Marx's social development theory is the major content of Marx’s social and historical philosophy and is an important scientific achievement in his arduous exploration. Today, when social development encounters contradictions and difficulties, we may review Marx's social development theory with an expectation to seek for enlightenment to resolve contradictions and difficulties in contemporary social development.
A trapaça heroica está entre as memórias mais persistentes da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 1986. Enquanto o brilhante segundo gol de Diego Maradona contra a Inglaterra foi apelidada por jornalistas desportivos de todos os lugares de “o gol do século”, o seu primeiro, de mão, é diferentemente lembrado pelos jornalistas e outros escritores em Londres e em Buenos Aires. A trapaça de Maradona, testemunhada por milhões em todo o mundo, não foi observada nem pelo árbitro tunisiano e tampouco (...) por seus assistentes durante o jogo. Na corrida dos jogos fúnebres de Pátroclo descrita na Ilíada, há até mesmo uma trapaça divina: a deusa Atena intervém, em resposta à oração de Odisseu, lançando Ajax, rosto ao chão, nos restos imundos dos sacrifícios de touros para impedi-lo de ganhar e assim, dar a vitória a Odisseu. Se os deuses trapaceiam para ajudar aos seus humanos favoritos, pode a própria trapaça ser totalmente inaceitável, mesmo em uma ocasião solene, que homenageia um guerreiro morto? Quando Ajax percebe o papel de Atena em sua derrota e reclama com seus companheiros, eles apenas riem dele. Este artigo analisa a representação da trapaça nas artes e nas poesias gregas e romanas e conclui que a “ mano de dios ” de Maradona é comparativamente trivial. (shrink)
This dissertation is intended to provide a formalism for those generics that trigger nonmonotonic inferences. The formalism is to reflect intentionality and exception-tolerating features of generics, and has an emphasis on the axiomatization of generic reasoning that encodes nonmonotonicity. ;A modal conditional approach is taken to formalize the nonmonotonic reasoning in general at the level of object language. A serial of logic systems---MN, NID, NCUM, N STCUM---are constructed in an increasing strength of the characterized nonmonotonic inference relation. In these systems, (...) two binary modal operators ⩾ and > are introduced in their syntax, and a ⊛ function lifted from the traditional * function is deployed in their semantics. These systems are shown to be sound and complete with respect to certain classes of frames defined in the semantics. They are decidable as well. The nonmonotonic inference is argued to be a ternary relation "[phi], Gamma |∼ alpha", and is defined in the system NSTCUM. Many widely discussed nonmonotonic inference patterns such as Defeasible Modus Ponens, Defeasible Transitivity, the Penguin Principle etc. are justified. The specificity rule is proved to be a theorem of the system N STCUM. The impact of negated defaults on an inference is also investigated and accounted for. ;A canonical form to read off generics is proposed: All generic sentences with subject-predicate structure can be re-written into their canonical form S . If S is a plural noun phrase, it can be further refined to be . Normal objects are selected based on the "meaning" of the subject and predicate terms. The second parameter provides an aspect with respect to which certain objects of a kind are considered normal. Due to such a way to select normal objects, the drowning problem is solved. ;The inference behaviors of generics are axiomatized in the system G, which is a quantificational extension of the system NSTCUM. It is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the class of L⩾,G -frames. Those benchmark examples of generic inferences are examined in the system G. (shrink)
Three misleading notions of post-Mao dynamics pervade thinking on recent reforms in China. In one, a tragic defeat has been suffered by true third-world revolutionaries, Maoists, who were in the process of emancipating the rural poor. In place of Maoism, China is said to be emplanting or re-emplanting a Soviet style system, rationalized Stalinism. In another understanding of China's reforms, self-reliant socialism has been replaced by dependent capitalism. Post-Mao China has decollectivized agriculture, made price, market and material incentives more central (...) to the economy, accepted the idea of a capitalist Hong Kong as part of China, opened ports and special economic zones to the laws, investments and logic of the capitalist world market and, in search of advanced science and technology. (shrink)
When participants observed a rubber hand being touched, their sense of touch was activated . While this illusion might be caused by multi-modal integration, it may also be related to empathic function, which enables us to simulate the observed information. We examined individual differences in the RHI, including empathic and schizotypal personality traits, as previous research had suggested that schizophrenic patients would be more subject to the RHI. The results indicated that people who experience a stronger RHI might have stronger (...) empathic and schizotypal personalites simultaneously. We discussed these relationships in terms of self-other representations. (shrink)
The resource-based model of self-regulation provides a pessimistic view of self-regulation that people are destined to lose their self-control after having engaged in any act of self-regulation because these acts deplete the limited resource that people need for successful self-regulation. The cognitive control theory, however, offers an alternative explanation and suggests that the depletion effect reflects switch costs between different cognitive control processes recruited to deal with demanding tasks. This account implies that the depletion effect will not occur once people (...) have had the opportunity to adapt to the self-regulatory task initially engaged in. Consistent with this idea, the present study showed that engaging in a demanding task led to performance deficits on a subsequent self-regulatory task only when the initial demanding task was relatively short but not when it was long enough for participants to adapt. Our results were unrelated to self-efficacy, mood, and motivation. (shrink)
This essay contends that individual liberty, understood as the permissibility of making choices about one’s own health care in support of one’s own good and the good of one’s family utilizing private resources, is central to the moral foundations of a health care system. Such individual freedoms are important not only because they often support more efficient and effective health care services, but because they permit individuals to fulfill important moral duties. A comparative study of the health care systems in (...) Hong Kong and mainland China is utilized to illustrate the conceptual and moral concerns at stake. Both regions have implemented two-tier health care systems with a public tier of basic health care services together with a second tier of privately purchased health care. As we document, Hong Kong permits patients and doctors significantly greater opportunities to choose private health care of typically higher medical quality than their mainland counterparts. As a result, individuals are able to obtain higher quality health care while also fulfilling important moral duties for themselves and their families. In this sense, Hong Kong’s health care system is morally superior to mainland China’s. In each case, Confucianism’s concerns regarding equality are partly satisfied through the provision of public health care services on the basic tier, while appropriate use of private resources in support of oneself and one’s family is permissibly exercised on the private tier. Although it is true that inequalities in health care access and outcome are inevitable within a system that permits such individual freedoms, we argue that such inequalities are morally justifiable in terms of Confucian ethical thought. (shrink)
This paper considers the trajectory of Althusser's Spinozism pre- and post-May ‘68. Where Althusser's application of Spinoza would often lead him into unknown or non-Marxist territory, one alternative way to think this relation is through the figure of Mao, whose concept of non-antagonistic contradiction I propose to read in terms of Spinoza's “determinate negation.” Although not going so far as to suggest that a certain combination of Mao and Spinoza would have enabled Althusser to “complete” Marx, this paper speculates on (...) this omission from his work and what positive insights we can draw from it retrospectively for developing Althusser's political philosophy. (shrink)
Though complex networks have been widely applied in the research of chemistry, there is hardly any introduction about the establishment of networks using chemical bonds. In this paper, we consider chemical elements as a system linked by chemical bonds and create the undirected chemical bond network by abstracting nodes from elements and undirected edges from bonds. Connectivity, heterogeneity, small world and disassortativity of this network show the macro structural rationality of this system. The degree and k-order neighbors of an element, (...) which represent the micro topology of this network, can be used to measure its chemical reactivity and detect how many kinds of compounds it can form. The similarity between two elements is measured by the Jaccard index and the VOS mapping technique, results of which are similar to well-known similarities between elements shown by the periodic table. The establishment and topological analysis of this network provide another way to understand and study elements and bonds, and more chemical properties of elements and bonds can be studied by complex networks. (shrink)
The task of this paper is to clarify the notion of pluralism and religious pluralism against the background of disputations on the globalized challenges of religious pluralism, for example the incompatibility between different conceptions of religious pluralism, especially from the lens of a possible conversation on religious pluralism between Jürgen Habermas and Emmanuel Levinas. With a detailed reading into the development of the conceptualization of religious pluralism in each author, addressing the questions such as what is genuine pluralism and on (...) what ground the conflicts within religious pluralism can be re-accounted, we make our passage from challenging the total reliance on political unification by the effort of Habermas, towards adopting a Levinasian alternative path that prioritizes ethical relation over individual ways of plurality in the realization of each one’s good life. Even though it can be acknowledged that Habermas raised the right question against the relativism way of seeing pluralism, it is by Levinas, the ontological ground of pluralism and the universal dimension of the plural are thought not only through justice and politics but more importantly, through a way of responding to the non-familiar tradition with love, where human religion has a single dimension that is the transcendental notion of charity and love. (shrink)
The fierce propaganda campaign against the CPSU and other Marxist-Leninist parties developed in the 1960s by the Mao Tse-tung group in China confronted the international communist movement with the fact that a new front in the ideological struggle had come into being. The significance of this struggle is defined by the fact that the matter at issue is what constitutes a contemporary, truly scientific interpretation of the principles of revolutionary theory, and the determination of the future of socialism and communism.
In studying and researching Mao Zedong's philosophical thought, it is necessary not only to study the relationship between it and Marxist philosophy, but also to study its relationship to China's traditional philosophy.
The first problem we confront in the study and research of the philosophical thought of Mao Zedong is the relationship between Mao Zedong Philosophical Thought and Mao Zedong Thought. Clarification of the relationship between the two can assist our understanding of the status and function of Mao Zedong Philosophical Thought in Mao Zedong Thought, and thereby promote our understanding of why it is necessary to study and research Mao Zedong Philosophical Thought.
Rights do not feature prominently in the writings of Mao Zedong . Mao did not view rights as innate or natural; they were instead merited on the basis of class and political view, as we see in this document. Whether rights should be given to any group also depended on the historical moment, as can be inferred from the context in which they are invoked in this essay on the policies appropriate at a particular point in the revolutionary struggle. Readers (...) should thus keep in mind the situation China faced in 1940, the date of the essay: The Chinese Communist Party and the Guomindang had nominally joined in a United Front against the Japanese, who controlled large parts of China. Given the contingent nature of rights for Mao, finally, we find it inappropriate to translate the lone use of renquan here as "human rights": it seems instead to refer to "rights of the person". (shrink)
This article raises the question of whether the thought of Mao Zedong is simply derivative from Marxist thought, whether it represents a deviation from Marxist thought, or whether it contains any original contribution to Marxist thought. It discusses such topics as Mao’s concepts of the principal and the non-principal aspect of the contradiction, Mao’s concept of permanent revolution, Mao’s replacement of the industrial proletariat with the peasant farmer class, Mao’s inversion of the classical Marxist position of the base determining the (...) superstructure, Mao’s concept of the complementarity of opposites, Mao’s concept of antagonistic and non-antagonistic contradictions, Mao’s reduction of all laws of dialectic to one law. (shrink)
This August 1 is the thirty-sixth anniversary of the founding of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. For thirty-six years, under the leadership of the Party Central Committee and Comrade Mao Tse-tung, the Chinese People's Liberation Army has developed into a people's army possessing a high degree of political consciousness and a strong fighting capability. It has carried out well its glorious duties of protecting the homeland, protecting the labor of the people, protecting the social order, and defending the socialist system.
1983 was the ninetieth anniversary of Comrade Mao Zedong's birth. The best means of commemorating this event is to conscientiously study, uphold and develop Mao Zedong Thought. The things that we should study are many, and among these one important aspect is Comrade Mao's theories on Marxist dialectics.
Ironically, specific compilations regarding the dialectical materialist principle of the negation of the negation cannot be found in the corpora of Comrade Mao Zedong. And yet, in his life of valiant struggle for the Chinese revolution and socialist construction, the law informed to great effect Mao's investigations of and attempts to transform China. Not only are these thoughts encapsulated in numerous essays and speeches, they are also naturally reflected therein. However, some foreigners maintain that Mao Zedong's thought "paid no heed (...) to this law, either theoretically or practically". Such is not just ignorance, it is nothing but nonsense. To be sure, his later treatment of dialectics was marred by his perceptual deviations vis-à-vis the law of the negation of the negation. However, in light of his affirmation and application of, and elucidations on the law of the negation of the negation, this was but a somewhat non-harmonious finale to a "majestic" symphony. (shrink)
On Contradiction was a historical document, based on Marxism-Leninism's dialectical materialism. The concrete political situations from the 1930's up to now have largely confirmed the author's analysis, and these confirmations and this analysis provided new insights into Marxist-Leninist theory. The world is moving ahead, and countless events are happening. The theories of Marx, of Lenin and of Mao are there to offer occasions for reflexion and perhaps experimentation. But is there something new to be added toOn Contradiction? Will there be (...) an utter rethinking or a creative understanding of it? (shrink)
After introducing some scholarship on the value of Mao Qiling's (1623–1713) works, we present an account of canonization processes in order to understand the hermeneutic context of Mao's battle with the Cheng-Zhu orthodoxy. His work is an attempt to decanonizing Zhu Xi's Four Books, preferring instead an alternative relying on the Old Texts of the Taixue《太學》/Daxue《大學》 and Zhongyong 《中庸》. Mao argues against Zhu Xi's textual changes and interpretations on a number of bases, producing a hermeneutics of suspicion against the Cheng-Zhu (...) orthodoxy. Instead, Mao offers an alternative account of the sagely way, following precedents of Wang Yangming. (shrink)
In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers’ temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in three-dimensional space, including (...) the sagittal (front/back), transverse (left/right), and vertical (up/down) axes. Results of Experiment 1 show that people automatically create spatial representations in the course of temporal reasoning, and these implicit spatializations differ in accordance with patterns in language, even in a non-linguistic task. Both groups showed evidence of a left-to-right representation of time, in accordance with writing direction, but only Mandarin speakers showed a vertical top-to-bottom pattern for time (congruent with vertical spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin). Results of Experiment 2 confirm and extend these findings, showing that bilinguals’ representations of time depend on both long-term and proximal aspects of language experience. Participants who were more proficient in Mandarin were more likely to arrange time vertically (an effect of previous language experience). Further, bilinguals were more likely to arrange time vertically when they were tested in Mandarin than when they were tested in English (an effect of immediate linguistic context). (shrink)