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Howard Brody [104]Howard Allan Brody [1]
  1.  57
    A Critique of Clinical Equipoise: Therapeutic Misconception in the Ethics of Clinical Trials.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (3):19-28.
    A predominant ethical view holds that physician‐investigators should conduct their research with therapeutic intent. And since a physician offering a therapy wouldn't prescribe second‐rate treatments, the experimental intervention and the best proven therapy should appear equally effective. "Clinical equipoise" is necessary. But this perspective is flawed. The ethics of research and of therapy are fundamentally different, and clinical equipoise should be abandoned.
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  2.  51
    Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry.Howard Brody - 2007 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book explores the controversial relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, identifies the ethical tensions and controversies, and proposes numerous reforms both for medicine's own professional integrity and for effective public regulation of the industry.
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  3.  93
    What makes placebo-controlled trials unethical?Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):3 – 9.
    The leading ethical position on placebo-controlled clinical trials is that whenever proven effective treatment exists for a given condition, it is unethical to test a new treatment for that condition against placebo. Invoking the principle of clinical equipoise, opponents of placebo-controlled trials in the face of proven effective treatment argue that they (1) violate the therapeutic obligation of physicians to offer optimal medical care and (2) lack both scientific and clinical merit. We contend that both of these arguments are mistaken. (...)
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  4.  11
    The Healer's Power.Howard Brody - 1992 - Yale University Press.
    Although the physician’s use and misuse of power have been discussed in the social sciences and in literature, they have never been explored in medical ethics until now. In this book, Dr. Howard Brody argues that the central task is not to reduce the physician’s power, as others have suggested, but to develop guidelines for its use, so that the doctor shares with the patient both information and the responsibility for deciding on appropriate treatment. Dr. Brody first reviews literary works (...)
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  5.  85
    The clinician-investigator: Unavoidable but manageable tension.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):329-346.
    : The "difference position" holds that clinical research and therapeutic medical practice are sufficiently distinct activities to require different ethical rules and principles. The "similarity position" holds instead that clinical investigators ought to be bound by the same fundamental principles that govern therapeutic medicine—specifically, a duty to provide the optimal therapeutic benefit to each patient or subject. Some defenders of the similarity position defend it because of the overlap between the role of attending physician and the role of investigator in (...)
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  6.  83
    The internal morality of medicine: An evolutionary perspective.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):581 – 599.
    A basic question of medical ethics is whether the norms governing medical practice should be understood as the application of principles and rules of the common morality to medicine or whether some of these norms are internal or proper to medicine. In this article we describe and defend an evolutionary perspective on the internal morality of medicine that is defined in terms of the goals of clinical medicine and a set of duties that constrain medical practice in pursuit of these (...)
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  7.  83
    Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care.Howard Brody - 1989 - Hastings Center Report 19 (5):5-9.
    Current legal standards of informed consent send the wrong message to physicians about their moral and legal expectations. A “transparency” model that sees consent as a conversation process can enhance good medical practice and patient autonomy without foreclosing appropriate judicial review.
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  8.  30
    Narrative Ethics: A Narrative.Howard Brody & Mark Clark - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s1):7-11.
    Once upon a time, medicine dismissed narrative as unimportant and uninteresting. Then, in the late 1980s, physicians and scholars became interested in how the study of narrative could enhance our understanding of illness and health care, and the field that came to be known as “narrative medicine” developed. Some of this scholarly activity focused on the idea of narrative ethics.After a flurry of activity around the turn of the twenty‐first century, narrative ethics seemed to stall. The general interest in narrative (...)
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  9. Clarifying conflict of interest.Howard Brody - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):23 - 28.
    As the debate over how to manage or discourage physicians? financial conflicts of interest with the drug and medical device industries has become more heated, critics have questioned or dismissed the concept of ?conflict of interest? itself. A satisfactory definition relates conflict of interest to concerns about maintaining social trust and distinguishes between breaches of ethical duty and temptations to breach duty. Numerous objections to such a definition have been offered, none of which prevails on further analysis. Those concerned about (...)
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  10.  44
    The internal morality of medicine: Explication and application to managed care.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 1998 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (4):384 – 410.
    Some ethical issues facing contemporary medicine cannot be fully understood without addressing medicine's internal morality. Medicine as a profession is characterized by certain moral goals and morally acceptable means for achieving those goals. The list of appropriate goals and means allows some medical actions to be classified as clear violations of the internal morality, and others as borderline or controversial cases. Replies are available for common objections, including the superfluity of internal morality for ethical analysis, the argument that internal morality (...)
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  11.  47
    Professional Integrity and Physician‐Assisted Death.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 1995 - Hastings Center Report 25 (3):8-17.
    The practice of voluntary physician‐assisted death as a last resort is compatible with doctors' duties to practice competently, to avoid harming patients unduly, to refrain from medical fraud, and to preserve patients' trust. It therefore does not violate physicians' professional integrity.
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  12.  8
    The future of bioethics.Howard Brody - 2009 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bioethics' interdisciplinary base -- Patient-centered care -- Evidence-based medicine and pay-for-performance -- Community dialogue -- Overview : bioethics, power, and learning to see -- Cross-cultural concerns -- Race and health disparities -- Disabilities -- Environmental and global issues -- New technologies -- Conclusion.
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  13.  21
    Placebos and the philosophy of medicine: clinical, conceptual, and ethical issues.Howard Brody - 1980 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  14.  52
    Medicine's Duty to Treat Pandemic Illness: Solidarity and Vulnerability.Howard Brody & Eric N. Avery - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (1):40-48.
    Most accounts of why physicians have a duty to treat patients during a pandemic look to the special ethical standards of the medical profession. An adequate account must be deeper and broader: it must set the professional duty alongside other individual commitments and broader social values.
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  15. Cosmetic Surgery and the Internal Morality of Medicine.Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody & Kevin C. Chung - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):353-364.
    Cosmetic surgery is a fast-growing medical practice. In 1997 surgeons in the United States performed the four most common cosmetic procedures443,728 times, an increase of 150% over the comparable total for 1992. Estimated total expenditures for cosmetic surgery range from $1 to $2 billion. As managed care cuts into physicians' income and autonomy, cosmetic surgery, which is not covered by health insurance, offers a financially attractive medical specialty.
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  16. Clinical equipoise and the incoherence of research ethics.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2007 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):151 – 165.
    The doctrine of clinical equipoise is appealing because it appears to permit physicians to maintain their therapeutic obligation to offer optimal medical care to patients while conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The appearance, however, is deceptive. In this article we argue that clinical equipoise is defective and incoherent in multiple ways. First, it conflates the sound methodological principle that RCTs should begin with an honest null hypothesis with the questionable ethical norm that participants in these trials should never be randomized (...)
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  17. The Internal Morality of Medicine.Howard Brody & Franklin Miller - forthcoming - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics.
     
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  18.  27
    The Research‐Clinical Practice Distinction, Learning Health Systems, and Relationships.Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (5):41-47.
    A special report of The Hastings Center and the Association of American Medical Colleges addressed the ethical oversight of learning health systems, which seek to combine high‐quality patient care with routine data collection aimed at improving patient outcomes. The report contained two position papers, authored by a number of distinguished bioethicists, and several commentaries. The position papers urged two changes. First, they urged a rethinking of our approach to the regulation of human subjects research, so as to make it easier (...)
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  19. Narrative ethics : a narrative.Howard Brody & Mark Clark - 2014 - In Martha Montello (ed.), Narrative ethics: the role of stories in bioethics. John Wiley and Sons.
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  20.  30
    U.S. Responses To Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation After World War Ii: National Security and Wartime Exigency.Howard Brody, Sarah E. Leonard, Jing-bao Nie & Paul Weindling - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):220-230.
    In 1945–46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about (...)
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  21.  33
    Who gets to tell the story? Narrative in postmodern bioethics.Howard Brody - 1997 - In Hilde Lindemann (ed.), Stories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to Bioethics. Routledge. pp. 18--30.
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  22.  52
    Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases.Howard Brody - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):269-273.
    Among those who criticize the concept of a common refrain is that we really have no idea what futility means. For example, physicians seem to disagree on whether a treatment being futile means that it has a less than 5% chance of working or a 20% chance of working. If the concept is so unclear, then it seems a thin reed upon which to base a momentous ethical decision—namely, that the physician's judgment should be allowed to override the wishes of (...)
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  23.  28
    Patient Autonomy and Provider Beneficence Are Compatible.Howard Brody & Luana Colloca - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):6-6.
    A commentary on “What's Not Being Shared in Shared Decision‐Making?” from the July‐August 2013.
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  24.  47
    The pharmacist's personal and professional integrity.Howard Brody & Susan S. Night - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):16 – 17.
  25.  42
    Can Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Regulated Effectively?Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody & Timothy E. Quill - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):225-232.
    With breathtalung speed, traditional criminal prohibitions against assisted suicide have been declared unconstitutional in twelve states, including California and New York. This poses great promise and great peril. The promise is that competent terminally ill patients, as a compassionate measure of last resort, will have the option of putting an end to their suffering by physician-assisted suicide. More sigmficant, legally permitting this controversial option may be a catalyst for doctors, health care institutions, and society to improve the care of the (...)
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  26.  42
    Causing, Intending, and Assisting Death.Howard Brody - 1993 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (2):112-117.
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  27. Philosophy of medicine and other humanities: Toward a wholistic view.Howard Brody - 1985 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (3).
    A less analytic and more wholistic approach to philosophy, described as best overall fit or seeing how things all hang together, is defended in recent works by John Rawls and Richard Rorty and can usefully be applied to problems in philosophy of medicine. Looking at sickness and its impact upon the person as a central problem for philosophy of medicine, this approach discourages a search for necessary and sufficient conditions for being sick, and instead encourages a listing of true and (...)
     
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  28. The physician-patient relationship: Models and criticisms.Howard Brody - 1987 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
    A review of the philosophical debate on theoretical models for the physician-patient relationship over the past fifteen years may point to some of the more productive questions for future research. Contractual models have been criticized for promoting a legalistic and minimalistic image of the relationship, such that another form of model (such as convenant) is required. Shifting from a contractual to a contractarian model (in keeping with Rawls' notion of an original position) provides an adequate response to many criticisms of (...)
     
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  29.  78
    Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.Howard Brody & Arlene Macdonald - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (2):133-145.
    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what “religion” means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion (...)
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  30. How Virtue Ethics Informs Medical Professionalism.Susan D. McCammon & Howard Brody - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (4):257-272.
    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education—first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to (...)
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  31.  45
    Family Medicine, The Physician–Patient Relationship, and Patient-Centered Care.Howard Brody - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):38 – 39.
  32.  5
    Contested Terrain: In the Best Interests of..Howard Brody & William G. Bartholome - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (6):37.
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  33.  29
    Economism and the Commercialization of Health Care.Howard Brody - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (4):501-508.
    Those concerned over the excessive commercialization of health care, to the detriment of both professional and patient-centered values, commonly propose remedies that assume that meaningful change can occur largely within the health care sector. I argue instead that a major shift in the public culture and political discourse of the U.S. will be required if the commercialization of health care is to be adequately addressed. The notion that health and health care are commodities to be bought and sold in the (...)
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  34.  28
    Economism and the Commercialization of Health Care.Howard Brody - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (4):501-508.
    Pay-for-performance represents an effort to improve the quality of health care by paying physicians more if they meet specified target measures. There are both empirical and theoretical reasons to be deeply suspicious of P4P schemes applied at the level of the individual physician or health provider. Most P4P programs were implemented before there were any good data to demonstrate that they achieved the desired results. Once such schemes were in use, the available data are far from reassuring. Common findings are (...)
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  35.  31
    Narrative Ethics and Institutional Impact.Howard Brody - 1999 - HEC Forum 11 (1):46-51.
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  36. Bioethics, economism, and the rhetoric of technological innovation.Howard Brody - 2013 - In Michael J. Hyde & James A. Herrick (eds.), After the genome: a language for our biotechnological future. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.
     
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  37.  39
    Are there three or four distinct types of medical practice?Howard Brody - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):51 – 53.
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  38.  21
    Futility: Definition and Goals.Howard Brody - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (3):328-330.
    A recent statement from multiple critical care societies appropriately focuses on communication and negotiation as the major approach to the sorts of cases that have previously been labeled with the term futility. Unfortunately, the statement persists in addressing futility in a way that I have argued is unsatisfactory. Schneiderman, Jecker, and Jonsen now respond to the statement and make a number of helpful points. However, in a few ways, I also find their response off target. I will address the key (...)
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  39.  6
    Meaning and an Overview of the Placebo Effect.Howard Brody - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 61 (3):353-360.
    In 1964, anesthesiologists at Harvard Medical School studied a group of patients about to undergo major abdominal surgery. Half the patients got the standard preoperative visit. The other half received an enhanced visit dealing with postoperative pain. That half were told that pain is normal and expected, that they would receive medications as ordered by their physicians, that they could also use several self-help techniques to relieve pain, and that nurses and physicians would be standing by to assist them if (...)
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  40.  28
    The welcome reassessment of research ethics: Is "undue inducement" suspect?Howard Brody - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):15 – 16.
  41.  31
    Enhancement technologies and professional integrity.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):15 – 17.
    *The opinions expressed are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the policy of the National Institutes of Health, the Public Health Service, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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  42.  12
    The Chief of Medicine.Howard Brody - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (4):17-22.
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  43.  8
    The Epidemiology of Bioethics.Michael D. Fetters & Howard Brody - 1999 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2):107-115.
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  44.  34
    Medicine's Continuing Quest for an Excuse to Avoid Relationships with Patients.Howard Brody - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (12):13-15.
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  45.  24
    Commentary on "error, malpractice, and the problem of universals".Howard Brody - 1982 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (3):251-258.
    Minogue's criticism of MacIntyre and Gorovitz's concept of medicine as a science of individuals is flawed by an assumption of the perfectibility of science that is not well supported by experience to date. More significantly, both Minogue and MacIntyre and Gorovitz have been led astray by choosing to use the malpractice issue as a philosophical point of departure for an inquiry into medical error. The problem of error in medicine, and moral culpability for error, is of great philosophical interest but (...)
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  46.  26
    Index to Volume 21.Howard Brody, Rita Charon, Tod Chambers, Mary Williams Clark, Dwight Davis, Richard Martinez, Robert M. Nelson & Mark J. Cherry - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21:681-684.
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  47.  33
    Medical Ethics Resource Network of Michigan: Development of a statewide Ethics Network.Howard Brody, Leonard Weber & Leonard Fleck - 1992 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (3):271.
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  48.  31
    Pens and Other Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts.Howard Brody - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):58-60.
  49.  88
    Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities and Ethics.Howard Brody, Jason E. Glenn & Laura Hermer - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (3):309-319.
  50.  33
    By Author BAGHERI, Alireza. Criticism of “Brain.Tom L. Beauchamp, Howard Brody, Franklin G. Miller, Alexander S. Curtis, Martina Darragh, Patricia Milmoe, Ronald M. U. S. Green, Sharona Hoffman, Edmund G. Howe & Jeffrey P. Kahn - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):407-09.
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