The Pet Attitude Scale score of Kuwaiti adolescents correlated more highly with that of their fathers than with the score of their mothers. This contrasts with a similar American study in which the PAS score of adolescents correlated more highly with the score of their mothers. The different pattern seemed to be congruent with the father's more dominant role in Arab families. This study found that Kuwaiti family members had scores on the PAS about a standard deviation lower than that (...) of American family members, a finding viewed as consistent with the less positive attitude toward companion animals in Muslim countries. (shrink)
This study recruited 203 college students to help determine clarity and precision in the wording of four items in the Templer, Salter, Baldwin, Dickey, and Veleber Pet Attitude Scale. Half the college students received the original format, and half received the modified wording format. The correlation with total score did not differ for three of the pairs of items. For one of the items, the correlation was higher with the original wording. The 18-item Pet Attitude Scale—Modified retains the original wording (...) for that item and uses the modified wording for the other three items. (shrink)
Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. (...) Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is initiated with good intentions; if the maximum possible effort is made at said facility to protect the interests, rights, and safety of the child; and if no clear evidence of harm exists. (shrink)
dai 1-kan. Ōgi ; Matsuri no genri -- dai 2-kan. Nihon kodai jujutsu ; Kakusareta kamigami -- dai 3-kan. Inʼyō gogyō shisō kara mita Nihon no matsuri -- dai 4-kan. Hebi ; Kitsune -- dai 5-kan. Nihonjin no shiseikan ; Inʼyō gogyō to Nihon no minzoku -- dai 6-kan. Eki to Nihon no saishi ; Inʼyō gogyō to jidō saishi -- dai 7-kan. Daijōsai ; Jitō Tennō -- dai 8-kan. Yama no kami ; Kamigami no tanjō -- dai 9-kan. Gogyō (...) junkan ; Jūnishi -- dai 10-kan. Daruma no minzokugaku ; In'yo gogyō to Nihon no tennō -- dai 11-kan. Eki, gogyō to Genji no sekai ; In'yo gogyō to Nihon no bunka -- dai 12-kan. Kodai Nihon no josei tennō ; Zassan. (shrink)
Male white-rumped munias sing syntactically simpler songs than their domestic counterparts, Bengalese finches. The differences in song structure may reflect differences in natural selection pressures between wild and domestic environments. Deacon (2010) proposed song simplicity of the wild strain could be subject to natural selection. We hypothesized the selection pressure may be species identification. Thus, we compared song variations in relation to ecological factors and dispersal history of white-rumped munias to understand song evolutionary processes. We found geographic variations of song (...) syntactical complexity. The difference of song syntactical complexity did not corresponded to genetic distance, but did to that of the proportion of mixed flocks with sympatric related species. Birds that inhabited the areas with more mixed flocks sang simpler songs. The song complexity might be constrained to intensify distinct conspecific signals from related species. Our field work provided empirical evidence supporting a proposal made by Deacon (2010). Keywords: birdsong; evolution; masking hypothesis; Bengalese finches; song geographic variation; genetic variation. (shrink)
Drawing upon the findings of a grounded theory study, this article addresses how sunao-sa influences intercultural communication and the process of building and developing trust between Japanese expatriate managers and Australian supervisors working in subsidiaries of Japanese multinationals in Australia. The authors argue that sunao is related to other concepts in business ethics and virtue literature such as character and its constituents, empathy and concern for others. How sunao as a value, influences the process of interpreting intercultural behaviour in relation (...) to providing accounts, excuses or apologies in situations where a breach of some norm has occurred, is also explained. Although sunao has a particular role in hierarchical relationships between manager and subordinate, the paper concludes that becoming mutually sunao is crucial in learning and understanding the perspectives and expectations of a counterpart so that trust can deepen and flourish. The study makes an original contribution in an area that to date does not appear to have been researched from a management perspective and purports that sunao as character is an important factor in the culture of Japanese multinational organizations and indeed, international management in that context. (shrink)
Since Japan adopted the concept of informed consent from the West, its inappropriate acquisition from patients in the Japanese clinical setting has continued, due in part to cultural aspects. Here, we discuss the current status of and contemporary issues surrounding informed consent in Japan, and how these are influenced by Japanese culture.
As Funayama has shown, Dharmakīrti’s successors had an animated discussion on the nature and function of the initial statement of scientific treatises in terms of its effectiveness and requisites. Arcaṭa in his comments on the initial statement of the Hetubindu considers that the initial statement, which contains the purpose of the treatise, is useless in prompting people to undertake the activity of reading the treatise because judicious people are supposed to undertake action only due to certainty which never arises from (...) something that is not a pramāṇa. For Arcaṭa, the initial statement is set forth only to dispel the objection of an opponent who criticizes the treatise for not having a purpose. Kamalaśīla criticizes Arcaṭa on this point; for him the initial statement is effective to prompt people to undertake the reading of the treatise because people act also on the basis of doubt, which arises from the initial statement that is not a pramāṇa but an abhyupāya for action. This paper attempts to consider how such doubt can cause reading by examining the debate in the Tattvasaṅgrahapañjikā and related texts. As Kamalaśīla presupposes, when people act due to doubt, they may attain the desired purpose by chance but cannot escape the risks of not attaining an desired purpose and also of attaining an undesired purpose. Taking these risks into consideration, it is reasonable for Granoff to take up Kamalaśīla’s position as an example of the maxim of kākatālīya in the introduction of her paper in the present volume. However, the probability for the readers of the Tattvasaṅgraha to achieve easy comprehension of tattva as a result of reading a full treatise, which they undertake due to doubt out of the initial statement, is higher than that for a crow being suddenly killed by a falling palm-fruit. According to Kamalaśīla, the risk of not attaining the desired purpose does not prevent people from reading because such fear equally occurs in activities based on certainty. Furthermore, there is no risk of attaining an undesired purpose from the treatise because authors are supposed to undertake action only for the sake of others. Therefore, doubt which arises from an abhyupāya can make people undertake action. (shrink)
The purposes of this study are (a) to establish a measurement for evaluating conversational impressions of group discussions, and (b) to make an exploratory investigation on their interactional processes which may affect to form those impressions. The impression rating and factor analysis undertaken first give us four factors concerning conversational impressions of “focus group interviews (FGIs)”: conversational activeness, conversational sequencing, the attitudes of participants and the relationships of participants. In relation to the factors of conversational activeness and conversational sequencing in (...) particular, the microanalysis of four selected topical scenes from our database further shows that the behavior of the moderator and the interviewees is organized not independently but with reference to each other. The study thus emphasizes the importance of the integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches towards human interactions. (shrink)
This study addresses building an interactive system that effectively prompts customers to make their decision while shopping online. It is especially targeted at purchasing as concept articulation where customers initially have a vague concept of what they want and then gradually clarify it in the course of interaction, which has not been covered by traditional online shopping systems. This paper proposes information presentation methods to effectively facilitate customers in their concept articulation process, and the framework for interaction design to enable (...) the methods. Specifically, this study builds a system called S-Conart that facilitates purchasing as concept articulation through support for customerâs conception with spatial-arrangement style information presentation and for their conviction with scene information presentation, and then makes a set of evaluation experiments with the system to verify that the approach used in building the system is effective in facilitating the purchasing as concept articulation. (shrink)
Presente texto tem por objetivo o estudo sobre a atuação de Almeida Júnior diante da expansão das escolas e do ensino secundário que ocorreu na década de 1950 em São Paulo, durante o governo estadual de Jânio Quadros. Pretende analisar as origens das críticas formuladas por Almeida Júnior entre 1957-1958, em relação à qualidade de ensino e em defesa da escola elementar, considerando também a conjuntura política marcada pelo populismo. O recorte temporal escolhido, isto é, entre 1957 e 1958, considera (...) a expansão da escola secundária pública que ocorreO u em São Paulo e das acepções apresentadas por Almeida Junior, em relação a qualidade de ensino por ocasião da expansão do ensino nas regiões periféricas da cidade de São Paulo. Como fontes, consideram-se as produções de Marília Pontes Spósito O povo vai à escola e A escola pitoresca de Almeida Júnior. (shrink)
Previous studies of language and gender discuss how men and women use gender-specific conversational styles mainly in relation to English, whereas similar studies for Asian languages remain comparatively few. Moreover, little is known about gender and conversational styles during intercultural communication. This paper explores whether speakers follow similar norms of politeness in mixed-sex talk in their L1 and in intercultural conversations in L2 English, and if femininities are modified, what factors may be involved. It reports findings from a case study (...) of a Japanese female’s conversations with a Japanese male in Japanese and with three male L2 English speakers. It suggests that femininities might be modified to become more ‘immodest’ in English due to factors such as speakers’ varying level of adherence to native cultural norms in L1 and in L2 contexts and the male interlocutors’ ethnicity. For example, female speakers who adhere to native cultural norms in L1 conversations may see L2 intercultural contexts as opportunities to create non-traditional femininities, especially when there is no male interlocutor with shared ethnicity. The construction of L2 femininities may also be shaped by linguistic factors such as L2 proficiency or systemic differences between the two languages. (shrink)
This paper aims at examining the arguments between Śubhagupta (c.720–780) and Śāntarakṣita (c.725–788) over the Buddha’s cognition of other minds and shows how the question of the Buddha’s cognition of other mindsis incorporated into the proof of vijñaptimātratā or “consciousness-only” by Śāntarakṣita. According to Śāntarakṣita, Śubhagupta assumes that the Buddha’s cognition, which is characterized as “the cognition [of the Blessed One] which follows the path of cognition” (aupalambhikadarśana), grasps other minds when the Buddha’s cognition is similar (sārūpya) to other minds. (...) For Śāntarakṣita, the Buddha’s cognition cannot be aupalambhika. If the Buddha’s cognition were similar to the other minds, it would follow that the Buddha, whose cognition erroneously grasps other minds as something distinct from it, has not yet removed the hindrance constituted by objects of knowledge (jñeyāvaraṇa). But if it is accepted that the Buddha’s cognition is beyond the grasped-grasper duality, can the Buddha, who does not know other minds, be called sarvajña “omniscient”? According to Śāntarakṣita, even though the Buddha has no seeing (adarśana), the Buddha causes all sentient beings to gain benefits by virtue of seeing other minds and hence deserves to be called sarvajña. What underlies this argument is that the Buddha knows other minds without making a distinction between his own mind and other minds, which is possible only on the basis of self-cognition (ātmasaṃvedana). (shrink)
This paper employs conversation analysis to examine the inter-connection between grammar and displays of contextual understanding, social identity, and social relationships as well as other activities clustering around turn-endings in Japanese talk-in-interaction, while undertaking a restricted comparison with the realisation of similar activities in English. A notable feature of turn-endings in Japanese is the particular salience of grammatical construction on the interactional activities they accomplish. Complete turns which are also syntactically complete are shown to be associated with the explicit display (...) of contextual features, whereas syntactically incomplete turns are designed to circumvent or minimise such displays. The explicit or implicit display of one's social and contextual relationship to the interactional environment is therefore seen to be an integral part of the performance of social actions in Japanese. On the other hand, in English, it is more difficult to establish a clear association between grammar and the inclusion or avoidance of contextual displays. (shrink)
Through an analysis of university studentsâ job-hunting logs, we have found that their introspection via rereading their log sometimes helps them discover themselves. Then we have built a system called PLASIU designed to support job-hunterâs creative decision-making based on the observations from their actual job-hunting process. This paper provides an overview of PLASIU and describes the findings from a user study using PLASIU.
The way language as a human faculty has evolved is a question that preoccupies researchers from a wide spread of disciplines. In this book, a team of writers has been brought together to examine the evolution of language from a variety of such standpoints, including language's genetic basis, the anthropological context of its appearance, its formal structure, its relation to systems of cognition and thought, as well as its possible evolutionary antecedents. The book includes Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch's seminal and (...) provocative essay on the subject, 'The Faculty of Language,' and charts the progress of research in this active and highly controversial field since its publication in 2002. This timely volume will be welcomed by researchers and students in a number of disciplines, including linguistics, evolutionary biology, psychology, and cognitive science. (shrink)