Results for 'Holger Rosencrantz'

478 found
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  1.  34
    Properties of Goal Systems: Consistency, Conflict, and Coherence.Holger Rosencrantz - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (1):37-58.
    The paper provides a formal representation of goal systems. The focus is on three properties: consistency, conflict, and coherence. An aim is to attain conceptual clarity of these properties. It is argued that consistency is adequately regarded as a property relative to the decision situation or, more specifically, the set of alternatives that the agent faces. Moreover, as a condition of rationality, consistency is stronger than some writers have claimed. Conflict is adequately regarded as a relation over subsets of a (...)
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  2.  50
    Beneficial Safety Decreases.Till Grüne-Yanoff & Holger Rosencrantz - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (2):195-213.
    We construct a model of rational choice under risk with biased risk judgement. On its basis, we argue that sometimes, a regulator aiming at maximising social welfare should affect the environment in such a way that it becomes ‘less safe’ in common perception. More specifically, we introduce a bias into each agent’s choice of optimal risk levels: consequently, in certain environments, agents choose a behaviour that realises higher risks than intended. Individuals incur a welfare loss through this bias. We show (...)
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  3. A Modal View of the Semantics of Theoretical Sentences.Holger Andreas - 2010 - Synthese 174 (3):367 - 383.
    Modal logic has been applied in many different areas, as reasoning about time, knowledge and belief, necessity and possibility, to mention only some examples. In the present paper, an attempt is made to use modal logic to account for the semantics of theoretical sentences in scientific language. Theoretical sentences have been studied extensively since the work of Ramsey and Carnap. The present attempt at a modal analysis is motivated by there being several intended interpretations of the theoretical terms once these (...)
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  4. Biochemical Approaches to Learning and Memory Holger Hyden.Holger Hyden - 1969 - In Arthur Koestler & John R. Smythies (eds.), Beyond Reductionism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences. London: Hutchinson. pp. 85.
     
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  5.  16
    Demonstratives, Joint Attention, and the Emergence of Grammar.Holger Diessel - 2006 - Cognitive Linguistics 17 (4).
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  6. New Account of Empirical Claims in Structuralism.Holger Andreas - 2010 - Synthese 176 (3):311 - 332.
    In this paper, a new account of empirical claims in structuralism is developed. Its novelty derives from the use that is made of the linguistic approach to scientific theories despite the presumed incompatibility of structuralism with that approach. It is shown how the linguistic approach can be applied to the framework of structuralism if the semantic foundations of that approach are refined to do justice to the doctrine of indirect interpretation of theoretical terms. This doctrine goes back to Carnap but (...)
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  7.  27
    Hypothetical Interventions and Belief Changes.Holger Andreas & Lorenzo Casini - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (4):681-704.
    According to Woodward’s influential account of explanation, explanations have a counterfactual structure, and explanatory counterfactuals are analysed in terms of causal relations and interventions. In this paper, we provide a formal semantics of explanatory counterfactuals based on a Ramsey Test semantics of conditionals. Like Woodward’s account, our account is guided by causal considerations. Unlike Woodward’s account, it makes no reference to causal graphs and it also covers cases of explanation where interventions are impossible.
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  8.  18
    Dynamic Tractable Reasoning: A Modular Approach to Belief Revision.Holger Andreas - 2020 - Cham, Schweiz: Springer.
    This book aims to lay bare the logical foundations of tractable reasoning. It draws on Marvin Minsky's seminal work on frames, which has been highly influential in computer science and, to a lesser extent, in cognitive science. Only very few people have explored ideas about frames in logic, which is why the investigation in this book breaks new ground. The apparent intractability of dynamic, inferential reasoning is an unsolved problem in both cognitive science and logic-oriented artificial intelligence. By means of (...)
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  9. Deductive Reasoning in the Structuralist Approach.Holger Andreas - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (5):1093-1113.
    The distinction between the syntactic and the semantic approach to scientific theories emerged in formal philosophy of science. The semantic approach is commonly considered more advanced and more successful than the syntactic one, but the transition from the one approach to the other was not brought about without any loss. In essence, it is the formal analysis of atomic propositions and the analysis of deductive reasoning that dropped out of consideration in at least some of the elaborated versions of the (...)
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  10. Reconsidering Relational Autonomy. Personal Autonomy for Socially Embedded and Temporally Extended Selves.Holger Baumann - 2008 - Analyse & Kritik 30 (2):445-468.
    Most recent accounts of personal autonomy acknowledge that the social environment a person lives in, and the personal relationships she entertains, have some impact on her autonomy. Two kinds of conceptualizing social conditions are traditionally distinguished in this regard: Causally relational accounts hold that certain relationships and social environments play a causal role for the development and ongoing exercise of autonomy. Constitutively relational accounts, by contrast, claim that autonomy is at least partly constituted by a person’s social environment or standing. (...)
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  11. Holism and Structuralism in U(1) Gauge Theory.Holger Lyre - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (4):643-670.
    After decades of neglect philosophers of physics have discovered gauge theories--arguably the paradigm of modern field physics--as a genuine topic for foundational and philosophical research. Incidentally, in the last couple of years interest from the philosophy of physics in structural realism--in the eyes of its proponents the best suited realist position towards modern physics--has also raised. This paper tries to connect both topics and aims to show that structural realism gains further credence from an ontological analysis of gauge theories--in particular (...)
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  12.  13
    The Acquisition of Finite Complement Clauses in English: A Corpus-Based Analysis.Holger Diessel & Michael Tomasello - 2001 - Cognitive Linguistics 12 (2).
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  13.  18
    Modular Semantics for Theories: An Approach to Paraconsistent Reasoning.Holger Andreas - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (5):877-912.
    Some scientific theories are inconsistent, yet non-trivial and meaningful. How is that possible? The present paper aims to show that we can analyse the inferential use of such theories in terms of consistent compositions of the applications of universal axioms. This technique will be represented by a preferred models semantics, which allows us to accept the instances of universal axioms selectively. For such a semantics to be developed, the framework of partial structures by da Costa and French will be extended (...)
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  14.  10
    Where Does Language Come From? Some Reflections on the Role of Deictic Gesture and Demonstratives in the Evolution of Language.Holger Diessel - forthcoming - Language and Cognition.
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  15. Semantic Holism in Scientific Language.Holger Andreas - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (4):524-543.
    Whether meaning is compositional has been a major issue in linguistics and formal philosophy of language for the last 2 decades. Semantic holism is widely and plausibly considered as an objection to the principle of semantic compositionality therein. It comes as a surprise that the holistic peculiarities of scientific language have been rarely addressed in formal accounts so far, given that semantic holism has its roots in the philosophy of science. For this reason, a model-theoretic approach to semantic holism in (...)
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  16.  47
    Platonic Chronology.Holger Thesleff - 1989 - Phronesis 34 (1):1-26.
  17. Is Structural Underdetermination Possible?Holger Lyre - 2011 - Synthese 180 (2):235 - 247.
    Structural realism is sometimes said to undermine the theory underdetermination (TUD) argument against realism, since, in usual TUD scenarios, the supposed underdetermination concerns the object-like theoretical content but not the structural content. The paper explores the possibility of structural TUD by considering some special cases from modern physics, but also questions the validity of the TUD argument itself. The upshot is that cases of structural TUD cannot be excluded, but that TUD is perhaps not such a terribly serious anti-realistic argument.
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  18.  35
    Carnapian Structuralism.Holger Andreas - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S8):1373-1391.
    This paper aims to set forth Carnapian structuralism, i.e., a syntactic view of the structuralist approach which is deeply inspired by Carnap’s dual level conception of scientific theories. At its core is the axiomatisation of a metatheoretical concept AE(T) which characterises those extensions of an intended application that are admissible in the sense of being models of the theory-element T and that satisfy all links, constraints and specialisations. The union of axiom systems of AE(T) (where T is an element of (...)
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  19. Active Content Externalism.Holger Lyre - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):17-33.
    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize active externalism and its repercussions for externalism about mental content. I start from the claim that active externalism is a version of content externalism that follows from the extended cognition thesis as a thesis about cognitive vehicles. Various features of active content externalism are explored by comparison with the known forms of passive externalism – in particular with respect to the multiple realizability of the relevant external content-determining components and with respect to (...)
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  20.  48
    Theoretical Terms in Science.Holger Andreas - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia.
    A simple explanation of theoreticity says that a term is theoretical if and only if it refers to nonobservational entities. Paradigmatic examples of such entities are electrons, neutrinos, gravitational forces, genes etc. There is yet another explanation of theoreticity: a theoretical term is one whose meaning becomes determined through the axioms of a scientific theory. The meaning of the term ‘force’, for example, is seen to be determined by Newton’s laws of motion and further laws about special forces, such as (...)
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  21.  71
    The Link Between Speech Perception and Production is Phonological and Abstract: Evidence From the Shadowing Task.Holger Mitterer & Mirjam Ernestus - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):168-173.
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  22. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.Holger Stenzhorn, Stefan Schulz, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2008 - Journal of Universal Computer Science 14 (22):3767-3780.
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  23.  43
    Causation in terms of production.Holger Andreas & Mario Günther - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (6):1565-1591.
    In this paper, we analyse actual causation in terms of production. The latter concept is made precise by a strengthened Ramsey Test semantics of conditionals: \ iff, after suspending judgement about A and C, C is believed in the course of assuming A. This test allows us to verify or falsify that an event brings about another event. Complementing the concept of production by a weak condition of difference-making gives rise to a full-fledged analysis of causation.
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  24.  25
    Phonological Abstraction Without Phonemes in Speech Perception.Holger Mitterer, Odette Scharenborg & James M. McQueen - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):356-361.
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  25.  29
    On the Ramsey Test Analysis of ‘Because’.Holger Andreas & Mario Günther - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (6):1229-1262.
    The well-known formal semantics of conditionals due to Stalnaker Studies in logical theory, Blackwell, Oxford, 1968), Lewis, and Gärdenfors The logic and 1140 epistemology of scientific change, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978, Knowledge in flux, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988) all fail to distinguish between trivially and nontrivially true indicative conditionals. This problem has been addressed by Rott :345–370, 1986) in terms of a strengthened Ramsey Test. In this paper, we refine Rott’s strengthened Ramsey Test and the corresponding analysis of explanatory relations. We (...)
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  26. Does the Higgs Mechanism Exist?Holger Lyre - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (2):119-133.
    This paper explores the argument structure of the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electroweak gauge theory of the Standard Model: the so-called Higgs mechanism. As commonly understood, the Higgs argument is designed to introduce the masses of the gauge bosons by a spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry of an additional field, the Higgs field. The technical derivation of the Higgs mechanism, however, consists in a mere reshuffling of degrees of freedom by transforming the Higgs Lagrangian in a (...)
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  27.  67
    Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are 'Dead'?J. F. Catherwood - 1992 - Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (1):34-39.
    The article recently published in this journal by Dr B A Rix, a member of the Danish Council of Ethics (DCE), was heavily criticised by Dr David Lamb and Mr Christopher Pallis in subsequent commentaries. The editorial column by Professor Raanan Gillon also criticised the position put forward by Rix. In this article I contend that the definition of death put forward by Pallis and Lamb suffers certain philosophical shortcomings, that the position put forward by Rix deserves fuller consideration, and (...)
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  28.  20
    Studies in the Styles of Plato.Holger Thesleff - 1967 - Helsinki, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Kirjapaino.
  29. Humean Perspectives on Structural Realism.Holger Lyre - 2009 - In F. Stadler (ed.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 381--397.
    The paper is a kind of opinionated review paper on current issues in the debate about Structural Realism, roughly the view that we should be committed in the structural rather than object-like content of our best current scientific theories. The major thesis in the first part of the paper is that Structural Realism has to take structurally derived intrinsic properties into account, while in the second part key elements of aligning Structural Realism with a Humean framework are outlined.
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  30.  25
    Socially Extended Cognition and Shared Intentionality.Holger Lyre - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  31.  15
    Iconicity of Sequence: A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Positioning of Temporal Adverbial Clauses in English.Holger Diessel - 2008 - Cognitive Linguistics 19 (3).
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  32.  1
    Lokale Symmetrien und Wirklichkeit. Eine naturphilosophische Studie über Eichtheorien und Strukturenrealismus.Holger Lyre - 2004 - Mentis.
    In der Debatte um den wissenschaftlichen Realismus gewinnt zunehmend der Strukturenrealismus - dessen Auffassung zufolge der Realgehalt wissenschaftlicher Theorien in deren mathematisch-logischer Struktur liegt - an Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht diese These anhand der in unserer fundamentalen Physik bedeutsamsten Klasse von Theorien, den Eichtheorien, die durch spezielle lokale Symmetriestrukturen gekennzeichnet sind. Die Arbeit bietet dem Leser in ihren ersten Kapiteln einen Einstieg in die zentralen Themen Symmetrien, wissenschaftlicher Realismus und Eichtheorien. In den im Mittelteil durchgeführten Analysen werden Quanten- und (...)
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  33.  65
    A Structuralist Theory of Belief Revision.Holger Andreas - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (2):205-232.
    The present paper aims at a synthesis of belief revision theory with the Sneed formalism known as the structuralist theory of science. This synthesis is brought about by a dynamisation of classical structuralism, with an abductive inference rule and base generated revisions in the style of Rott (2001). The formalism of prioritised default logic (PDL) serves as the medium of the synthesis. Why seek to integrate the Sneed formalism into belief revision theory? With the hybrid system of the present investigation, (...)
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  34.  26
    Dynamics of Social Networks.Holger Ebel, Jörn Davidsen & Stefan Bornholdt - 2002 - Complexity 8 (2):24-27.
  35.  39
    A Ramsey Test Analysis of Causation for Causal Models.Holger Andreas & Mario Günther - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (2):587-615.
    We aim to devise a Ramsey test analysis of actual causation. Our method is to define a strengthened Ramsey test for causal models. Unlike the accounts of Halpern and Pearl ([2005]) and Halpern ([2015]), the resulting analysis deals satisfactorily with both over- determination and conjunctive scenarios.
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  36.  9
    Carnaps Wissenschaftslogik: Eine Untersuchung Zur Zweistufenkonzeption.Holger Andreas - 2007 - Mentis.
    Als Wissenschaftslogik bezeichnet Carnap jene Disziplin, welche die Nachfolge der traditionellen Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert antreten sollte. Den zentralen Bezugspunkt von Carnaps wissenschaftslogischen Arbeiten bildet die von Frege und Russell entwickelte mathematische Logik. Dies gilt auch für die Zweistufenkonzeption, mit der Carnap ein allgemeines Schema zur Analyse der Bedeutung von Begriffen nichtmathematischer Theorien entwirft. Dabei wird die Abhängigkeit der begrifflichen Bedeutung von den Aussagen der jeweiligen Theorie explizit anerkannt, was eine Überwindung der Dogmen des Empirismus innerhalb des Logischen Empirismus einschlieβt. (...)
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  37. The Principles of Gauging.Holger Lyre - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (3):S371-S381.
    The aim of this paper is twofold: First, to present an examination of the principles underlying gauge field theories. I shall argue that there are two principles directly connected to the two well-known theorems of Emmy Noether concerning global and local symmetries of the free matter-field Lagrangian, in the following referred to as "conservation principle" and "gauge principle". Since both these express nothing but certain symmetry features of the free field theory, they are not sufficient to derive a true interaction (...)
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  38.  36
    Structures, Dynamics and Mechanisms in Neuroscience: An Integrative Account.Holger Lyre - 2018 - Synthese 195 (12):5141-5158.
    Proponents of mechanistic explanations have recently proclaimed that all explanations in the neurosciences appeal to mechanisms. The purpose of the paper is to critically assess this statement and to develop an integrative account that connects a large range of both mechanistic and dynamical explanations. I develop and defend four theses about the relationship between dynamical and mechanistic explanations: that dynamical explanations are structurally grounded, that they are multiply realizable, possess realizing mechanisms and provide a powerful top-down heuristic. Four examples shall (...)
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  39.  48
    Explanatory Conditionals.Holger Andreas - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (5):993–1004.
    The present paper aims to complement causal model approaches to causal explanation by Woodward [15], Halpern and Pearl [5], and Strevens [14]. It centres on a strengthened Ramsey Test of conditionals: α ≫ γ iff, after sus- pending judgment about α and γ, an agent can infer γ from the supposition of α. It has been shown by Andreas and Gu ̈nther [1] that such a conditional can be used as starting point of an analysis of ‘because’ in natural language. (...)
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  40.  26
    Robert Spaemann's Philosophy of the Human Person: Nature, Freedom, and the Critique of Modernity.Holger Zaborowski - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The German philosopher Robert Spaemann provides an important contribution to a number of contemporary debates in philosophy and theology, opening up possibilities for conversation between these disciplines. He engages in a dialogue with classical and contemporary positions and often formulates important and original insights which lie beyond common alternatives. In this study Holger Zaborowski provides an analysis of the most important features of Spaemann's philosophy and shows the unity of his thought. The question 'Who is a person?' is of (...)
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  41.  2
    Studies in Plato's Two-Level Model.Holger Thesleff - 1922 - Societas Scientiarum Fennica.
  42. Medizin als Wissenschaft - eine wissenschaftstheoretische Analyse.Holger Lyre - 2018 - In Daniela Ringkamp & Héctor Wittwer (eds.), Was ist Medizin? Der Begriff der Medizin und seine ethischen Implikationen. Alber.
    Gegenstand dieses Beitrags ist eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin. Den Leitfaden der Analyse bildet dabei ein jüngerer Ansatz in der analytischen Wissenschaftstheorie, wonach Systematizität als zentrales Kriterium von Wissenschaft anzusehen ist (Hoyningen-Huene 2013). Ich werde im Detail zeigen, dass die Medizin dieses mehrdimensionale Kriterium insgesamt erfüllt, dass aus der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin aber gleichwohl normative Konsequenzen folgen, die beispielsweise zur Abgrenzung von der Homöopathie und einer kritischen Bewertung des biopsychosozialen Modells führen. Zudem resultieren der Anwendungscharakter der Medizin und (...)
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  43.  53
    Phonological Abstraction in Processing Lexical-Tone Variation: Evidence From a Learning Paradigm.Holger Mitterer, Yiya Chen & Xiaolin Zhou - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):184-197.
    There is a growing consensus that the mental lexicon contains both abstract and word-specific acoustic information. To investigate their relative importance for word recognition, we tested to what extent perceptual learning is word specific or generalizable to other words. In an exposure phase, participants were divided into two groups; each group was semantically biased to interpret an ambiguous Mandarin tone contour as either tone1 or tone2. In a subsequent test phase, the perception of ambiguous contours was dependent on the exposure (...)
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  44. Curve It, Gauge It, or Leave It? Practical Underdetermination in Gravitational Theories.Holger Lyre & Tim Oliver Eynck - 2001 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):277-303.
    Four empirically equivalent versions of general relativity, namely standard GR, Lorentz-invariant gravitational theory,and the gravitational gauge theories of the Lorentz and translation groups, are investigated in the form of a case study for theory underdetermination. The various ontological indeterminacies (both underdetermination and inscrutability of reference) inherent in gravitational theories are analyzed in a detailed comparative study. The concept of practical underdetermination is proposed, followed by a discussion of its adequacy to describe scientific progress.
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  45.  17
    The State Space of Artificial Intelligence.Holger Lyre - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):325-347.
    The goal of the paper is to develop and propose a general model of the state space of AI. Given the breathtaking progress in AI research and technologies in recent years, such conceptual work is of substantial theoretical interest. The present AI hype is mainly driven by the triumph of deep learning neural networks. As the distinguishing feature of such networks is the ability to self-learn, self-learning is identified as one important dimension of the AI state space. Another dimension is (...)
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  46.  31
    Structural Invariants, Structural Kinds, Structural Laws.Holger Lyre - unknown
    The paper has three parts. In the first part ExtOSR, an extended version of Ontic Structural Realism, will be introduced. ExtOSR considers structural properties as ontological primitives, where structural properties are understood as comprising both relational and structurally derived intrinsic properties or structure invariants. It is argued that ExtOSR is best suited to accommodate gauge symmetry invariants and zero value properties. In the second part, ExtOSR will be given a Humean shape by considering structures as categorical and global. It will (...)
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  47. Erweiterte Kognition und mentaler Externalismus.Holger Lyre - 2010 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (2):190-215.
    Recent developments under the keywords dynamicism, embodiment and situated cognition suggest the view that cognitive systems are not confined to the neural sys‐tem but leak into the world beyond the traditional system boundaries. This is the thesis of extended cognition. Such an extension of the cognitive vehicles leads to a new kind of content externalism, known as active externalism. The essay pursues three objectives: firstly, to distinguish the theses of extended cognitive and active externalism. Secondly, to delineate active externalism from (...)
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  48. Philosophie der Neurowissenschaften.Holger Lyre - 2017 - In Simon Lohse & Thomas A. C. Reydon (eds.), Grundriss Wissenschaftsphilosophie: Die Philosophien der Einzelwissenschaften. Meiner.
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  49.  4
    The Relationship Between Expertise in Sports, Visuospatial, and Basic Cognitive Skills.Holger Heppe, Axel Kohler, Marie-Therese Fleddermann & Karen Zentgraf - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  50.  51
    Another Solution to the Problem of Theoretical Terms.Holger Andreas - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (3):315-333.
    In this paper, a solution to the problem of theoretical terms is developed that is based on Carnap’s doctrine of indirect interpretation of theoretical terms. This doctrine will be given a semantic, model-theoretic explanation that is not given by Carnap himself as he remains content with a syntactic explanation. From that semantic explanation, rules for the truth-value assignment to postulates, i.e. sentences that determine the meaning of theoretical terms, are derived. The logical status of postulates will be clarified thereby in (...)
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