Japanese English learners have difficulty speaking Double Object than Prepositional Object structures which neural underpinning is unknown. In speaking, syntactic and phonological processing follow semantic encoding, conversion of non-verbal mental representation into a structure suitable for expression. To test whether DO difficulty lies in linguistic or prelinguistic process, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty participants described cartoons using DO or PO, or simply named them. Greater reaction times and error rates indicated DO difficulty. DO compared with PO showed parieto-frontal (...) activation including left inferior frontal gyrus, reflecting linguistic process. Psychological priming in PO produced immediately after DO and vice versa compared to after control, indicated shared process between PO and DO. Cross-structural neural repetition suppression was observed in occipito-parietal regions, overlapping the linguistic system in pre-SMA. Thus DO and PO share prelinguistic process, whereas linguistic process imposes overload in DO. (shrink)
This essay is one of three responses to Casper Bruun Jensen's article “Experiments in Good Faith and Hopefulness: Toward a Postcritical Social Science,” published in the Spring 2014 issue of Common Knowledge. Jensen suggested that the postcritical mode of knowledge production should focus on a continuous and persistent analytical effort to resist despair by “insisting properly.” This commentary, by one of three authors on whom the original article focused, contrasts Jensen's emphasis on insistence with the idea of ethnography as response. (...) The reconceptualization of ethnographic work as response can have various and divergent consequences, some of which are explored here with reference to the author's own ethnographic research on indigenous Fijian gift-giving and Japanese financial trading. While his immediate interest here is to expose differences in the kinds of openness that insistence and response afford, he concludes that willingness to respond is more basic to anthropology than the ethnographer's cultivation of the internal strength required to keep anthropology going as an enterprise. (shrink)
In this paper we study a certain class of Lie algebras over commutative von Neumann algebras satisfying a certain finiteness condition. By using Boolean valued methods developed by Takeuti -, we will establish the basic structure and representation theorems.
Just as Kaplansky  has introduced the notion of an AW*-module as a generalization of a complex Hilbert space, we introduce the notion of an AL*-algebra, which is a generalization of that of an L*-algebra invented by Schue [9, 10]. By using Boolean valued methods developed by Ozawa [6–8], Takeuti [11–13] and others, we establish its basic properties including a fundamental structure theorem. This paper should be regarded as a continuation or our previous paper , the familiarity with which is (...) presupposed. MSC: 03C90, 03E40, 17B65, 46L10. (shrink)
In conventional generalization of the main results of classical measure theory to Stone algebra valued measures, the values that measures and functions can take are Booleanized, while the classical notion of a σ-field is retained. The main purpose of this paper is to show by abundace of illustrations that if we agree to Booleanize the notion of a σ-field as well, then all the glorious legacy of classical measure theory is preserved completely.
The aims of this paper are: (1) to present tense-logical versions of such classical notions as saturated and special models; (2) to establish several fundamental existence theorems about these notions; (3) to apply these powerful techniques to tense complexity.In this paper we are concerned exclusively with quantifiedK 1 (for linear time) with constant domain. Our present research owes much to Bowen , Fine  and Gabbay .
By creating an unbounded topological reduction theory for complex Hilbert spaces over Stonean spaces, we can give a category-theoretic duality between Boolean valued analysis and topological reduction theory for complex Hilbert spaces. MSC: 03C90, 03E40, 06E15, 46M99.
This is a review of the Japanese film, Like Father, Like Son. The movie tells the story of two families attempting to resolve the dilemma of learning that their 6-year old sons are actually not their biological children, but rather children swapped at birth by a nurse with malicious intent.