Results for 'Human information processing'

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  1. Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: Perceptual Learning, Automatic Attending, and a General Theory.Richard M. Shiffrin & Walter Schneider - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (2):128-90.
    Tested the 2-process theory of detection, search, and attention presented by the current authors in a series of experiments. The studies demonstrate the qualitative difference between 2 modes of information processing: automatic detection and controlled search; trace the course of the learning of automatic detection, of categories, and of automatic-attention responses; and show the dependence of automatic detection on attending responses and demonstrate how such responses interrupt controlled processing and interfere with the focusing of attention. The learning (...)
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  2. Is Human Information Processing Conscious?Max Velmans - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):651-69.
    Investigations of the function of consciousness in human information processing have focused mainly on two questions: (1) where does consciousness enter into the information processing sequence and (2) how does conscious processing differ from preconscious and unconscious processing. Input analysis is thought to be initially "preconscious," "pre-attentive," fast, involuntary, and automatic. This is followed by "conscious," "focal-attentive" analysis which is relatively slow, voluntary, and flexible. It is thought that simple, familiar stimuli can be (...)
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  3.  33
    Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: I. Detection, Search, and Attention.Walter Schneider & Richard M. Shiffrin - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (1):1-66.
  4. Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: I.Walter E. Schneider & Richard M. Shiffrin - 1977 - Detection, Search, and Attention. Psychological Review 84:1-66.
  5. Consciousness in Models of Human Information Processing: Primary Memory, Executive Control, and Input Regulation.T. H. Carr - 1979 - In G. Underwood & R. Stevens (eds.), Aspects of Consciousness, Volume 1. Academic Press.
  6. An Information Processing Framework for Research on Human Reasoning.Richard E. Mayer & Russell Revlin - 1978 - In Russell Revlin & Richard E. Mayer (eds.), Human Reasoning. Distributed Solely by Halsted Press.
     
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  7.  11
    The LNR Approach to Human Information Processing.Donald A. Norman & David E. Rumelhart - 1981 - Cognition 10 (1-3):235-240.
  8.  79
    Utility Maximization and Bounds on Human Information Processing.Andrew Howes, Richard L. Lewis & Satinder Singh - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):198-203.
    Utility maximization is a key element of a number of theoretical approaches to explaining human behavior. Among these approaches are rational analysis, ideal observer theory, and signal detection theory. While some examples of these approaches define the utility maximization problem with little reference to the bounds imposed by the organism, others start with, and emphasize approaches in which bounds imposed by the information processing architecture are considered as an explicit part of the utility maximization problem. These latter (...)
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  9.  5
    Memory Ensemble Selection in Human Information Processing.John D. Williams - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):231.
  10.  1
    Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities.Robert J. Sternberg - 1977 - Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  11.  2
    Universal Temporal Structures in Human Information Processing: A Neural Principle and Psychophysical Evidence.Raul Kompass - 2004 - In Christian Kaernbach, Erich Schroger & Hermann Müller (eds.), Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition. Psychology Press. pp. 451--480.
  12.  6
    Information-Processing Dynamics of Human Eyelid Conditioning.G. Robert Grice - 1977 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106 (1):71-93.
  13.  27
    Socioemotional Information Processing in Human Infants: From Genes to Subjective Construals.Susan C. Johnson & Frances S. Chen - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):169-178.
    This article examines infant attachment styles from the perspective of cognitive and emotional subjectivity. We review new data that show that individual differences in infants’ attachment behaviors in the traditional Strange Situation are related to (a) infants’ subjective construals of infant—caregiver interactions, (b) their attention to emotional expressions, and (c) polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We use these findings to argue that individual differences in infants’ attachment styles reflect, in part, the subjective outcomes of objective experience as filtered (...)
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  14.  19
    Encoding, Decoding, and Central Functions in Human Information Processing.George E. Briggs & James M. Swanson - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):296.
  15.  9
    Sensory Variables and Stages of Human Information Processing.Saul Sternberg - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):282-283.
  16.  23
    On the Premature Demise of Causal Functions for Consciousness in Human Information Processing.Dale Dagenbach - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):675-675.
  17.  10
    Event-Related Potentials and the Biology of Human Information Processing.Enoch Callaway - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):223-224.
  18.  7
    Information Processing and the Decremental Effect of Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules in Human Conditioning.William F. Prokasy & William C. Williams - 1979 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 14 (1):57-60.
  19.  11
    Consciousness, Not Focal Attention, is Causally Effective in Human Information Processing.W. Trammell Neill - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):406-407.
  20.  8
    Human Memory and the Information-Processing Metaphor.Michael J. Watkins - 1981 - Cognition 10 (1-3):331-336.
  21.  8
    Human Performance in Contingent Information-Processing Tasks.Irving Biederman - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):219.
  22.  29
    Synergistic Information Processing Encrypts Strategic Reasoning in Poker.Seth Frey, Dominic K. Albino & Paul L. Williams - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1457-1476.
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  23. Preserved and Impaired Information Processing Systems in Human Bitemporal Amnesiacs and Their Infrahuman Analogues: Role of Hippocampectomy.P. Donovan Gage - 1985 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 6 (4):515-552.
     
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  24.  23
    Information Processing as One Key for a Unification?Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):40-40.
    The human information-acquisition process is one of the unifying mechanisms of the behavioral sciences. Three examples (from psychology, neuroscience, and political science) demonstrate that through inspection of this process, better understanding and hence more powerful models of human behavior can be built. The target method for this – process tracing – could serve as a central player in this building process of a unified framework. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  25.  31
    Contextual Information Processing of Brain in Art Appreciation.Shigeko Takahashi & Yoshimichi Ejima - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):158-159.
    A psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation will be an experimental discipline that may shed new light on the highest capacities of the human brain, yielding new scientific ways to talk about the art appreciation. The recent findings of the contextual information processing in the human brain make the concept of the art-historical context clear for empirical experimentation.
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  26.  56
    Information and Veridicality: Information Processing and the Bar-Hillel/Carnap Paradox.Nir Fresco & Michaelis Michael - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):131-151.
    Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information posits the Veridicality Thesis. One motivation is that it can serve as a foundation for information-based epistemology being an alternative to the tripartite theory of knowledge. However, the Veridicality thesis is false, if ‘information’ is to play an explanatory role in human cognition. Another motivation is avoiding the so-called Bar-Hillel/Carnap paradox. But this paradox only seems paradoxical, if ‘information’ and ‘informativeness’ are synonymous, logic is a theory of inference, or (...)
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  27.  7
    Network Complexity as a Measure of Information Processing Across Resting-State Networks: Evidence From the Human Connectome Project.Ian M. McDonough & Kaoru Nashiro - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  28.  14
    Human Tool-Making Capacities Reflect Increased Information-Processing Capacities: Continuity Resides in the Eyes of the Beholder.Kathleen R. Gibson - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):225-226.
    Chimpanzee/human technological differences are vast, reflect multiple interacting behavioral processes, and may result from the increased information-processing and hierarchical mental constructional capacities of the human brain. Therefore, advanced social, technical, and communicative capacities probably evolved together in concert with increasing brain size. Interpretations of these evolutionary and species differences as continuities or discontinuities reflect differing scientific perspectives.
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  29.  95
    More Nonconcavities in Information Processing Functions.Hagen Lindstädt - 2001 - Theory and Decision 51 (2/4):351-365.
    The productivity of (human) information processing as an economic activity is a question that is raising some interest. Using Marschak's evaluation framework, Radner and Stiglitz have shown that, under certain conditions, the production function of this activity has increasing marginal returns in its initial stage. This paper shows that, under slightly different conditions, this information processing function has repeated convexities with ongoing processing activity. Even for smooth changes in the signals' likelihoods, the function is (...)
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  30.  17
    Semantic Information Processing[REVIEW]B. M. M. - 1970 - Review of Metaphysics 24 (2):353-353.
    Since the introduction of the computer in the early 1950's, the investigation of artificial intelligence has followed three chief avenues: the discovery of self-organizing systems; the building of working models of human behavior, incorporating specific psychological theories; and the building of "heuristic" machines, without bias in favor of humanoid characteristics. While this work has used philosophical logic and its results may illustrate philosophical problems, the artificial intelligence program is by now an intricate, organized specialty. This book, therefore, has a (...)
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  31.  27
    The Information Processing Organisms.Lydia Arianova - 1996 - Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2):143-151.
    In spite of the tremendous progress in recent decades of biological science, many aspects of the behaviour of organisms in general and of humans in particular remain still somewhat obscure. A new approach towards the study of the behaviour of man was presented by Heisenberg when he emphasized that a Cartesian view of nature as an object out there is an illusion in so far as the observer is always part of the formula, the man viewing nature must be figured (...)
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  32. Information Processing.Mark A. Elliott & Hermann J. Muller - 2004 - In Christian Kaernbach, Erich Schroger & Hermann Müller (eds.), Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition. Psychology Press. pp. 137.
     
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  33.  50
    Altricial Self-Organising Information-Processing Systems ∗.Aaron Sloman - unknown
    It is often thought that there is one key design principle or at best a small set of design principles, underlying the success of biological organisms. Candidates include neural nets, ‘swarm intelligence’, evolutionary computation, dynamical systems, particular types of architecture or use of a powerful uniform learning mechanism, e.g. reinforcement learning. All of those support types of self-organising, self-modifying behaviours. But we are nowhere near understanding the full variety of powerful information-processing principles ‘discovered’ by evolution. By attending closely (...)
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  34.  4
    Unconscious Information Processing in Executive Control.Nicola De Pisapia - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  35.  1
    Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Information Processing in the Human Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.Conor Keogh, Alceste Deli, Amir Puyan Divanbeighi Zand, Mark Jernej Zorman, Sandra G. Boccard-Binet, Matthew Parrott, Charalampos Sigalas, Alexander R. Weiss, John Frederick Stein, James J. FitzGerald, Tipu Z. Aziz, Alexander L. Green & Martin John Gillies - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is a key node in the human salience network. It has been ascribed motor, pain-processing and affective functions. However, the dynamics of information flow in this complex region and how it responds to inputs remain unclear and are difficult to study using non-invasive electrophysiology. The area is targeted by neurosurgery to treat neuropathic pain. During deep brain stimulation surgery, we recorded local field potentials from this region in humans during a decision-making task (...)
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  36.  6
    Human Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effects: An Information Processing Development From Capaldi's Sequential Theory.Joseph Halpern & Leonard Poon - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):207-227.
  37.  14
    The Influences of Normative Information on Human Judgmental Processes.John Gormly - 1973 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 1 (6):414-416.
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  38. Magnetoencephalography-a Tool for Studies of Information Processing the Human Brain.Risto J. Ilmoniemi - 1995 - In Heinz Lübbig (ed.), The Inverse Problem. Akademie Verlag Und Vch Weinheim. pp. 89--106.
     
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  39.  6
    Brain Vital Signs Detect Information Processing Differences When Neuromodulation Is Used During Cognitive Skills Training.Christopher J. Smith, Ashley Livingstone, Shaun D. Fickling, Pamela Tannouri, Natasha K. J. Campbell, Bimal Lakhani, Yuri Danilov, Jonathan M. Sackier & Ryan C. N. D’Arcy - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  40.  12
    Cognition: Unobservable Information Processing or Private Social Practice?Raymond M. Bergner - 2006 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):154-171.
    This paper presents a critique of cognitive psychology's micro-process program, as well as suggestions for a more scientifically and pragmatically viable approach to cognition. The paper proceeds in the following sequence. First, the mainstream point of view of contemporary cognitive psychology regarding cognitive micro-processes is summarized. Second, this view is criticized. Third and finally, cognitive science's neuropsychology program is discussed, not with respect to the considerable value of its findings, but with respect to the interpretation that would appropriately be placed (...)
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  41.  9
    Training in Temporal Information Processing Ameliorates Phonetic Identification.Aneta Szymaszek, Anna Dacewicz, Paulina Urban & Elzbieta Szelag - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  42. Neural Synchrony During Naturalistic Information Processing Is Associated With Aerobically Active Lifestyle and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.Tamir Eisenstein, Nir Giladi, Talma Hendler, Ofer Havakuk & Yulia Lerner - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    The functional neural mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefits of aerobic exercise have been a subject of ongoing research in recent years. However, while most neuroimaging studies to date which examined functional neural correlates of aerobic exercise have used simple stimuli in highly controlled and artificial experimental conditions, our everyday life experiences require a much more complex and dynamic neurocognitive processing. Therefore, we have used a naturalistic complex information processing fMRI paradigm of story comprehension to investigate the role (...)
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  43.  46
    More Things Than Are Dreamt of in Your Biology: Information-Processing in Biologically Inspired Robots.A. Sloman & R. L. Chrisley - unknown
    Animals and robots perceiving and acting in a world require an ontology that accommodates entities, processes, states of affairs, etc., in their environment. If the perceived environment includes information - processing systems, the ontology should reflect that. Scientists studying such systems need an ontology that includes the first - order ontology characterising physical phenomena, the second - order ontology characterising perceivers of physical phenomena, and a third order ontology characterising perceivers of perceivers, including introspectors. We argue that second (...)
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  44. Artificial and Natural Genetic Information Processing.Guenther Witzany - 2017 - In Mark Burgin & Wolfgang Hofkirchner (eds.), Information Studies and the Quest for Transdisciplinarity. Singapore: World Scientific. pp. 523-547.
    Conventional methods of genetic engineering and more recent genome editing techniques focus on identifying genetic target sequences for manipulation. This is a result of historical concept of the gene which was also the main assumption of the ENCODE project designed to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. However, the theoretical core concept changed dramatically. The old concept of genetic sequences which can be assembled and manipulated like molecular bricks has problems in explaining the natural genome-editing competences (...)
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  45.  33
    Dreyfus on the “Fringe”: Information Processing, Intelligent Activity, and the Future of Thinking Machines.Jeffrey White - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):301-312.
    From his preliminary analysis in 1965, Hubert Dreyfus projected a future much different than those with which his contemporaries were practically concerned, tempering their optimism in realizing something like human intelligence through conventional methods. At that time, he advised that there was nothing “directly” to be done toward machines with human-like intelligence, and that practical research should aim at a symbiosis between human beings and computers with computers doing what they do best, processing discrete symbols in (...)
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  46.  42
    Surprising Empirical Directions for Thomistic Moral Psychology: Social Information Processing and Aggression Research.Anne Jeffrey & Krista Mehari - 2022 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 96 (2):263-289.
    One of the major contemporary challenges to Thomistic moral psychology is that it is incompatible with the most up-to-date psychological science. Here Thomistic psychology is in good company, targeted along with most virtue-ethical views by philosophical situationism, which uses replicated psychological studies to suggest that our behaviors are best explained by situational pressures rather than by stable traits (like virtues and vices). In this essay we explain how this body of psychological research poses a much deeper threat to Thomistic moral (...)
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  47.  12
    Altered Visual Information Processing Systems in Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Visual MMN and P3.Toshihiko Maekawa, Satomi Katsuki, Junji Kishimoto, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Katsuya Ogata, Takao Yamasaki, Takefumi Ueno, Shozo Tobimatsu & Shigenobu Kanba - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  48.  29
    Epistemology as Computation (Information Processing).Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2007 - In Christian Calude (ed.), Randomness & Complexity, From Leibniz to Chaitin. World Scientific Pub Co.
    This essay presents arguments for the claim that in the best of all possible worlds (Leibniz) there are sources of unpredictability and creativity for us humans, even given a pancomputational stance. A suggested answer to Chaitin’s questions: “Where do new mathematical and biological ideas come from? How do they emerge?” is that they come from the world and emerge from basic physical (computational) laws. For humans as a tiny subset of the universe, a part of the new ideas comes as (...)
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  49.  13
    Revictimization and information processing: problems in the study of reasoning difficulties.Miguel López Astorga - 2012 - Cinta de Moebio 44:153-168.
    DePrince relates problems such as dissociation, revictimization and difficulties in social cognition. In particular, she states that individuals with dissociation or have been, by their own testimony, revictimized show obvious difficulties to solve selection tasks designed as social contracts or precautory problems. In my view, these facts mean that, if we accept the theories that there are mechanisms in human mind to regulate social exchanges and situations of risk, individuals with dissociation or revitimized may have altered such mechanisms. However, (...)
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  50. Studying Dynamics of Human Information Gathering Behaviors Using Social Robots.Matan Eshed, Matan Epstein, Ada H. Zohar & Goren Gordon - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    A novel social interaction is a dynamic process, in which participants adapt to, react to and engage with their social partners. To facilitate such interactions, people gather information relating to the social context and structure of the situation. The current study aimed to deepen the understanding of the psychological determinants of behavior in a novel social interaction. Three social robots and the participant interacted non-verbally according to a pre-programmed “relationship matrix” that dictated who favored whom. Participants' gaze was tracked (...)
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