This article constructs a static model of information acquisition when the agent does not know exactly what pieces of information he is missing. A representation of preferences over information channels and menus of lotteries is shown by adapting the model of unforeseen contingencies by Dekel et al. (Econometrica 69:891–934, 2001; Econometrica 75:591–600, 2007), which is an extension of Kreps (Econometrica 47:565–576, 1979; Economic analysis of markets and games: essays in honor of Frank Hahn, 1992). Also, characterisation of informativeness of an (...) information channel analogous to the one by Blackwell (Ann Math Stud 24:265–272, 1953) is examined in conjunction with the preference for flexibility by applying the structure of Shapley value. (shrink)
Gareth Evans proved that if two objects are indeterminately equal then they are different in reality. He insisted that this contradicts the assumption that there can be vague objects. However we show the consistency between Evans's proof and the existence of vague objects within classical logic. We formalize Evans's proof in a set theory without the axiom of extensionality, and we define a set to be vague if it violates extensionality with respect to some other set. There exist models of (...) set theory where the axiom of extensionality does not hold, so this shows that there can be vague objects. (shrink)
Synthetic approaches to social interaction support the development of a second-person neuroscience. Agent-based models and psychological experiments can be related in a mutually informing manner. Models have the advantage of making the nonlinear brainenvironmentbrain system as a whole accessible to analysis by dynamical systems theory. We highlight some general principles of how social interaction can partially constitute an individual's behavior.
ABSTRACTThe present study describes the development and validation of a facial expression database comprising five different horizontal face angles in dynamic and static presentations. The database includes twelve expression types portrayed by eight Japanese models. This database was inspired by the dimensional and categorical model of emotions: surprise, fear, sadness, anger with open mouth, anger with closed mouth, disgust with open mouth, disgust with closed mouth, excitement, happiness, relaxation, sleepiness, and neutral. The expressions were validated using emotion classification and Affect (...) Grid rating tasks [Russell, Weiss, & Mendelsohn, 1989. Affect Grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 493–502]. The results indicate that most of the expressions were recognised as the intended emotions and could systematically represent affective valence and arousal. Furthermore, face angle and facial motion information influenced emot... (shrink)
We study the dynamics of a vortex in superfluid He4. This is carried out by deriving the effective Lagrangian for the center of the vortex by starting with the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism. From the resultant equation of motion for a vortex, we arrive at a novel aspect for the Magnus force which has long been known in fluid dynamics. This force has a geometric origin and is expected to occur in other form of condensates such as vortex excitations for quantum (...) Hall fluids or ferromagnets. We also consider the force of non geometric origin, the pinning force coming from the impurity. (shrink)
Platforms for sharing genomic and phenotype data have been developed to promote genomic research, while maximizing the utility of existing datasets and minimizing the burden on participants. The value of genomic analysis of trios or family members has increased, especially in rare diseases and cancers. This article aims to argue the necessity of protection when sharing data from both patients and family members. Sharing patients’ and family members’ data collectively raises an ethical tension between the value of datasets and the (...) rights of participants, and increases the risk of re-identification. However, current data-sharing policies have no specific safeguards or provisions for familial data sharing. A quantitative survey conducted on 10,881 general adults in Japan indicated that they expected stronger protection mechanisms when their family members’ clinical and/or genomic data were shared together, as compared to when only their data were shared. A framework that respects decision-making and the right of withdrawal of participants, including family members, along with ensuring usefulness and security of data is needed. To enable this, we propose recommendations on ancillary safeguards for familial data sharing according to the stakeholders, namely, initial researchers, genomic researchers, data submitters, database operators, institutional review boards, and the public and participants. Families have played significant roles in genetic research, and its value is re-illuminated in the era of genomic medicine. It is important to make progress in data sharing while simultaneously protecting the privacy and interests of patients and families, and return its benefits to them. (shrink)
Gene regulation involves various cis-regulatory elements that can act at a distance. They may physically interact each other or with their target genes to exert their effects. Such interactions are beginning to be uncovered in the imprinted Igf2/H19 domain.1 The differentially methylated regions (DMRs), containing insulators, silencers and activators, were shown to have physical contacts between them. The interactions were changeable depending on their epigenetic state, presumably enabling Igf2 to move between an active and a silent chromatin domain. The study (...) gives us a novel view on how regulatory elements influence gene expression and how epigenetic modifications modulate their long-range effects. (shrink)
MIPC is a well-known intuitionistic modal logic of Prior and Bull . It is shown that every normal intuitionistic modal logic L over MIPC has the finite model property whenever L is Kripke-complete and universal.
Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.
This collection of classic works from the mid-nineteenth through mid-twentieth centuries was originally published under the auspices of the Royal Asiastic Society. Spanning over 100 years in oriental scholarship, primary texts include work by Frederic Rosen, W.F. Thompson, C. Edward Sachau, R.A. Nicholson, W.H.T. Gairdner, W.M. Miller, James Robson, and many others.
Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive inference in native German speakers. We compared German with Japanese speakers (a language without grammatical gender) when making inferences about sex-specific biological properties. We found that German speakers tended to (...) erroneously draw inferences when the sex in the premise and grammatical gender of the target animal agreed. An over-generalization of the grammar–semantics mapping was found even when the sex of the target was explicitly indicated. However, these effects occurred only when gender-marking articles accompanied the nouns. These results suggest that German speakers project sex-specific biological properties onto gender-marking articles but not onto conceptual representations of animals per se. (shrink)