normative value of Helga M. Hernes' concept about woman-friendly welfare states in analysis of Scandinavian countries. The first part discusses the underlying theoretical, political and normative assumptions about gender equality and social justice related to dimensions such as redistribution, recognition and representation. The second part addresses the analytical potential of the concepts for understanding gender equality developments in Scandinavia. The focus is on three themes related to the (...) desirability, feasibility, and theoretical strength of the Scandinavian welfare and gender equality model and the underlying normative, empirical and theoretical premises. The analysis deals with debates about the public—private split in relation to woman-friendly policies, focusing on parental leave, childcare, and age restrictions in marriages involving foreigners. State feminism is explored in relation to women's political participation and representation and women's ability to influence gender equality policies. Furthermore, national variations in views about state feminism are identified. Finally, the article addresses the role of woman-friendly policies in debates about responses of Western welfare states to globalization, ageing and multiculturalism. (shrink)
L'œuvre philosophique la plus considérable de ce siècle présentée et commentée par les meilleurs spécialistes. La métaphysique, la pensée de l'Etre, la théologie, la technique, l'engagement politique... Des textes inédits. Des analyses éclairantes. Un Cahier de l'Herne exceptionnel.
Healthcare apps er blevet en omfattende industri. Vi kan ganske gratis downloade tusindvis af apps, som sætter os i stand til at monitorere alt fra vores fysiske form til vores mentale velbefindende, og vi kan gennem denne monitorering, producere endeløse datamængder og viden om os selv og vores liv – altså skabe et «monitoreret mig». Men hvordan forholder vi os til denne mulighed? I nærværende artikel tages udgangspunkt i foreløbige resultater fra et igangværende ph.d. projekt, hvor brugen af apps og (...) biofeedback anvendes i praksis, til at belyse en stigende stressproblematik blandt lærere i den danske folkeskole. Artiklens ærinde er, at tematisere de normer og fortolkningsrammer, som kommer til syne, når aktørerne selv italesætter sit «monitorerede mig» og hernæst diskutere, i hvilken position, disse normer og tolkninger af teknologien i anvendelse, bringer aktøren. Er «det monitorerede mig» en mulighed for frisættende autonomi – en empowerment? Eller bidrager monitoreringen i stedet til individualisering eller patologisering, hvor vi gennem ejerskabet af vores egen fortælling, producerer et overansvar for eksempelvis hvilken behandling vi skal modtage, eller hvordan vores arbejdsmiljø bør være?Nøgleord: Etik, humanistisk sundhedsforskning, selvmonitorering, Ecological Momentary StorytellingEnglish summary: The Monitored Me - empowerment or pathologization?Healthcare apps have become a major industry. We can freely download thousands of apps, that enable us to monitor everything, from our physical condition to our mental well-being, and we can through the monitoring produce endless amounts of data and knowledge about our inner selves and our lives - creating a “monitored me”. But how is this technological possibility dealt with, in practice? The present article presents and discusses results from a case study in which apps and biofeedback were used to illuminate an increasing stress problem among teachers in the Danish preliminary school system. The focus of the article is to analyze the self-interpretation framework that appears when the users of the technology articulate the "monitored me” and hereafter discuss how these self-interpretations position the user. Is “the monitored me” an opportunity for liberating autonomy – for empowerment? Or does it contribute to individualization or pathologization? (shrink)
Ajatuksen toimitus on ystävällisesti suonut minulle tilaisuuden vastata Aki Lehtisen ja Kaisa Herneen kirjoituksiin. Vaikka Lehtinen on radikaalimpi sosiaalisen valinnan teorian kriitikko kuin minä, hän on joiltakin osin sitoutunut teorian perusolettamuksiin minua tiukemmin. Käsittelen vastauksessani kolmea näistä. Lisäksi tuon esiin, miksi riippumattomuussääntöä koskevat jatkuvat erimielisyydet eivät nähdäkseni ole vakavin heikkous sosiaalisen valinnan teoriassa; kiistanalaisin peruskäsite on pikemminkin sosiaalisen preferenssi- eli paremmuusjärjestyksen käsite. Kommentoin myös lyhyesti Lehtisen tulkintaa utiliteettien maksimoimisesta. Kaisa Herne tarkastelee omassa esityksessään äänestyssääntöjen valintaa. John Lockea seuraten, päätöksentekijöiden velvollisuus (...) on valita oikeudenmukaisin mahdollinen vaalijärjestelmä. Mahdollisia keskenään yhteensopimattomia oikeudenmukaisuuskriteerejä on kuitenkin hyvin paljon. Herneen käsittelemä ajatus tietämättömyyden verhon takana tehtävästä valinnasta oikeudenmukaisuuden takaajana on modernin yhteiskuntafilosofian keskeisiä oivalluksia. Hänen selostamansa päätöksentekokokeet osoittavat, että tietämättömyyden verhoa ei tarvitse mieltää vain ajatukselliseksi apuvälineeksi. Vaikka empiiriset deliberaatiokokeet ovat tietyllä tavalla vakuuttavampia kuin pelkät ajatuskokeet, ne nähdäkseni ovat alttiita osin samantyyppisille metodologisille ongelmille, joita lyhyesti esittelen vastauksessani. (shrink)