The phenomenon of episodic memory has been studied for over 30 years, but it is only recently that its constructive nature has been shown to be closely linked to the processes underpinning imagination. This paper builds on recent work by the authors in developing architectures for a form of imagination suitable for use in artifacts, and considers how these architectures might be extended to provide a form of episodic memory.
O presente artigo objetiva, ao revisitar a obra Oratio de hominis dignitate composta pelo humanista renascentista Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola, um duplo intento: sustentar que as noções de dignidade e liberdade, presentes nessa obra, se distanciam do pensamento cristão tradicional, de modo crítico, justamente porque derivam de uma leitura filosófica da teologia cristã da criação; e mostrar que a conclusão a respeito da noção de liberdade apresentada por Sartre no pensamento contemporâneo pode ser encontrada de modo germinal, guardada as devidas (...) proporções, na leitura piquiana da criação. Para tanto, exporemos uma breve retomada do contexto histórico-filosófico que permitiu ao filósofo engendrar a Oratio bem como suas pretensões para com essa obra; falaremos, em um segundo momento, como o platonismo religioso de Marsílio Ficino, principal matriz teórica a partir do qual os conceitos de dignidade e de liberdade foram modulados, foi recebido e desenvolvido no pensamento de Pico; e como as influências e as rupturas com pensamento de Ficino e a leitura filosófica da teologia cristã da criação são importantes para recolocar os conceitos de dignidade e de liberdade, permitindo assim entrever, por meio deles, semelhanças com o pensamento satreano. (shrink)
Um estudo filosófico do tempo é possível a partir da pergunta pela singularidade do tempo. Nesse sentido, John Sallis, em seu artigo “Another time”, apresenta Heidegger como aquele que forçou a pergunta pelo tempo em termos de uma possível singularidade. Heidegger, em sua obra O conceito de tempo, aludindo a Agostinho recoloca a questão do tempo a partir do Dasein, identificando-os. Contudo, é na ntenção primeira de Ser e tempo, isto é, intentando-se uma compreensão para Temporalität, o sentido do ser, (...) conceito este não concretizado neste tratado, é que se torna possível problematizar a singularidade do tempo. Para tanto, apresenta- se uma compreensão de Sallis da Temporalität como outro tempo. Em contraposição, pode-se pensá-la de modo imanente à temporalidade do Dasein na sua ocorrência do tempo da ocupação, isto é, do tempo presente ontologicamente compreendido. O tempo de ocupação é pensado por Heidegger como abertura ao mundo que tem seu sentido na autocompreensão enquanto cura. É na compreensão do modo do abrir-se da abertura ontológica que se pensa um tempo enquanto tal. (shrink)
This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparently resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance (López de Sa, 2008; Sundell, 2011; Huvenes, 2012; Marques and García-Carpintero, 2014; Marques, 2014a), have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem (...) of lost disagreement. These authors have proposed that a proper account of the resilient disagreement in the cases studied is to be achieved by an appeal to pragmatic processes, and to conflicting non-doxastic attitudes. It is argued here that the existing contextualist solutions are incomplete as they stand, and are subject to objections because of this. A supplementation of contextualism is offered, together with an explanation of why failed presuppositions of commonality (López de Sa), disputes over the appropriateness of a contextually salient standard (Sundell), and differences in non-doxastic attitudes (Sundell, Huvenes, Marques, and García-Carpintero) give rise to conflicts. This paper claims that conflicts of attitudes are the reason why people still have impressions of disagreement in spite of failed commonality presuppositions, that those conflicts drive metalinguistic disputes over the selection of appropriate standards, and hence conflicting non-doxastic attitudes demand an explanation that is independent of those context dependent pragmatic processes. The paper further argues that the missing explanation is 2-fold: first, disagreement prevails where the properties expressed by taste and value predicates are response-dependent properties, and, secondly, it prevails where those response-dependent properties are involved in evolved systems of coordination that respond to evolutionarily recurrent situations. (shrink)
This paper explores some alternative accounts of doxastic disagreement, and shows what problems each faces. It offers an account of doxastic disagreement that results from the incompatibility of the content of doxastic attitudes, even when that content’s truth is relativized. On the best definition possible, it is argued, neither non-indexical contextualism nor assessment-relativism have an advantage over contextualism. The conclusion is that conflicts that arise from the incompatibility (at the same world) of the content of given doxastic attitudes cannot be (...) accommodated by theoretical positions that allow for the compatibility (at the same world) of the content of different doxastic attitudes. (shrink)
John MacFarlane defends a radical form of truth relativism that makes the truth of assertions relative not only to contexts of utterance but also to contexts of assessment, or perspectives. Making sense of assessment-sensitive truth is a matter of making sense of the normative commitments undertaken by speakers in using assessment sensitive sentences. This paper argues against the possibility of making sense of such a practice. Evans raised a challenge to the coherence of relative truth. A modification of the challenge (...) can be given against MacFarlane’s revised views on assertion. The main objection to the relativist is that rational and earnest speakers are not bound by assessment-relative standards of correctness. (shrink)
This special issue of Erkenntnis is devoted to the varieties of disagreement that arise in different areas of discourse, and the consequences we should draw from these disagreements, either concerning the subject matter and its objectivity, or concerning our own views about this subject matter if we learn, for example, that an epistemic peer disagrees with our view. In this introduction we sketch the background to the recent philosophical discussions of these questions, and the location occupied therein by the articles (...) in this collection. (shrink)
This article has one aim, to reject the claim that negation is semantically ambiguous. The first section presents the putative incompatibility between truth-value gaps and the truth-schema; the second section presents the motivation for the ambiguity thesis; the third section summarizes arguments against the claim that natural language negation is semantically ambiguous; and the fourth section indicates the problems of an introduction of two distinct negation operators in natural language.
Leadership has become a more popular term than management, even though it is understood that both phenomena represent important organizational behaviors. This paper focuses on empathy in leadership, and presents the findings of a study conducted among business students over the course of 3 years. Finding that empathy consistently ranked lowest in the ratings, the researchers set out to discover the driving motives behind this invariable trend, and conducted a second study to obtain opinions about possible underlying factors. The paper (...) presents the findings of both studies, as well as literature reviews on the differences between management and leadership, a historical overview of leadership, a reflection of 21st century leadership, the ongoing debate on the effects of corporate psychopaths on ethical performance, and scholars’ perception on empathy in corporate leadership. The findings indicate the need for a paradigm shift in corporations as well as business schools in regards to leaders’ required skills, and suggest a proactive approach from business faculty to change the current paradigm. (shrink)
This article reviews the element of consciousness from a Buddhist and a non-Buddhist (Western) perspective. Within the Buddhist perspective, two practices toward attaining expanded and purified consciousness will be included: the Seven-Point Mind Training and Vipassana. Within the Western perspective, David Hawkins’ works on consciousness will be used as a main guide. In addition, a number of important concepts that contribute to expanded and purified consciousness will be presented. Among these concepts are impermanence, karma, non-harming (ahimsa), ethics, kindness and compassion, (...) mindfulness, right livelihood, charity, interdependence, wholesome view, collaboration, and fairness. This article may be of use to students and workforce members who consider a transdisciplinary approach on human wellbeing in personal and professional environments. (shrink)
This paper discusses and criticizes Segal’s 1989 argument against singular object-dependent thoughts. His argument aims at showing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant. My criticism of Segal’s argument has two parts. First, I appeal to common anti-individualist arguments to the effect that Segal’s type of argument only succeeds in establishing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant for those aspects of subjects’ behaviour that do not require reference to external objects. Secondly, Segal’s view on singular thoughts is at odds with his (...) view on the semantics of proper names, which favours the singularity and object-dependency of the truth-conditions of sentences in which they occur. In particular, his views are at odds with a position he holds, that truth-conditional semantics can adequately account for all aspects of speakers’ linguistic competence in the use of proper names. (shrink)
A survey conducted among 50 members of the Los Angeles Workforce, all within the age range of 20-50 years, and with a minimum of 2 years of work experience and a minimum of 2 years of college education, delivered results that may be of interest to managers in their efforts to enhance workers' satisfaction and successfully transcend the challenges of these times. The focus of this study was on values that mattered most in challenging times to members of the workforces. (...) The hypothesis that inner-and inter-human aspects would be considered more important than money and status in such times was highly supported, with values such as love and relationships, and positive motivation, in an overwhelming lead. While financial worries were undoubtedly considered, it was underscored that in times of trouble, employees reach inwardly and outwardly to inner-human and inter-human connectedness. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the topic of “soft skills” as an intrinsic part of successful leadership. The first part of the paper presents a literature review about the shift in perspective in recent years on what matters in leadership, and the significant changes this prompted in some areas of education and corporate recruitment. In the second part, the findings of a year round study conducted among Los Angeles based workforce members in an MBA program are presented. By utilizing a multi-method (...) approach, consisting of a survey model with three open ended, interview style questions, and data analysis in phenomenological trend, a number of interesting findings emerged, supporting the literature reviewed, that soft leadership skills, such as self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills, are steadily on the rise, and that greater attention should be apportioned to strengthen these skills in future leaders. (shrink)
I critically discuss some aspects of Recanati's Perspectival Thought, while offering a detailed overview of the book. I suggest that the main aim Recanati proposes to achieve —that a moderate relativist should adopt a Kaplanian framework with three levels of content, rather than a Lewisian framework with only two— seems nonetheless insufficiently motivated, and the arguments offered do not settle the issue. I suggest furthermore that the claim that subjects’ mental states and cognitive situations can determine parameters or indices in (...) circumstances of evaluation is an original and very interesting contribution in the book. It is also an important one, since it sets further apart the radical from the moderate relativist, and it is relevant in the current relativism debate, where truth is deemed to be relative to parameters other than worlds, times, places and individuals. I also offer a few objections to some of the reasons Recanati puts forward in support of this latter claim; I object in particular to those that depend on some considerations about psychological modes. (shrink)
In social sciences, particularly in economics, ceteris paribus clauses give rise to special methodological problems, which make difficult both to regard its generalizations as genuine laws and to test such laws empirically. Daniel Hausman claims that the problem with ceteris paribus clauses in economics is that their content is not fully specified. This paper aims to discuss and criticize Hausman’s reconstruction of an economic law and his ideas as to how they could be tested. Particularly, it will be argued that (...) (a) Hausman does not explain how empirical evidence could be used to evaluate economic generalizations qualified by vaguely specified ceteris paribus clauses; (b) his explanation of the fundamental economic laws is careful and persuasive, but it makes impossible to test them empirically, both in experimental and ordinary economic settings; (c) although Hausman is not concerned with derived economic laws, according to his viewpoint they could, in principle, be tested; unfortunately, however, the tendency to include subjective factors among the clauses’ explicit components makes them also practically nontestable. Finally (d) it will be argued that the real problem with ceteris paribus clauses in economics is to be found in their failure to be well articulated by a social and economic theory. (shrink)
This article discusses the way psychological clinical practice deals with sexual diversity, analyzing life trajectories of five homosexual subjects that went through psychological treatment. The research instrument used was interviews based on life history's approach. We proposed an initial question..
Nosso objetivo é destacar algumas questões concernentes ao problema da matéria e do movimento na filosofia de Bergson. Questões presentes em seu segundo livro, Matéria e memória, as quais indicam uma nova orientação de sua filosofia: a passagem da psicologia à metafísica; mais precisamente, a introdução do tema do movimento e da duração "fora de nós". O primeiro capítulo do livro, ao caracterizar o universo material como um conjunto de imagens, desempenha um papel fundamental nessa passagem, a qual efetivamente se (...) dá no quarto capítulo, momento em que elabora uma metafísica da matéria. Para além desse contexto, é na direção de seu terceiro livro, A evolução criadora, que essa metafísica da matéria consequentemente aponta. Our aim is to highlight some issues concerning the problem of matter and movement in the philosophy of Bergson. Issues presented in his second book, Matter and Memory, which indicate a new direction of his philosophy: the transition from psychology to metaphysics, more precisely, introducing the theme of movement and duration "outside of us." The first chapter of the book, in describing the material universe as a set of images plays a key role in this passage, which effectively occurs in the fourth chapter, at which time elaborates metaphysics of matter. Beyond this context, it is in the direction of his third book, Creative Evolution, that the metaphysics of matter will consequently point. (shrink)
This study discusses the relationship between Green Chemistry and Environmental Sustainability as expressed in textbooks and articles on Green Chemistry authored by their promoters. It was found that although the Brundtland concept of Sustainable Development/Sustainability has been mentioned often by green chemists, a full analysis of that relationship was almost never attempted. In particular, green chemists have paid scarce attention to the importance of The Second Law of thermodynamics on Environmental Sustainability and the consequences of the limitations it imposes on (...) Green Chemistry, which are discussed in this paper. (shrink)
In Book IV of the Metaphysics Aristotle argues that first philosophy investigates not only being qua being but also the axioms or principles of demonstration. In the same place he establishes which principles are first. The first among these is the principle of contradiction. The thesis I defend in my communication is that the principle of contradiction in Aristotle is not merely formal in the style of modern symbolic logic, but is the constituent law of all discourse. As such, the (...) most precise sense in which it is a 'first principle' is that of a condition of the possibility of significance: terms and judgments have significance if they comply with the condition; if they violate it they signify nothing and are vacuous. If my interpretation is correct, various consequences will be derivable from a first principle, of which the most important is its link with essence and substance. (shrink)
This is a special issue of Disputatio on normativity and rationality. The idea for this volume originated after the fifth European Congress of Analytic Philosophy, ECAP5, which took place in Lisbon in August of 2005. This volume collects the contributions of John Broome, Pascal Engel, Kevin Mulligan, Josep Prades and John Skoruspki, who were speakers on that occasion. The common thread in the diverse talks suggested that a volume on the topic would be of general interest. This common thread, which (...) revealed itself naturally, testifies to issues hotly debated in recent years and also to the centrality of normativity in various philosophical areas. (shrink)
Can an appeal to the difference between contrary and contradictory statements, generated by a non-uniform behaviour of negation, deal adequately with paradoxical cases like the sorites or the liar? This paper offers a negative answer to the question. This is done by considering alternative ways of trying to construe and justify in a useful way (in this context) the distinction between contraries and contradictories by appealing to the behaviour of negation only. There are mainly two ways to try to do (...) so: i) by considering differences in the scope of negation, ii) by considering the possibility that negation is semantically ambiguous. Both alternatives are shown to be inapt to handle the problematic cases. In each case, it is shown that the available alternatives for motivating or grounding the distinction, in a way useful to deal with the paradoxes, are either inapplicable, or produce new versions of the paradoxes, or both. (shrink)
El trabajo identifica dos problemas metodológicos que dificultan la contrastación de teorías económicas: 1) en su empleo habitual, no es posible decidir si se satisfacen sus condiciones de aplicación, antes e independientemente de la aplicación de las mismas; 2) si es admisible modificar las condiciones de aplicación de una teoría, debe aceptarse que también pueda ser "manipulada" su clase de predicciones consideradas relevantes. Ambas tesis conforman la base de la argumentación de Milton Friedman contra el realismo de los supuestos, pero (...) no han sido debatidos explícitamente y, consecuentemente, sus argumentos no han recibido una respuesta adecuada de parte de sus críticos. Two methodological problems obstruct the tests of economic theories: 1) usually it is not possible to ascertain whether the domain assumptions are satisfied before of the applications of the theory; 2) if it is admissible to modify the domain assumptions of a theory, it must also be accepted that the class of its supposedly relevant predictions can be modified. Both thesis are the foundations of Friedman's argumentation against the realism of the economic assumptions, but they have not been debated explicitly and therefore, his arguments haven't received an adequate response. (shrink)
Este texto trata de um clássico da filosofia platônica, o Crátilo. Redigido em forma de diálogo, característico do estilo platônico de escrita, nele está distinta a supervenção de uma das grandes temáticas da filosofia contemporânea, isto é, a linguagem, em que se traz à tona a discussão sobre a adequação de um nome a um objeto, também conhecido coma a justeza do nome à coisa. Figuram-se como questões centrais as teses do naturalismo e convencionalismo, que estruturam o que se entende (...) como instrumentalização da linguagem, e que, hodierno, arremete, enquanto desconstrução desta instrumentalização, a uma epistemologia da linguagem, que fora, de forma capitular no Século V, primada na ideia de essência. Expõe-se na conjuntura textual a importância da linguagem para a filosofia desde a antiguidade, e que, por sua vez, consubstancia-se, em relevo, numa discussão sobre a verdade. (shrink)
Este artigo argumenta que ou o deflacionismo é inadequado enquanto teoria sobre a verdade, ou não existem contra-exemplos à bivalência e o princípio não pode ser coerentemente negado. O artigo salienta que não é só o deflacionismo que se confronta com este dilema. Qualquer pessoa que defenda que alguma versão dos esquemas para a verdade e falsidade é correcta confronta-se com o mesmo tipo de dificuldade, mesmo que não pense, como o deflacionista, que os esquemas dizem ‘tudo o que há (...) a dizer sobre a verdade’. (shrink)
Raramente um texto filosófico desperta uma polêmica como a que envolveu as Regras para o parque humano, do filósofo alemão Peter Sloterdijk. Neste artigo, examino esse texto, buscando identificar as razões para sua conturbada recepção, e proponho que, mais do que às conseqüências éticas da aplicação da genética à seleção e determinação das características da espécie, a polêmica se relaciona a um movimento mais profundo de distensão das férreas diretrizes político-intelectuais que governam, desde o pós-guerra, a interpretação da história alemã (...) recente.Seldom does a philosophical text raise such a controversy as the book Regeln für den Menschenpark by the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. This paper examines Sloterdijk's book and tries to identify the reasons for the explosive reaction it produced. I suggest that the controversy owes more to an intellectual weakening of the stringent guidelines that have dictated the interpretation of postwar German history than to fears of the ethical consequences of the application of genetics to select and determine the characteristics of the human species. (shrink)
Apresentam-se os resultados clínicos principais de uma primeira investigação efectuada a familiares de doentes sob tratamento paliativo no domicílio da área de Lisboa, com o instrumento de medida da satisfação SERVQUAL Modificado. Dos 58 familiares/doentes que responderam ao questionário apenas uma minona estava insatisfeita (uma classe de 5 indivíduos mostra-se francamente insatisfeita), uma classe de 15 estava moderadamente satisfeita, havendo 38 individuos fortemente satisfeitos com a qualidade e prontidäo dos serviços prestados. Porém urna percentagem elevada de doentes, segundo a opinião (...) retrospectiva dos cuidadores, faleceu com sintomatologia agravada, nomeadamente dores (60%), obstipação (67%) e depressão/ansiedade (43%). Discute-se a consistência e validade do questionáno SERVQUAL Modificado, contextualizam-se os resultados no que é o standard da prática da MCP e integram-se na promoção da dignidade humana no fim da vida. We present the main clinical findings of research on palliative home care, carried out among relatives of patients in the Lisbon area. An adapted version of SERVQUAL was used. Of a total of 58 carers surveyed only a small number (5) was unsatisfied 15 were only moderately satisfied. 38 family carers were strongly satisfied with the services. Yet, a high percentage of patients, as viewed in retrospect by their relatives died with some aggravated symptoms: 60% with more pain, 67% constipation, and 43% anxiety/depression. We discuss the consistency and validity of this adapted SERVQUAL tool and the main results are contextualized beanng in mind the standard practice of palliative medicine and the pursuit of human dignity in death. (shrink)
The disagreement about intertemporal coordination between Austrians and Keynesians is explained pointing out to differences both in the way expectations and motivations are treated and the methodological principles assumed by each view. Austrians believe that research should proceed showing first what guarantees a successful coordination in individualsŠ plans, and only latter showing which could hinder the “natural” course. Keynes, on the contrary, do not start with any ideal state of affairs, but allows economies to work either “good” or “bad” according (...) to the prevailing expectations among entrepreneurs. In this way uncertainty and expectations are fully incorporated into economic theory. A link between Austrian approach and popperian situational analysis is suggested. (shrink)
Apresentamos um resumo do desenvolvimento e do contexto institucional do Projecto Humanização dos Cuidados Paliativos em Contexto Domiciliário, aprovado e financiado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Utilizam-se largamente os próprios documentos que o justificaram e os relatórios oficiais para dar uma imagem vivida, realista e técnica das dificuldades da profissionalização e reforma dos Cuidados Paliativos, mesmo quando integrada em acções de formação num serviço de um Centro de Tratamento Compreensivo do Cancro. We put forward a synopsis of the development and institutional (...) context of the Project Humanização dos Cuidados Paliativos em Contexto Domiciliário, approved and financed by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. The groundwork documents are widely used as well as official reports so as to convey a lively, realistic and technical image arising from professionalizing and reforming Palliative Medicine even when it is based on in-service training programmes in an Comprehensive Cancer Center. (shrink)
Meu objetivo é tratar a correspondência entre a Princesa Elisabeth e Descartes como um dos momentos propulsores do estabelecimento da moral cartesiano. Procuro mostrar por primeiro, como os temas propostos por Elisabeth se inscrevem no cerne mesmo do caetesianismo, na medida em que uma de suas preocupações era o modo de relação entre aIma e o corpo. Em seguida, será visto como se estabelece nesta correspondência uma reflexão moral com traços estoicos, mas que não prescinde de uma técnica médica, realizando, (...) assim, a totalidade do projeto cartesiano, que se quer comparado à sabedoria, que não dispensa a metáfora da árvore com raízes, tronco, galhos e frutos bem determinados. (shrink)
Examina-se aqui uma solução de tipo idealista para o problema da possibilidade do múltiplo, a qual, assim parece, levaria à exigência da admissão de um espaço e um tempo inatos. Eliminando-se qualquer pretensa concessão inatista por parte de Kant, porém, observa-se que o resultado alcançado, neste caso, favorece a originalidade do idealismo transcendental. Consideration on multiple in the first CritiqueIt is examined here a solution, of an idealist kind, to the problem concerning the possibility of the manifold, which, it seems, (...) would lead to the requirement of the admission of an inate space and time. However, by excluding any pretense inatist concession from Kants perspective, it is observed that the achieved result, in this case, supply the originality of transcendental idealism. (shrink)
Este artigo apresenta, em primeiro lugar, uma reconstrução conceitual das razões que levam Leibniz, em sua correspondência com Arnauld, a introduzir o conceito de decretos divinos possíveis. Em um segundo momento, o artigo desenvolve alguns argumentos para demonstrar que a introdução desse conceito torna inconsistente a arquitetônica global da metafísica leibniziana.
This thesis is concerned with the challenge truth-value gaps pose to the principle of bivalence. The central question addressed is: are truth-value gaps counterexamples to bivalence and is the supposition of counterexamples coherent? My aim is to examine putative cases of truth-value gaps against an argument by Timothy Williamson, which shows that the supposition of counterexamples to bivalence is contradictory. The upshot of his argument is that either problematic utterances say nothing, or they cannot be neither true nor false. I (...) start by identifying truth-bearers: an utterance, for instance, is a truth-bearer if it says that something is the case. Truth-bearers are evaluable items, with truth- and falsity-conditions statable in corresponding instances of schemas for truth and falsehood. A genuine case of a truth-value gap should be an utterance that is neither true nor false but says something to be the case. But it is inconsistent to accept the schemas for truth and falsehood and the existence of genuine cases of truth-value gaps. Secondly, I expound Williamson’s argument, which explores this inconsistency, and I identify two kinds of strategy to disarm his argument: those that preserve the schemas for truth and falsehood, and those that do not. Neither strategy is found to be persuasive. Thirdly, I argue that cases of reference failure causing truth-value gaps illustrate the upshot of Williamson’s argument. Fourthly, I examine Scott Soames’s account of liar sentences as counterexamples to bivalence. Soames adopts a strategy of the first kind to avoid contradictions. I argue that his solution allows some contradictions to be true, and that he fails to show that liar sentences are truth-bearers. Finally, I examine Charles Travis’s case for isostheneia: an equal balancing of reasons to evaluate a statement as true or as false, in which case a statement is neither. Travis avoids contradictions by adopting a strategy of the second kind. I argue that the schemas for truth and falsehood are immune to Travis’s objections, and that isostheneia fails to identify evaluable items. The cases examined confirm that utterances that are neither true nor false say nothing. My claim is thus that truth-value gaps are not counterexamples to bivalence. (shrink)