ABSTRACTTurkey hosts the world’s largest community of displaced Syrians. According to UNHCR, there are more than 3 million registered Syrians in Turkey as of 2018. Since the beginning of the conflict in Syria in 2011, Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party has followed an open-door policy, which was accompanied by a discourse emphasizing religious solidarity and humanitarian values. However, the arrival of Syrian refugees has become entangled with the existing identity debates and conflicts in Turkish politics. The AKP’s discourse on (...) Syrian refugees has become intertwined with its positive self-representation as the defender of all oppressed people and its attempts to reconstruct the Turkish nation along more Islamic lines. The article analyses parliamentary debates and presidential speeches in order to unravel AKP discourses on Syrian refugees. Drawing upon the Discourse Historical Approach in Critical Discourse Analysis, the article puts forward two arguments. First, the refugee issue has become a constitutive component of AKP identity and a discursive tool to reconstruct the nation along more Islamic lines. Second, Turkey’s refugee policy has become a source of pride and enabled the AKP to claim moral superiority both vis-à-vis the West and its political opponents at home. (shrink)
The paradox which characterizes the modern states system is that the dual structure of sovereignty and justice through which the system was originally conceived is no more, yet the system is still with us. Justice was redefined in the 19th century as a mere derivation of state sovereignty, a process reducing the focus of the system to sovereignty alone and thus dispossessing the system of a principle to mediate between the sovereign will and the international community. It is argued in (...) this essay that the lack of a mediating principle may signify violence as inherent in the system, subsequently making intervention and terrorism facets of the established order rather than anomalies. Relying greatly on recent critical international legal studies, the article asks if the strategies suggested by lawyers such as Anthony D'Amato and Rosalyn Higgins to cope with the paradox, coupled with the contemporary universal human rights arguments, signal a move towards restoring the historical focus of the system. (shrink)
Kein Gelehrter vor Irfan SHAHÎD hat sich so ausführlich mit dem Verhältnis zwischen Byzantinern und Arabern in der vorislamischen Zeit beschäftigt. Mit seinen Arbeiten, schon zwei Bände der Serie „Byzantium and the Arabs“ sind 1995 erschienen, begibt sich Sh. auf ein noch unzulänglich erforschtes, geschweige denn verstandenes Forschungsfeld: Die Geschichte der Araber im größeren Syrien des 6. Jh.s, welche durch „Die ghassânidischen Fürsten aus dem Hause Gafna's“ geprägt wurde. Dazu verfügt der Verf. über seltene Voraussetzungen. Er beherrscht sowohl die klassischen (...) westlichen Sprachen sowie das Syrische und ist ein hervorragender Arabist, der es vor allem vermag, das bei den frühen arabischen Autoren verstreute Material, ich denke dabei besonders an die frühen Dichter, zu deuten. Hohe Sachkompetenz und jahrelange Beschäftigung mit dem Thema bezeugen schon die 1995 erschienen zwei Bände, in denen Sh. die Geschichte der Ġassāniden und ihren Einfluss auf die Politik und das religiöse Leben sowie ihre Rolle in den Kriegen der damaligen Zeit im Detail beschreibt. An sie schließt sich die vorliegende, über 450seitige Arbeit an. (shrink)
El autor estudia en este trabajo los antecedentes de la pervivencia y desarrollo del gnosticismo antiguo en el mundo islámico. Hace un repaso de las principales fuentes de la gnosis y de sus principales doctrinas.
We will intend to evaluate, throughout the two consecutive parts of this study, which is to be considered the status at the very same time hierophanical and cosmological, ontological and anthropological, that dic notion of Beauty invests in te speculative misticism of the anda lusian Muhy¡ al-Din lbn `Arab¡ (1165-1240), known as well as "the gre Este articulo es la ponencia presentada en el Seminario Muhy¡ al-Din ¡bn Arabí -Mawláná faMí al-Din Balji(Mowlavi/ RflmiJ. Das fuentes clásicas para el estudio de (...) la mística especulativa en el Islam, que se celebró en la Facultad de Filosofía de la Universidad Complutense, en colaboración que la Consejerla Cultural de la República Islámica de Irán en Madrid. durante los días 19,20 y 21 de enero de 1999. krks&l&~ú..t&Hitat&k¡Fíksq%L <~),n~n ¡7. ~ 77-rn Sm*t& ñt4~m. thí~.~~h1Cw1tm MaI*f 78 José Miguel Puerta Vílchez atest master" in the realm of isla¡nic spirituality. And this by confronting the theories of islamic aesthetics and philosophy, and both furthermore by clarifying a vocabulary plenty of poliedric signifwances and by presen ting the doctrine of a creative imagination of which its noetical and sacred value will be thus explored. (shrink)
El presente estudio se propone, a lo largo de dos entregas consecutivas, evaluar cuál sea el estatuto a un tiempo hierofánico y cosmológico, ontológico y antropológico, que la noción de Belleza reviste en la mística especulativa del andalusí MuhyÌ al-DÌn Ibn ÿArabÌ (1165-1240), conocido asimismo como "el más grande de los maestros" en materia de espiritualidad islámica. Y ello en confrontación con las teorías al uso de la estética y la filosofía islámicas, a través del esclarecimiento de un vocabulario denso (...) en sugerencias poliédricas, y de la presentación de la doctrina relativa a la facultad creadora de una imaginación de la que se indagará, en fin, su valor noético y sagrado. (shrink)
Eski çağlardan beri siyasal şiddetin temel nedeninin gelir eşitsizliği olduğu ileri sürülmüştür. Bazı çalışmalar gelir eşitsizliği ve siyasal şiddet arasında hiçbir ilişkinin olmadığını belirtirken, bazıları ekonomik gelişme seviyesinin siyasal şiddetin daha güçlü bir belirleyicisi olduğunu savunmuşlardır. Göreceli yoksunluk tartışmaları ise yoksunluğun, uyarılmış hoşnutsuzluğun ve kolektif siyasal şiddetin çeşitli türleri arasında direk bir ilişki olduğunu savunurken kaynak seferberliği akımı; hoşnutsuzluk ve siyasal şiddet arasındaki direk bir ilişki varsayımını reddetmiştir. Rejim baskıcılığı ve siyasal şiddet arasındaki ilişkiyi saptamaya çalışan araştırmalarda ise; siyasal şiddetin (...) orta baskıcı bir rejim yapısı altında ortaya çıktığı görüşü savunulmuştur. Kısacası bu çalışma gelir eşitsizliği ve rejim baskıcılığındaki çeşitliliğin siyasal şiddet seviyesi üzerindeki etkisini inceleyerek kaynak seferberliğine karşı göreceli yoksunluk tartışmasıyla alakalı ulusa karşı bir veri analizi bildirmektedir. (shrink)
Contemporary political discourse is marked with the language of democracy, and Western countries in particular seek to promote democracy at home and abroad. However, there is a sublimated conflict in general political discourse between a desire to rely on alleged political experts and a desire to assert the supposed common sense of all men. Can the struggle between the democratic and aristocratic values embodied in this conflict be reconciled? The question is perennial, and raises issues that are central to constitutional (...) design. Aristotle, developing in significant ways insights made by his teacher Plato, grapples with it in his Politics. Aristotle's views on these matters are relevant—by way of the American Founders'—to contemporary American politics and modern democracies generally. During the eighteenth century, the Founders, some of whom explicitly reached back to Aristotle's work, also struggled—especially in The Federalist Papers—with these thorny issues of constitutional design. They created the U.S. Constitution in part to address these very same problems and issues. We are living in some ways, then, in the shadow of Aristotle's political theorizing, albeit as transposed by the American Founders. Both Aristotle and some of the American Founders theoretically favor aristocracy over democracy, but concede that in practice a blend of the two has to be integrated into the fundamental structure of political society. We need to reconnect with these important political discussions in order to come to terms with aristocratic and democratic values in our current circumstances. Footnotesa I am grateful to Fred Miller and David Keyt for many helpful suggestions and thoughtful questions throughout the editing process. I would also like to thank Irfan Khawaja for valuable feedback on an earlier version of this essay. (shrink)
This is a study of Master Ramchandra, a nineteenth-century Indian mathematician, social commentator and Urdu journalist. The contradictions manifest in his projects, it is contended, were actually the products of the contradictions manifest in the political and ideological thinking of the period. One encounters in his writings a dominant critique of the prevalent religious, social and educational systems and also a call for social transformation, wherein scientific rationality and realism came to play an important role. Ramchandra's understanding is quite close (...) to that of the Comtean positivists. An attempt is made here to locate this emerging scientism within the context of nineteenth-century colonial politics. (shrink)
The essays in this volume place the history of science in context, especially the genre of history of science informed by Joseph Needham's ecumenical vision of science. The book presents a number of questions that relate to contemporary concerns of the history of sciences and multiculturalism.
Modernite, uzun bir zamandır tüm dünyada, Avrupa-merkezci bir ideolojiyle suç ortaklığı yapmasına ve özünde barındırdığı çelişkilerin bağdaşmazlığına rağmen, bilgi üretimi ve disiplinlerin teorik çerçevesini belirlemede hâkim paradigma olmayı sürdürmektedir. Avrupa-merkezci ideolojiyle girişilen suçun iştirakçilerinden bir diğeri de, modernliğin kendi kendini gözleme tarzı olarak ve onunla birlikte gelişen, aralarında totolojik bir görünüm sergileyen sosyolojidir.Modernitenin özünde barındırdığı çelişkilerin bağdaşmazlığı, yadsıma, inkâr vs. ötekileştirme nosyonunu kaçınılmaz kılar.Sosyolojik literatürde ötekileştirme, özcü bir yaklaşımla Batıda yaşanan tarihsel sürecin tek doğru ve evrensel olduğu iddiasıyla geliştirilen tarih (...) yazımında, sömürgeleştirme faaliyetlerine koşut olarak geliştirilen oryantalist söylemde, ideal tiplerin oluşturulması gibi konularda referans noktası olmuştur.Bu makale, modernite ve sosyolojideki teorik çerçeve ve anlatının Avrupa-merkezci bir söylem barındırmasındanhareketle post-kolonyal teoriye göreeleştirisini yapmayı amaçlamaktadır.Ötekileştirmeyen bir paradigmanın izini sürerken post-kolonyal teorinin karşılaştığı zorluklar ve açmazlarıortaya koymak da bu çalışmanın bir diğer amacı olacaktır.Çalışma, post-kolonyal teorinin sosyolojideki oryantalist söylem üzerinden hâkim paradigmayı eleştirirken self-oryantalizmin ağına düştüğü hususları belirtmek suretiyle özgün olmayı hedeflemektedir. (shrink)
Actuality of the conducted research is practically oriented character. Without the use of information and communication technologies in the field of higher education, it is impossible to carry out qualitative training of specialists in engineering, the results of which are necessary for the implementation of a national strategy for modernizing the economy and forming a progressive state of European type. Formulation of the task - the specificity of the use of ICT in the system of higher education has not been (...) studied sufficiently. ICT form a complex environment, which includes a lot of information objects and the links between them. It can be argued that the structural and functional analysis of the use of ICT in higher education is the basis of the theoretical justification in the formation of technical professionalism of future engineers. ICTs form a complex system, which includes not only technical and software-hardware capabilities, but also psycho-pedagogical, organizational, methodological. Without taking into account all of these components, as well as the needs of the subjects of the educational process, the use of ICT tools may be accompanied by risks and negatively affect the quality of high education. An analysis of recent research and publications-is actively exploring the experience of using ICT in high school, it is possible to distinguish the work of foreign specialists D. Stevenson, G. Reinhold, E. Wenger, S. Papierta, I. Zakharova, E. Patarakina, A. Khutorskogo, E. Polat The founders of this scientific direction in our country were M. I. Zhaldak, Y. I.Mashbits. The recent significant increase in the number of studies, the subject of which was the use of information and communication technologies in the educational process. Tsitemi in Ukraine is dedicated to the study of such scholars as V. Yu. Bykov, Ya.V. Bulakhova, O.M. Bondarenko, V.F. Zabolotny, G.O. Kozlakova, O. Moiko, O. Naumenko, Yu.Burovitskaya, I. Stavyts'ka, O.P. Pinchuk, O.V. Shestopal and others. Selection of unexplored parts of the general problem. The use of information technologies in the educational process is the foundation of innovative development of the educational system. The rapid development of ICT provides not only significant pace of innovative progress, but also requires the definition of information resources that guarantee the quality of learning, the choice of techniques that are in line with the general strategy for the formation of professional competences. Therefore, the problem of choosing an approach to the process of learning with the use of ICTs remains one of the main tasks of education. Research methods. In theory and practice, the study of the application of information and communication technologies in high school uses empirical methods of collecting and analyzing information based on the results of the survey of 120 students. Presenting main material. The essence of professionalism of future specialists of the technical direction is revealed. The scientific point of view on the professionalism of the engineer is presented. The peculiarities of formation of the basis of technical professionalism of future engineers in the process of studying at a higher school are theoretically grounded. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results of empirical researches of this problem is presented. The practical significance of the research topic is that the innovative approaches to the training of specialists in engineering specialties are differentiated, which differentiate in the educational concepts of teaching in higher educational institutions of European countries. (shrink)