Although the composition of the board of directors has important implications for different aspects of firm performance, prior studies tend to focus on financial performance. The effects of board composition on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance remain an under-researched area, particularly in the period following the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This article specifically examines two important aspects of board composition (i.e., the presence of outside directors and the presence of women directors) and their relationship with CSR (...) performance in the Post-SOX era. With data covering over 500 of the largest companies listed on the U.S. stock exchanges and spanning 64 different industries, we find empirical evidence showing that greater presence of outside and women directors is linked to better CSR performance within a firm’s industry. Treating CSR performance as the reflection of a firm’s moral legitimacy, our study suggests that deliberate structuring of corporate boards may be an effective approach to enhance a firm’s moral legitimacy. (shrink)
In this paper, a finance system with delay is considered. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of equilibrium is established. The existence of Hopf bifurcations at the equilibrium is also discussed. Furthermore, formulas for determining the direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis. Numerical simulation results show that delay can (...) lead a stable system into a chaotic state. (shrink)
The processes in construction are more likely than others to breed unsafe behaviors, and the consequences of these actions can be serious. This paper first reviews the research status on unsafe behavior in construction teams. It then analyzes the complex mechanisms that lead to unsafe behavior and constructs a three-layer structural model based on agent-based modeling technology. This modeling deals with complexity and elaborates on key points and potential research ideas in the study of unsafe behavior in construction teams. Using (...) the ABM method, the effects of different incentive strategies on the safe behavior of construction teams under different management scenarios were studied. The results showed that when members have a fair perception of the situation, the effect of the excess performance reward distribution, according to the member’s safety awareness level, is better than the average distribution effect. This is the case whether the member’s safety behavior level is positively or negatively related to the member’s safety awareness level. This study proves the feasibility, validity, and universality of the three-layer structural model. It also reaches certain management conclusions and ideas for further development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for research on the containment and prevention of unsafe behavior in construction teams. (shrink)
Cognitive scientists distinguish between automatic and controlled mental processes. Automatic processes are either innately involuntary or become automatized through extensive practice. For example, reading words is a purportedly automatic process for proficient readers and the Stroop effect is consequently considered the “gold standard” of automated performance. Although the question of whether it is possible to regain control over an automatic process is mostly unasked, we provide compelling data showing that posthypnotic suggestion reduced and even removed Stroop interference in highly hypnotizable (...) individuals. Drawing on a large sample of highly hypnotizable participants, we examined the effects of suggestion on Stroop performance both with and without a posthypnotic suggestion to perceive the input stream as meaningless symbols. We show that suggestion administered to highly hypnotizable persons significantly reduced Stroop interference and derailed a seemingly automatic process. (shrink)
The “source-to-sink” concept originated in the study of global change and atmospheric pollution. In recent years, the concept of a source-to-sink system has been widely applied in continental margin sedimentary analysis. In our research, the idea of source-to-sink is applied to the continental rift basin sedimentary system in the Bohai Sea area. The idea emphasizes that the sedimentation dynamics, including erosion, transportation, and accumulation, are considered as a complete source-to-sink system. The sand-rich region often corresponds to a source-to-sink coupling system (...) in a complex continental rift basin, which includes the effective provenance, high-efficiency routing system, and base-level transition. In addition, the effective provenance can be subdivided into explicit and implicit provenance systems in which the implicit provenance system has been shown to be a significant advancement in reservoir prediction for the Bohai Sea area, the sediment-transport pathways and slope-break zone constitute the routing systems, and the base-level transition is one of the allogenic factors that controls the position of the sandstone distribution in a sequence. Based on a large number of previous studies and different characteristics of sequence-stratigraphic models in the Bohai Sea area, we have evaluated three types of source-to-sink systems, including the fault-steep slope, strike-slip fault slope, and gentle slope pattern. In addition, the fault-steep-slope source-to-sink coupling system can be further subdivided into four types, namely, the corner, relay ramps, fault-throw diminishment-type, and valley-type source-to-sink systems. The source-to-sink system of the gentle slope pattern includes the uplift axis valley-type source-to-sink system and the slope-valley-type source-to-sink system. A small-scale, thick layer of fan delta is formed in the fault-steep-slope zone. A continuous braided river delta is formed in the strike-slip fault slope zone. A large-scale, thin layer of braided river delta is formed in the gentle slope zone. The characteristics of source-to-sink systems in continental rift basins are established for the exploration or prediction of favorable zones in the study area, as well as in similar basins. (shrink)
It has been contended that ostracism is prevalent in the workplace, and there has been increasing research interest in its potential effects. This paper extends the theoretical framework of workplace ostracism by linking it with affective commitment and intention to leave from the perspective of job embeddedness. Using time-lagged data from China, we apply job embeddedness theory to confirm that workplace ostracism decreases the cultivation of job embeddedness, which in turn undermines affective commitment and induces intention to leave. We also (...) find that intrinsic work motivation strengthens the detrimental effects of workplace ostracism on job embeddedness such that the negative relationship is stronger when intrinsic motivation is high rather than low. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and offer future research directions. (shrink)
Although corporate governance researchers have devoted considerable attention to the role of boards of directors in monitoring management and providing resources, less attention has been paid to whether and how they affect the strategic actions of firms in response to changing environments. Taking a process-based perspective, we examine how several prevalent board processes affect the involvement of boards in strategic decision-making and how such involvement shapes organizational performance. Moreover, we offer an initial attempt to compare the strategic role of boards (...) in for-profit and non-profit organizations. An investigation of 217 for-profit and 156 non-profit organizations in Canada indicates that different processes lead boards to different levels of strategic involvement, and that such effects are contingent on the types of organizations concerned. Moreover, boards that are active in strategic decision-making enhance the performance of their organizations. Our findings have implications for board research and practice. (shrink)
Tectono-paleogeomorphologic frameworks exert a major control on sediment dispersal patterns and types of depositional systems, both of which influence reservoir geometry and quality. In this study, we analyze the framework of the [Formula: see text] Member of the Dongying Formation in QHD29-2 Block, Bohai Bay Basin, China. The framework is constructed through conventional sedimentologic study of single-well facies, cumulative frequency curves, and thin section analysis, seismic stratigraphic interpretation of sectional seismic facies, and seismic sedimentologic mapping through stratal slicing and seismic (...) multiattribute analysis. The structural system is marked by a master boundary fault in the Shijiutuo Uplift that has greater displacement at its center than at the propagating fault tips. The resulting paleogeomorphologic architecture is characterized by a steep slope in the central part of the boundary fault and two gentle slopes at fault tips. Sediment dispersal patterns indicate that fan-shaped and lobate proximal fan deltas were rapidly deposited in the central steep slope and belt-shaped distal river deltas were deposited in the gentle slopes after long-distance transport. Proposed sediment dispersal patterns for the central fault segment and the propagating fault tips should serve as a useful reference for the stratal geometry, depositional patterns, distribution of depositional facies and of potential reservoir and source rocks, and evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs in extensional rift basins in eastern China and similar basins around the world. (shrink)
In this article, we study the limit cycles in a generalized 5-degree Liénard system. The undamped system has a polycycle composed of a homoclinic loop and a heteroclinic loop. It is proved that the system can have 9 limit cycles near the boundaries of the period annulus of the undamped system. The main methods are based on homoclinic bifurcation and heteroclinic bifurcation by asymptotic expansions of Melnikov function near the singular loops. The result gives a relative larger lower bound on (...) the number of limit cycles by Poincaré bifurcation for the generalized Liénard systems of degree five. (shrink)
The terrains of China, showing a trend of being high in the west and low in the east, can be categorized largely into three types of stepped terrains that consist of different geomorphic units — namely, glaciers and mountains, basins and plateaus, and plains. The source-to-sink systems in the first and second steps are closed systems from land to lake, whereas those of the third step are mainly open systems from land to ocean. We have based our analytical methods mainly (...) on the parameters of the source-to-sink systems for the three types of stepped terrains using the Google Earth database. We acquired data for the catchment area in the source unit, the longest channel and coefficient of river-network development in the conduit unit, the fan area and fan length: width ratio in the sink unit, and the gradient of the entire system. On the basis of our comparison of these parameters in the three types of stepped terrains, results indicate differential source-to-sink system parameters and a transition among these parameters from the first step to the third. The gradient varies in different geomorphic units, being relatively small on the plains and relatively large in the basins and on plateaus. The other five parameters become higher from the first step to the third. By analyzing the correlations of these parameters, we found out that the coefficient of river-network development declines with the gradient increasing, the catchment area and the coefficient of river-network development show a positive correlation, the fan area increases with the catchment area increasing, and the fan area and gradient show a negative correlation. From the perspective of controlling factors, we focused on the formation of the geomorphic units, tectonic conditions, and the climate resulting from the obvious differences between the three types of stepped terrains. A new approach to compare the parameters of each step and analyze the correlations between parameters has been used in this study with the goal of predicting the correlations between parameters of different units. (shrink)
Environmental ethics can be cultivated in China and other Asian countries based on Chinese philosophical perspectives. Two major Chinese philosophies relevant to the issues of environmental ethics—Confucianism and Taoism—suggest certain approaches to developing environmental ethics. These approaches can complement each other in developing a Chinese or East Asian theory of environmental ethics. Drawing on these perspectives, China’s Wolong National Nature Reserve can face the challenge of protecting its pandas while developing the local economy. By adopting a set of strategies with (...) elements from both Confucianism and Taoism, Wolong has fared well in both protecting pandas and promoting environmental ethics. This case has implications for both managerial researchers and practitioners. (shrink)
We systematically investigated a typical lacustrine mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary system in this study, which primarily deposited in Eocene Upper Shahejie Formation of Huanghekou sag, Bohai Bay Basin. Using synthetic lithological data sets, we summarized eight lithofacies from mixed siliciclastic-carbonate rocks and classified them into siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated groups, indicating the variation of relative intensity between fluvial/deltaic process and carbonate productivity. Combining petrological and mineral component analysis, most lithofacies are compositionally replaced by micrite dolomite and shown vertically different scales of cyclicity. (...) The high-level cyclicity suggests the alternation between siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated mixed rocks, while the lower level indicates interbedding of different dolomite-dominated lithofacies. The controlling factors on both levels are different. The higher level is probably controlled by climate changes, which finally resulted in relative variations of siliciclastic supply. While the lower level of cyclicity changes more frequently and is considered to have been controlled by fluctuated hydrodynamic conditions. Typical mixed rocks depositing patterns are summarized as “sandwich type” which mainly distributed at siliciclastic-dominated section and “interbedded type” at carbonate-dominated section. Besides, reservoir physical properties among lithofacies displays significant differences as well, and grain-supported framework of carbonate-dominated lithofacies suggests most constructive in keeping intergranular pores. The investigated lacustrine cyclical sedimentation in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate rocks has been less concerned in previous studies and may serve as a useful reference for lacustrine mixed rocks analysis in other rifted basins. (shrink)
In this paper, we have developed a model of limit order book with learning mechanism and investigated its price dynamics. In this model, continuous Bayesian learning is introduced to describe the dynamics of self-adjusting learning mechanism of agents, which can result in some important stylized facts of limit order markets. This study also provides some behavioral explanations for these well-known stylized facts that are commonly observed in the financial markets.
Wireless sensor networks have been spawning many new applications where cooperative state estimation is essential. In this paper, the problem of performing cooperative state estimation for a discrete linear stochastic dynamical system over wireless sensor networks with a limitation on the sampling and communication rate is considered, where distributed sensors cooperatively sense a linear dynamical process and transmit observations each other via a common wireless channel. Firstly, a novel dynamic variance-based triggering scheme is designed to schedule the sampling of each (...) sensor and the transmission of its local measurement. In contrast to the existing static variance-based triggering scheme, the newly proposed DVTS can lead to the larger average intertrigger time interval and thus fewer total triggering number with almost approximate estimation accuracy. Second, a new Riccati equation of the prediction variance iteration for each estimator is obtained, which switches dynamically among the modes related to the variance of the previous step and the recently received measurements from other sensors. Furthermore, the stability issue is also mainly investigated. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed strategy. (shrink)
Multilevel item response theory models are used widely in educational and psychological research. This type of modeling has two or more levels, including an item response theory model as the measurement part and a linear-regression model as the structural part, the aim being to investigate the relation between explanatory variables and latent variables. However, the linear-regression structural model focuses on the relation between explanatory variables and latent variables, which is only from the perspective of the average tendency. When we need (...) to explore the relationship between variables at various locations along the response distribution, quantile regression is more appropriate. To this end, a quantile-regression-type structural model named as the quantile MLIRT model is introduced under the MLIRT framework. The parameters of the proposed model are estimated using the Gibbs sampling algorithm, and comparison with the original MLIRT model is conducted via a simulation study. The results show that the parameters of the Q-MLIRT model could be recovered well under different quantiles. Finally, a subset of data from PISA 2018 is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed model. (shrink)
This paper provides a systematic analysis of how hometown ties, the most common and distinct bases for interpersonal ties to build upon in China, could influence corporate governance in Chinese corporations by focusing on its impact on CEO dismissals and corporate social responsibility. We find that hometown ties between CEOs and board chairs reduce the likelihood of CEO dismissals and that the negative relationship between firm performance and CEO dismissals is weaker for hometown-connected CEOs in locally administered state-owned enterprises, for (...) inside CEOs, for firms located outside board chairs’ hometowns, and for firms operating in regions with low social trust. Moreover, we find consistent evidence that hometown ties affect Chinese firms’ engagement in corporate social responsibility. Our study highlights the important role of hometown ties in Chinese relationship-based corporate governance. It also advances a normative ethical assessment of hometown-based favoritism by highlighting its distinct dynamics and impacts on focal actors and the third parties in specific contexts of actions. (shrink)
Lake Erhai and its adjacent areas at one time constitute one complete source-to-sink system. According to analyses of modern S2Ss, however, the S2S of Lake Erhai Basin can be divided into three subsystems — western, eastern, and northern. Among these three subsystems, significant differences have been found to exist in bedrock lithology and sedimentary bodies. The bedrocks of S2S-E consist mainly of carbonate rocks, and sediments are transported by small rivers and deposited on the eastern bank of the lake, forming (...) small alluvial fans. Bedrocks of S2S-W involve metamorphic rocks and a few granitic and carbonate rocks. Sediments are transported by extensive streams and deposited along the western bank of the lake, forming a large sediment belt. In S2S-N, bedrocks are composed mainly of the clastic rocks. Sediments are transported by large rivers and are deposited on the northern bank of the lake, forming a large delta. Studies of the modern S2S reveal that different S2Ss can exist in the same basin and that these S2Ss are likely to differ significantly in catchment area, sedimentary body area, sedimentation response, etc., because of controlling factors such as bedrock lithology, tectonic activity, paleomorphology, basin boundaries, and transport channel, among others. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the distinguishing characteristics of S2Ss in further study of the ancient S2S systems. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the number of limit cycles emerging from the period annulus by perturbing the Hamiltonian system x˙=y,y˙=x. The period annulus has a heteroclinic cycle connecting two hyperbolic saddles as the outer boundary. It is proved that there exist at most 4 and at least 3 limit cycles emerging from the period annulus, and 3 limit cycles are near the boundaries.
Social science, as a social and intellectual institution, inherent in modernity, as well as the modern social systems and orders, is the prerequisite and manifestation of the reflexivity in the modern world. There are, however, some fundamental problems in modern social science, in terms of its specialized system and methodological paradigms and conceptions.