Results for 'Hierarchical labels'

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  1.  24
    Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross‐Situational Statistics.Chen Chi-Hsin, Zhang Yayun & Yu Chen - 2018 - Cognitive Science:591-605.
    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels. This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules (...)
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  2.  18
    Product Differentiation Via Corporate Social Responsibility: Consumer Priorities and the Mediating Role of Food Labels.Marco Costanigro, Oana Deselnicu & Dawn Thilmany McFadden - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (3):597-609.
    This article examines quantitatively the determinants of purchase decisions based on corporate social responsibility, adopting a hierarchical conceptual model of decision making where the key factors are personal concern, information availability and financial considerations. We use best–worst methods to assess consumer priorities for CSR activities in milk production; and elicit consumer interpretation of four labels in terms of CSR and other outcomes. We then elicit willingness to pay for the labels, and estimate regression models to determine how (...)
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  3.  29
    Labels as Features (Not Names) for Infant Categorization: A Neurocomputational Approach.Valentina Gliozzi, Julien Mayor, Jon-Fan Hu & Kim Plunkett - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):709-738.
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  4.  38
    Learning by Imitation: A Hierarchical Approach.Richard W. Byrne & Anne E. Russon - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):667-684.
    To explain social learning without invoking the cognitively complex concept of imitation, many learning mechanisms have been proposed. Borrowing an idea used routinely in cognitive psychology, we argue that most of these alternatives can be subsumed under a single process, priming, in which input increases the activation of stored internal representations. Imitation itself has generally been seen as a This has diverted much research towards the all-or-none question of whether an animal can imitate, with disappointingly inconclusive results. In the great (...)
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  5. Pluralism in Evolutionary Controversies: Styles and Averaging Strategies in Hierarchical Selection Theories.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Michael J. Wade & Christopher C. Dimond - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):957-979.
    Two controversies exist regarding the appropriate characterization of hierarchical and adaptive evolution in natural populations. In biology, there is the Wright-Fisher controversy over the relative roles of random genetic drift, natural selection, population structure, and interdemic selection in adaptive evolution begun by Sewall Wright and Ronald Aylmer Fisher. There is also the Units of Selection debate, spanning both the biological and the philosophical literature and including the impassioned group-selection debate. Why do these two discourses exist separately, and interact relatively (...)
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  6. Habit in Semiosis: Two Different Perspectives Based on Hierarchical Multi-Level System Modeling and Niche Construction Theory.Pedro Ata & Joao Queiroz - 2016 - In Anderson M. West D. & Donna West (eds.), Consensus on Peirce’s Concept of Habit. Berlin: Springer. pp. 109-119.
    Habit in semiosis can be modeled both as a macro-level in a hierarchical multi-level system where it functions as boundary conditions for emergence of semiosis, and as a cognitive niche produced by an ecologically-inherited environment of cognitive artifacts. According to the first perspective, semiosis is modeled in terms of a multilayered system, with micro functional entities at the lower-level and with higher-level processes being mereologically composed of these lower-level entities. According to the second perspective, habits are embedded in ecologically-inherited (...)
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  7.  76
    Music Cognition as a Window to the World.Mark Reybrouck - 2011 - Semiotics:55-62.
    Worldviews are windows to the world. They can be static in referring to visual connotations as suggested by their name, but they can hold a dynamic and genetic view as well. As such, they imply a fundamental cognitive orientation, involving selection, interpretation and interaction with the world. What matters, in this view, is a kind of sense-making or semiotization of the world. -/- The semiotization of the “sonic world”, accordingly, can be approached from different epistemological positions: is music reducible to (...)
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  8.  28
    Hospitality as Openness to the Other.S. K. George - 2009 - Journal of Human Values 15 (1):29-47.
    In contemporary discourses on cosmo-political hospitality, contributions of Derrida, and especially of Levinas, have special significance on account of the vision, scale and relevance of their discussions on the theme, in the context of an increasingly globalizing international scene, and the consequent global encounter with diversity. The article strives to read the Indian hospitality tradition and ethos, articulated in several of India's culturally significant texts, and available in some way as a cultural practice even to this day , through the (...)
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  9.  68
    A Possibilistic Hierarchical Model for Behaviour Under Uncertainty.Gert de Cooman & Peter Walley - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (4):327-374.
    Hierarchical models are commonly used for modelling uncertainty. They arise whenever there is a `correct' or `ideal' uncertainty model but the modeller is uncertain about what it is. Hierarchical models which involve probability distributions are widely used in Bayesian inference. Alternative models which involve possibility distributions have been proposed by several authors, but these models do not have a clear operational meaning. This paper describes a new hierarchical model which is mathematically equivalent to some of the earlier, (...)
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  10.  43
    A Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Approach to Searching and Stopping in Multi-Attribute Judgment.Don van Ravenzwaaij, Chris P. Moore, Michael D. Lee & Ben R. Newell - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (7):1384-1405.
    In most decision-making situations, there is a plethora of information potentially available to people. Deciding what information to gather and what to ignore is no small feat. How do decision makers determine in what sequence to collect information and when to stop? In two experiments, we administered a version of the German cities task developed by Gigerenzer and Goldstein (1996), in which participants had to decide which of two cities had the larger population. Decision makers were not provided with the (...)
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  11. The Physical Theories and Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, Volume 1.Sergey G. Fedosin - 2014 - LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
    With the help of syncretiсs as a new philosophical logic, the philosophy of carriers, the theory of similarity and the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the problems of modern physics are analyzed. We consider the classical and relativistic mechanics, the special and general theories of relativity, the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, of weak and strong interactions. The goal is axiomatization of these theories, building models of elementary particles and of their interactions with each other. The (...)
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  12.  9
    The Physical Theories and Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, Volume 2.Sergey G. Fedosin - 2015 - LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
    With the help of syncretiсs as a new philosophical logic, the philosophy of carriers, the theory of similarity and the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the problems of modern physics are analyzed. We consider the classical and relativistic mechanics, the special and general theories of relativity, the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, of weak and strong interactions. The goal is axiomatization of these theories, building models of elementary particles and of their interactions with each other. The (...)
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  13.  29
    A Survey of Model Evaluation Approaches With a Tutorial on Hierarchical Bayesian Methods.Richard M. Shiffrin, Michael D. Lee, Woojae Kim & Eric‐Jan Wagenmakers - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1248-1284.
  14.  33
    Learning the Form of Causal Relationships Using Hierarchical Bayesian Models.Christopher G. Lucas & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):113-147.
  15.  63
    The Goal Circuit Model: A Hierarchical Multi‐Route Model of the Acquisition and Control of Routine Sequential Action in Humans.Richard P. Cooper, Nicolas Ruh & Denis Mareschal - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):244-274.
    Human control of action in routine situations involves a flexible interplay between (a) task-dependent serial ordering constraints; (b) top-down, or intentional, control processes; and (c) bottom-up, or environmentally triggered, affordances. In addition, the interaction between these influences is modulated by learning mechanisms that, over time, appear to reduce the need for top-down control processes while still allowing those processes to intervene at any point if necessary or if desired. We present a model of the acquisition and control of goal-directed action (...)
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  16.  11
    A Hierarchical Bayesian Model of Human Decision‐Making on an Optimal Stopping Problem.Michael D. Lee - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (3):1-26.
  17.  15
    Exemplars, Prototypes, Similarities, and Rules in Category Representation: An Example of Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis.Michael D. Lee & Wolf Vanpaemel - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1403-1424.
  18.  16
    Labels of Origin for Food, the New Economy and Opportunities for Rural Development in the US.Jim Bingen - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (4):543-552.
    This paper draws upon the events surrounding two small United States Department of Agriculture-funded projects in order to explore some preliminary ideas about the influence of corporations in US policy-making through federal advisory committees created by the 1972 Federal Advisory Committee Act. Following a synopsis of the political controversy created by the efforts of these projects to generate more discussion of geographical indications in the US, this paper outlines a path for further analysis of the relationships between members of advisory (...)
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  19.  5
    On the Parallel Complexity of Hierarchical Clustering and CC-Complete Problems.Raymond Greenlaw & Sanpawat Kantabutra - 2008 - Complexity 14 (2):18-28.
  20.  4
    Effects of Labels on Children's Perception and Discrimination Learning.Phyllis A. Katz - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (5):423-428.
  21.  38
    Fokker–Planck Theory of Nonequilibrium Systems Governed by Hierarchical Dynamics.Sumiyoshi Abe - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (2):175-182.
    Dynamics of complex systems is often hierarchically organized on different time scales. To understand the physics of such hierarchy, here Brownian motion of a particle moving through a fluctuating medium with slowly varying temperature is studied as an analytically tractable example, and a kinetic theory is formulated for describing the states of the particle. What is peculiar here is that the (inverse) temperature is treated as a dynamical variable. Dynamical hierarchy is introduced in conformity with the adiabatic scheme. Then, a (...)
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  22.  9
    Acquisition of Hierarchical Control Over the Temporal Organization of a Skill.Richard W. Pew - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):764.
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  23.  14
    Effects of Response Labels in Concept Attainment.Richard Gottwald - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):30.
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  24.  17
    Nature of the Effect of Verbal Labels on Recognition Memory for Form.Terry C. Daniel - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):152.
  25.  34
    The Locus of the Retention Differences Associated with Degree of Hierarchical Conceptual Structure.Benton J. Underwood, John J. Shaughnessy & Joel Zimmerman - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):850.
  26.  2
    Hierarchical Structure in Sequence Processing: How to Measure It and Determine Its Neural Implementation.Julia Uddén, Mauricio de Jesus Dias Martins, Willem Zuidema & W. Tecumseh Fitch - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  27.  28
    What is Hierarchical Selection?Ben Goertzel - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):27-33.
    It has been proposed that natural selection occurs on a hierarchy of levels, of which the organismic level is neither the top nor the bottom. This hypothesis leads to the following practical problem: in general, how does one tell if a given phenomenon is a result of selection on level X or level Y. How does one tell what the units of selection actually are?It is convenient to assume that a unit of selection may be defined as a type of (...)
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  28.  18
    Transfer of Stimulus Predifferentiation to Shape Recognition and Identification Learning: Role of Properties of Verbal Labels.Henry C. Ellis - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (3p1):401.
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  29.  13
    The Effect of Learning Verbal Labels for Stimuli on Their Later Discrimination.John S. Robinson - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (2):112.
  30.  13
    Hierarchical Structure in Free Recall.Erwin M. Segal - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):59.
  31.  6
    Serial Retention as a Function of Hierarchical Structure.Benton J. Underwood & Joel Zimmerman - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (2):236.
  32.  76
    Content and Misrepresentation in Hierarchical Generative Models.Alex Kiefer & Jakob Hohwy - 2018 - Synthese 195 (6):2387-2415.
    In this paper, we consider how certain longstanding philosophical questions about mental representation may be answered on the assumption that cognitive and perceptual systems implement hierarchical generative models, such as those discussed within the prediction error minimization framework. We build on existing treatments of representation via structural resemblance, such as those in Gładziejewski :559–582, 2016) and Gładziejewski and Miłkowski, to argue for a representationalist interpretation of the PEM framework. We further motivate the proposed approach to content by arguing that (...)
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  33. A Contextual-Hierarchical Approach to Truth and the Liar Paradox.Michael Glanzberg - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (1):27-88.
    This paper presents an approach to truth and the Liar paradox which combines elements of context dependence and hierarchy. This approach is developed formally, using the techniques of model theory in admissible sets. Special attention is paid to showing how starting with some ideas about context drawn from linguistics and philosophy of language, we can see the Liar sentence to be context dependent. Once this context dependence is properly understood, it is argued, a hierarchical structure emerges which is neither (...)
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  34. Each Thing Is Fundamental: Against Hylomorphism and Hierarchical Structure.M. Oreste Fiocco - 2019 - American Philosophical Quarterly 56 (3):289-301.
    Each thing is fundamental. Not only is no thing any more or less real than any other, but no thing is prior to another in any robust ontological sense. Thus, no thing can explain the very existence of another, nor account for how another is what it is. I reach this surprising conclusion by undermining two important positions in contemporary metaphysics: hylomorphism and hierarchical views employing so-called building relations, such as grounding. The paper has three main parts. First, I (...)
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  35.  24
    Hierarchical Inconsistencies: A Critical Assessment of Justification.Juozas Kasputis - 2019 - Economic Thought 8 (2):1-12.
    The existential insecurity of human beings has induced them to create protective spheres of symbols: myths, religions, values, belief systems, theories, etc. Rationality is one of the key factors contributing to the construction of civilisation in technical and symbolic terms. As Hankiss has emphasised, protective spheres of symbols may collapse – thus causing a profound social crisis. Social and political transformations had a tremendous impact at the end of the 20th century. As a result, management theories have been revised in (...)
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  36. The Structure and Dynamics of Scientific Theories: A Hierarchical Bayesian Perspective.Leah Henderson, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & James F. Woodward - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (2):172-200.
    Hierarchical Bayesian models (HBMs) provide an account of Bayesian inference in a hierarchically structured hypothesis space. Scientific theories are plausibly regarded as organized into hierarchies in many cases, with higher levels sometimes called ‘paradigms’ and lower levels encoding more specific or concrete hypotheses. Therefore, HBMs provide a useful model for scientific theory change, showing how higher‐level theory change may be driven by the impact of evidence on lower levels. HBMs capture features described in the Kuhnian tradition, particularly the idea (...)
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  37. The Limitations of Hierarchical Organization.Angela Potochnik & Brian McGill - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (1):120-140.
    The concept of hierarchical organization is commonplace in science. Subatomic particles compose atoms, which compose molecules; cells compose tissues, which compose organs, which compose organisms; etc. Hierarchical organization is particularly prominent in ecology, a field of research explicitly arranged around levels of ecological organization. The concept of levels of organization is also central to a variety of debates in philosophy of science. Yet many difficulties plague the concept of discrete hierarchical levels. In this paper, we show how (...)
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  38.  22
    Servant Leadership and the Effect of the Interaction Between Humility, Action, and Hierarchical Power on Follower Engagement.Milton Sousa & Dirk van Dierendonck - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (1):13-25.
    Servant leadership has been theorized as a model where the moral virtue of humility co-exists with action-driven behavior. This article provides an empirical study that tests how these two apparently paradoxical aspects of servant leadership interact in generating follower engagement, while considering the hierarchical power of the leader as a contingency variable. Through a three-way moderation model, a study was conducted based on a sample of 232 people working in a diverse range of companies. The first finding is that (...)
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  39.  75
    Enabling Guanxi Management in China: A Hierarchical Stakeholder Model of Effective Guanxi.Chenting Su, Ronald K. Mitchell & M. Joseph Sirgy - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (3):301-319.
    Guanxi (literally interpersonal connections) is in essence a network of resource coalition-based stakeholders sharing resources for survival, and it plays a key role in achieving business success in China. However, the salience of guanxi stakeholders varies: not all guanxi relationships are necessary, and among the necessary guanxi participants, not all are equally important. A hierarchical stakeholder model of guanxi is developed drawing upon Mitchell et al.’s (1997) stakeholder salience theory and Anderson’s (1982) constituency theory. As an application of instrumental (...)
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  40.  54
    On Hierarchical Propositions.Giorgio Sbardolini - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (1):1-11.
    There is an apparent dilemma for hierarchical accounts of propositions, raised by Bruno Whittle : either such accounts do not offer adequate treatment of connectives and quantifiers, or they eviscerate the logic. I discuss what a plausible hierarchical conception of propositions might amount to, and show that on that conception, Whittle’s dilemma is not compelling. Thus, there are good reasons why proponents of hierarchical accounts of propositions did not see the difficulty Whittle raises.
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  41.  45
    Particles, Particle Labels, and Quanta: The Toll of Unacknowledged Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Michael Redhead & Paul Teller - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (1):43-62.
    The practice of describing multiparticle quantum systems in terms of labeled particles indicates that we think of quantum entities as individuatable. The labels, together with particle indistinguishability, create the need for symmetrization or antisymmetrization (or, in principle, higher-order symmetries), which in turn results in “surplus formal structure” in the formalism, formal structure which corresponds to nothing in the real world. We argue that these facts show quanta to be unindividuatable entities, things in principle incapable of supporting labels, and (...)
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  42. Hierarchical Control or Individuals' Moral Autonomy? Addressing a Fundamental Tension in the Management of Business Ethics.Patrick Maclagan - 2007 - Business Ethics 16 (1):48–61.
    There is a fundamental tension in business ethics between the apparent need to ensure ethical conduct through hierarchical control, and the encouragement of individuals' potential for autonomous moral judgement. In philosophical terms, these positions are consequentialist and Kantian, respectively. This paper assumes the former to be the dominant position in practice, and probably in theory also, but regards it as a misplaced extension of the more general managerial tendency to seek and maintain control over employees. While the functions of (...)
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  43.  19
    Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes.Luis Emilio Bruni - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):113-130.
    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception–cognition–action and it has not been considered the possibility to extend this kind of phenomena to the mere physiological level. To generalise the notion of CP in this sense, I have proposed to distinguish between categorical perception (CP) and categorical sensing (CS) (...)
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  44.  75
    Hierarchical Propositions.Bruno Whittle - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (2):215-231.
    The notion of a proposition is central to philosophy. But it is subject to paradoxes. A natural response is a hierarchical account and, ever since Russell proposed his theory of types in 1908, this has been the strategy of choice. But in this paper I raise a problem for such accounts. While this does not seem to have been recognized before, it would seem to render existing such accounts inadequate. The main purpose of the paper, however, is to provide (...)
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  45.  13
    Hierarchical Motive Structures and Their Role in Moral Choices.Richard P. Bagozzi, Leslie E. Sekerka & Vanessa Hill - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S4):461 - 486.
    Leader-managers face a myriad of competing values when they engage in ethical decision-making. Few studies help us understand why certain reasons for action are justified, taking precedence over others when people choose to respond to an ethical dilemma. To help address this matter we began with a qualitative approach to disclose leader-managers' moral motives when they decide to address a work-related ethical dilemma. One hundred and nine military officers were asked to provide their reasons for taking action, justifications of their (...)
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  46. Predictive Processing and the Phenomenology of Time Consciousness: A Hierarchical Extension of Rick Grush’s Trajectory Estimation Model.Wanja Wiese - 2017 - Philosophy and Predictive Processing.
    This chapter explores to what extent some core ideas of predictive processing can be applied to the phenomenology of time consciousness. The focus is on the experienced continuity of consciously perceived, temporally extended phenomena (such as enduring processes and successions of events). The main claim is that the hierarchy of representations posited by hierarchical predictive processing models can contribute to a deepened understanding of the continuity of consciousness. Computationally, such models show that sequences of events can be represented as (...)
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  47.  13
    Governance of Eco-Labels: Expert Opinion and Media Coverage.Pavel Castka & Charles J. Corbett - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (2):309-326.
    “Eco-labels” are an increasingly important form of private regulation for sustainability in areas such as carbon emissions, water consumption, ethical sourcing, or organic produce. The growing interest and popularity of eco-labels has also been coupled with growing concerns about their credibility, in part because the standard-setting and conformity assessment practices that eco-labels adopt exhibit striking differences. In this paper, we assess which assurance practices contribute to eco-labels being perceived as better governed, in the eyes of experts (...)
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  48.  11
    Servant Leadership and the Effect of the Interaction Between Humility, Action, and Hierarchical Power on Follower Engagement.Dirk Dierendonck & Milton Sousa - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (1):13-25.
    Servant leadership has been theorized as a model where the moral virtue of humility co-exists with action-driven behavior. This article provides an empirical study that tests how these two apparently paradoxical aspects of servant leadership interact in generating follower engagement, while considering the hierarchical power of the leader as a contingency variable. Through a three-way moderation model, a study was conducted based on a sample of 232 people working in a diverse range of companies. The first finding is that (...)
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  49.  15
    Isolated Environmental Cues and Product Efficacy Penalties: The Color Green and Eco-Labels.Ethan Pancer, Lindsay McShane & Theodore J. Noseworthy - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (1):159-177.
    The current work examines how cues traditionally used to signal environmental friendliness, specifically the color green and eco-labels, and influence product efficacy perceptions and subsequent purchase intentions. Across three experiments, we find that environmental cues used in isolation reduce perceptions of product efficacy. We argue that this efficacy discounting effect occurs because the isolated use of an environmental cue introduces category ambiguity by activating competing functionality and environmentally friendly schemas during evaluation. We discuss the implications of our findings for (...)
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  50.  33
    Globalizing Indigenous Psychology: An East Asian Form of Hierarchical Relationalism with Worldwide Implications.James Liu - 2015 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 45 (1):82-94.
    Globalization has changed almost every facet of life for people around the world, and today the flow of influence is no longer uni-directional. It is argued that East Asian societies are anchored in an indigenous form of hierarchical relationalism where social structure is produced by relational obligations of an ethical and normative nature that have slowed its traditional culture “melting into air” as prophesied by Marx. The successfully modernization of East Asia has involved hybridization, compartmentalization, and sequencing of traditional (...)
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