Results for 'I. A. Haupt'

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  1.  40
    The Epistles of Horace, Book I. With Introduction and Notes by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. Cambridge : University Press. 1888. 2s. 6d. [REVIEW]S. W. A. - 1888 - The Classical Review 2 (07):213-.
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  2.  32
    Las críticas de aristóteles a platón en metafísica I, 9.Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo - 2010 - Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 15 (1):169-195.
    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in (...)
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  3.  35
    Perceived Hereditary Effect of World War I: A Study of the Positions of Friedrich von Bernhardi and Vernon Kellogg. [REVIEW]Matthis Krischel - 2010 - Medicine Studies 2 (2):139-150.
    This paper explores the question whether war was regarded as eugenic or dysgenic before, during and after the First World War. The main focus is on the positions of the German military officer and historian Friedrich von Bernhardi, who in Germany and the Next War, first published in 1912, argued for war as eugenic, and Vernon Kellogg’s Headquarters Nights, published in 1917, which marks an important work characterizing war as dysgenic. I argue that an international community of biologists and social (...)
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  4. Am I a Racist? Implicit Bias and the Ascription of Racism.Neil Levy - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (268):534-551.
    There is good evidence that many people harbour attitudes that conflict with those they endorse. In the language of social psychology, they seem to have implicit attitudes that conflict with their explicit beliefs. There has been a great deal of attention paid to the question whether agents like this are responsible for actions caused by their implicit attitudes, but much less to the question whether they can rightly be described as racist in virtue of harbouring them. In this paper, I (...)
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  5.  3
    L'escriptura corm a tecnologia del jo en Kzerkegaard i Foucault.William McDonald - 1997 - Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 25:55-67.
    https://revistes.uab.cat/enrahonar/article/view/v25-mcdonald.
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  6.  14
    Filón y las inscripciones griegas de los siglos II-I a.C.: la existencia de la gerousía en Alejandría.Paola Druille - 2016 - Circe de Clásicos y Modernos 20 (2):131-145.
    El objeto de este trabajo consiste en analizar la existencia de la gerousía en la comunidad judía de Alejandría durante el último período de los Ptolomeos y las primeras décadas de Egipto romano, a partir de la relación entre las inscripciones SGE 34. 1532 y SB 1. 2100 de los siglos II-I a.C., traducidos por primera vez al español en el presente estudio, y Contra Flaco 74 de Filón de Alejandría. Con este propósito intentaremos rastrear el término gerousía en los (...)
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  7.  4
    Karl Popper I la Rehabilitació de la Teoria de la Veritat Com a Correspondència.Luis Fernández Moreno - 1997 - Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 25:91-106.
    https://revistes.uab.cat/enrahonar/article/view/v25-fernandez.
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  8.  3
    Comentaris a «Explicació Teòrica I Compromisos Ontològics: Un Model Estructuralista», de C. Ulisses Moulines.Pablo Lorenzano - 2005 - Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 37:55-59.
    https://revistes.uab.cat/enrahonar/article/view/v37-lorenzano.
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  9.  13
    Language, Thought and Comprehension: A Case Study of the Writings of I. A. Richards.W. H. N. Hotopf & I. A. Richards - 1967 - British Journal of Educational Studies 15 (1):103-103.
  10.  13
    Criticism, Aesthetics and Psychology: A Study of the Writings of I. A. Richards.Chetan Karnani & I. A. Richards - 1980 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (1):99-100.
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  11.  13
    I. A. Richards in Retrospect.John Paul Russo - 1982 - Critical Inquiry 8 (4):743-760.
    I. A. Richards ushered the spirit of Cambridge realism into semantics and literary criticism. When he arrived as an undergraduate in 1911, Cambridge was in the midst of its finest philosophical flowering since the Puritanism and Platonism of the seventeenth century. The revolution of G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell against Hegelian idealism had already occurred; the Age of Principia was under way. There was a reassertion of native empiricism and a new interest in philosophical psychology, and the whole discussion (...)
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  12.  12
    I. A. Richards' Theory of Literature.Jerome P. Schiller & I. A. Richards - 1970 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):137-138.
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  13. I͡a Vgli͡adyvai͡usʹ V Zhiznʹ: Kniga Razdumiĭ.I. A. Ilʹin - 2007
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  14. Language, Thought, and Comprehension: A Case Study of the Writings of I. A. Richards.I. A. Richards, W. H. N. Hotopf, George Watson & Warren A. Shibles - 1973 - Foundations of Language 10 (4):607-611.
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  15. Richards on Rhetoric I.A. Richards, Selected Essays, 1929-1974.I. A. Richards & Ann E. Berthoff - 1991
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  16. Richards on Rhetoric I.A. Richards, Selected Essays.I. A. Richards & Ann E. Berthoff - 1991
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  17. Why I Am a Vegan (and You Should Be One Too).Tristram McPherson - 2015 - In Philosophy Comes to Dinner. Routledge. pp. 73-91.
    This paper argues for what I call modest ethical veganism: the view that it is typically wrong to use or eat products made from or by animals such as cows, pigs, or chickens. The argument has three central parts. First, I argue that a central explanation for the wrongness of causing suffering rests upon what it is like to experience such suffering, and that we have good reasons to think that animals suffer in ways that are relevantly analogous to humans. (...)
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  18.  64
    The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach.Joachim Schummer - 1998 - Hyle 4 (2):129 - 162.
    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological implications that allow to develop step by step a kind (...)
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  19. rec. W. Buchner \"Wojna i konkwista. Hiszpańska myśl polityczna Złotego Wieku"\ A.A. Chaufen \"Wiara i wolność. Myśl ekonomiczna późnych scholastyków"\.Dorota Sepczyńska - 2008 - In Dorota Sepczyńska & Mieczysław Jagłowski (eds.), Między Złotym a Srebrnym Wiekiem Kultury Hiszpańskiej. Instytut Cervantesa W Warszawie, Instytut Filozofii Uwm W Olsztynie, Instytut Kulturoznawstwa Owiiz Im. T. Kotarbińskiego. pp. 445-456.
    Recenzja książek W. Buchner, Wojna i konkwista. Hiszpańska myśl polityczna Złotego Wieku i A.A. Chaufe, Wiara i wolność. Myśl ekonomiczna późnych scholastyków.
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  20.  12
    Aristotle's Physics Book I: A Systematic Exploration Ed. By Diana Quarantotto.John Bowin - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (1):161-162.
    This volume is the product of a pair of conferences on book I of Aristotle’s Physics at Sapienza University of Rome in 2013 and 2015. Each chapter of book I receives a philosophical commentary by a prominent specialist in ancient philosophy. The contributions offer systematic and thorough exegesis, as well as new and interesting solutions to interpretative problems. In what follows, I will focus chiefly on the latter.Diana Quarantotto begins the volume with a discussion of the overall structure, role, and (...)
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  21.  4
    In Lieu of a Review of the Latest English Translation of Ideas I: A Reading of Husserl's Original Intent and its Relevance for Empirical Qualitative Psychology.Ian Rory Owen - 2015 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 15 (1):1-13.
    Husserl's phenomenology provides theory for empirical science and other practices in the form of transcendental philosophy after Kant. This phenomenology is a reflection on mental objects in relation to mental processes, some of which are shared in culture: a theoretical framework that grounds and co-ordinates theory-production for empirical practice. The importance of the original work of Edmund Husserl for contemporary empirical psychology is that it provides the conceptual justification for the methods employed and the interpretative stances taken. Informed theoretically by (...)
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  22.  52
    The 'Physical Prophet' and the Powers of the Imagination. Part I: A Case-Study on Prophecy, Vapours and the Imagination (1685–1710). [REVIEW]Koen Vermeir - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (4):561-591.
    I argue that the imagination was a crucial concept for the understanding of marvellous phenomena, divination and magic in general. Exploring a debate on prophecy at the turn of the seventeenth century, I show that four explanatory categories were consistently evoked and I elucidate the role of the imagination in each of them. I introduce the term ‘floating concept’ to conceptualise the different ways in which the imagination and the related ‘animal spirits’ were understood in diverse discourses. My argument is (...)
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  23.  22
    An ‘I’ for an I, a Truth for a Truth.Mary Leng - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica:nky005.
    Stewart Shapiro’s ante rem structuralism recognizes the structural or ‘algebraic’ aspects of mathematical practice while still offering a face-value semantics. Fictionalism, as a purely ‘algebraic’ approach, is held to be at a disadvantage, as compared with Shapiro’s structuralism, in not interpreting mathematics at face value. However, the face-value reading of mathematical singular terms has difficulty explaining how we can use such terms to pick out a unique referent in cases where the relevant mathematical structures admit non-trivial automorphisms. Shapiro offers a (...)
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  24. Am I a Series?Jens Johansson - 2009 - Theoria 75 (3):196-205.
    Scott Campbell has recently defended the psychological approach to personal identity over time by arguing that a person is literally a series of mental events. Rejecting four-dimensionalism about the persistence of physical objects, Campbell regards constitutionalism as the main rival version of the psychological approach. He argues that his "series view" has two clear advantages over constitutionalism: it avoids the "two thinkers" objection and it allows a person to change bodies. In addition, Campbell suggests a reply to the objection, often (...)
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  25.  46
    I. A Comment on Performative, Subject, and Proposition in Habermas's Theory of Communication.Erling Skjei - 1985 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 28 (1-4):87 – 105.
    Habermas claims that the concept of ?communicative action? can be explained by illocutionary acts alone. It appears tó me that his explanation collapses into a sort of intentional theory (2[i]). Habermas maintains further that a speech act consists of three components which are ?correlated? to three worlds and to three validity claims. However, he also seems to mean that all worlds and validity claims are correlated to just one; the so?called propositional component. One consequence is that the propositional content, not (...)
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  26.  57
    Logic, Mathematics, and the A Priori, Part I: A Problem for Realism.Neil Tennant - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (3):308-320.
    This is Part I of a two-part study of the foundations of mathematics through the lenses of (i) apriority and analyticity, and (ii) the resources supplied by Core Logic. Here we explain what is meant by apriority, as the notion applies to knowledge and possibly also to truths in general. We distinguish grounds for knowledge from grounds of truth, in light of our recent work on truthmakers. We then examine the role of apriority in the realism/anti-realism debate. We raise a (...)
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  27.  17
    Celowość w ujęciu M.A. Krąpca, S. Mazierskiego i A. Maryniarczyka.Krzysztof Kruk - 2016 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 22 (1):270-289.
    One position on the interpretation of purposefulness adopted by Neo-Thomists says that the principle of purposefulness has universal significance, because it concerns every entity that can be defined by the term “action”: i.e. every entity which exists and can only be known through some form of action. Entities work to preserve their existence, and their pursuit of survival seems to be the purpose of their actions. So, if entities are already working, then they must also be working purposefully. We can (...)
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  28. Aristotle's Physics Book I: A Systematic Exploration.Diana Quarantotto (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a comprehensive and in-depth study of Physics I, the first book of Aristotle's foundational treatise on natural philosophy. While the text has inspired a rich scholarly literature, this is the first volume devoted solely to it to have been published for many years, and it includes a new translation of the Greek text. Book I introduces Aristotle's approach to topics such as matter and form, and discusses the fundamental problems of the study of natural science, examining the (...)
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  29. On Unemployment: Volume I: A Micro-Theory of Distributive Justice.Mark R. Reiff - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Unemployment has been at historically high rates for an extended period, and while it has recently improved in certain countries, the unemployment that remains may be becoming structural. Aside from inequality, unemployment is accordingly the problem that is most likely to put critical pressure on our political institutions, disrupt the social fabric of our way of life, and even threaten the continuation of liberalism itself. Despite the obvious importance of the problem of unemployment, however, there has been a curious lack (...)
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  30. May I Treat A Collective As A Mere Means.Bill Wringe - 2014 - American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):273-284.
    According to Kant, it is impermissible to treat humanity as a mere means. If we accept Kant's equation of humanity with rational agency, and are literalists about ascriptions of agency to collectives it appears to follow that we may not treat collectives as mere means. On most standard accounts of what it is to treat something as a means this conclusion seems highly implausible. I conclude that we are faced with a range of options. One would be to rethink the (...)
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  31. Glerii͡u Shirokovu: I͡a Khotel by s Toboĭ Pogovoritʹ.S. V. Soplenkov & A. M. Petrov (eds.) - 2006 - Akademii͡a Gumanitarnykh Issledovaniĭ.
  32.  25
    Społeczeństwo, państwo, dobro wspólne i polityka w ujęciu M.A. Krąpca.Tomasz Ćwiertniak - 2018 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 23 (2):85-116.
    Artykuł przedstawia sformułowaną przez M.A. Krąpca propozycję filozoficznego wyjaśnienia bytu społecznego na podstawie rozumienia człowieka jako spotencjalizowanej osoby. Kluczowe dla zaprezentowanej w artykule koncepcji M.A. Krąpca jest filozoficzne ujęcie dobra wspólnego rozumianego personalistycznie, jako analogicznie wspólny wszystkim ludziom cel: aktualizacja potencjalności osobowych człowieka, a więc rozwój moralny, wolitywny i twórczy każdego człowieka. Zapewnienie środków realizacji tak rozumianego dobra wspólnego stanowi zasadniczą rację bytu społeczeństwa i państwa. Wszelki byt społeczny jest bowiem — jako rzeczywistość relacyjna — ontycznie „słabszy” niż istniejąca w (...)
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  33.  23
    Obecność Innego jako ontologiczna i etyczna granica wolności w Bycie i nicości Jeana-Paula Sartre’a. Kategoria odpowiedzialności a zasady komunitaryzmu.Pomiankiewicz Łukasz - 2014 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 5 (1):69-93.
    Celem pracy jest zarysowanie najważniejszych wątków filozofii wolności Jeana-Paula Sartre’a. Autor w pracy stara się zawrzeć najważniejsze elementy sartrowskiej ontologii, będącej podstawą filozofii wolności – pojęcia wolności, odpowiedzialności oraz złej wiary. Następnie pokazuje, jakie znaczenie dla wolności człowieka ma obecność Innego będącego jej ontologiczną i etyczną granicą. W tym celu autor przedstawia rozważania Sartre’a na temat jednostki i jej relacji z innymi ludźmi. Tekst jest także próbą zestawienia egzystencjalistycznej myśli Sartre’a z komunitarystyczą koncepcją podmiotowości Charles’a Taylora.
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  34.  24
    The Preferences of Al-Kisāʾī : Grammar and Meaning in a Canonical Reading of the Qur’An.Ramon Harvey - 2016 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 29 (2):313-332.
    The Qur’an has been transmitted as both a written text and an oral recital. This has led to the development of a reading tradition that permits numerous different vocalisations to be made upon the basic skeletal text of the established ʿUthmānī codex. Ibn al-Jazarī chose ten early readers whom he felt were most representative of this tradition and whose readings are treated as canonical up until this day. One of these, the Kufan linguist al-Kisāʾī has been characterised in the literature (...)
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  35.  12
    Clarence I. Lewis, Il pensiero e l'ordine del mondo, a cura di Sergio Cremaschi.Clarence Irving Lewis & Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1977 - Torino, Italy: Rosenberg & Sellier.
    The editor's introduction discusses Clarence I. Lewis's conceptual pragmatism when compared with post-empiricist epistemology and argues that several Cartesian assumptions play a major role in the work, not unlike those of Logical Positivism. The suggestion is made that the Cartesian legacy still hidden in Logical Positivism turns out to be a rather heavy ballast for Lewis’s project of restructuring epistemology in a pragmatist key. More in detail, the sore point is the nature of inter-subjectivity. For Lewis, no less than for (...)
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  36. I Me Mine: On a Confusion Concerning the Subjective Character of Experience.Marie Guillot - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (1):1-31.
    In recent debates on phenomenal consciousness, a distinction is sometimes made, after Levine (2001) and Kriegel (2009), between the “qualitative character” of an experience, i.e. the specific way it feels to the subject (e.g. blueish or sweetish or pleasant), and its “subjective character”, i.e. the fact that there is anything at all that it feels like to her. I argue that much discussion of subjective character is affected by a conflation between three different notions. I start by disentangling the three (...)
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  37. A Theory of Truthmaker Content I: Conjunction, Disjunction and Negation.Kit Fine - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (6):625-674.
    I develop a basic theory of content within the framework of truthmaker semantics and, in the second part, consider some of the applications to subject matter, common content, logical subtraction and ground.
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  38.  16
    A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief And Reflective Knowledge, Volume I. [REVIEW]Ernest Sosa - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):382-385.
    Ernest Sosa's A Virtue Epistemology, Vol. I is arguably the single-most important monograph to be published in analytic epistemology in the last ten years. Sosa, the first in the field to employ the notion of intellectual virtue – in his ground-breaking ‘The Raft and the Pyramid’– is the leading proponent of reliabilist versions of virtue epistemology. In A Virtue Epistemology, he deftly defends an externalist account of animal knowledge as apt belief, argues for a distinction between animal and reflective knowledge, (...)
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  39. Explanatory Generalizations, Part I: A Counterfactual Account.James Woodward & Christopher Hitchcock - 2003 - Noûs 37 (1):1–24.
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  40. A Powers Theory of Modality: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Reject Possible Worlds.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (2):227-248.
    Possible worlds, concrete or abstract as you like, are irrelevant to the truthmakers for modality—or so I shall argue in this paper. First, I present the neo-Humean picture of modality, and explain why those who accept it deny a common sense view of modality. Second, I present what I take to be the most pressing objection to the neo-Humean account, one that, I argue, applies equally well to any theory that grounds modality in possible worlds. Third, I present an alternative, (...)
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  41. Why Citizens Should Vote: A Causal Responsibility Approach*: ALVIN I. GOLDMAN.Alvin I. Goldman - 1999 - Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (2):201-217.
    Why should a citizen vote? There are two ways to interpret this question: in a prudential sense, and in a moral sense. Under the first interpretation, the question asks why—or under what circumstances—it is in a citizen's self-interest to vote. Under the second interpretation, it asks what moral reasons citizens have for voting. I shall mainly try to answer the moral version of the question, but my answer may also, in some circumstances, bear on the prudential question. Before proceeding to (...)
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  42. A Field Guide to Mechanisms: Part I.Holly Andersen - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (4):274-283.
    In this field guide, I distinguish five separate senses with which the term ‘mechanism’ is used in contemporary philosophy of science. Many of these senses have overlapping areas of application but involve distinct philosophical claims and characterize the target mechanisms in relevantly different ways. This field guide will clarify the key features of each sense and introduce some main debates, distinguishing those that transpire within a given sense from those that are best understood as concerning distinct senses. The ‘new mechanisms’ (...)
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  43.  26
    Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions.Calvin K. Lai, Maddalena Marini, Steven A. Lehr, Carlo Cerruti, Jiyun-Elizabeth L. Shin, Jennifer A. Joy-Gaba, Arnold K. Ho, Bethany A. Teachman, Sean P. Wojcik, Spassena P. Koleva, Rebecca S. Frazier, Larisa Heiphetz, Eva E. Chen, Rhiannon N. Turner, Jonathan Haidt, Selin Kesebir, Carlee Beth Hawkins, Hillary S. Schaefer, Sandro Rubichi, Giuseppe Sartori, Christopher M. Dial, N. Sriram, Mahzarin R. Banaji & Brian A. Nosek - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (4):1765-1785.
  44. What If I Cannot Make a Difference (and Know It).Felix Pinkert - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):971-998.
    When several agents together produce suboptimal outcomes, yet no individual could have made a difference for the better, Act Consequentialism counterintuitively judges that all involved agents act rightly. I address this problem by supplementing Act Consequentialism with a requirement of modal robustness: Agents not only ought to produce best consequences in the actual world, but they also ought to be such that they would act optimally in certain counterfactual scenarios. I interpret this Modally Robust Act Consequentialism as Act Consequentialism plus (...)
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  45. Методи та критерії iндивiдуaльнoї тa гpупoвoї оцінки персоналу в державних установах.Svetlana Malakhova & Valentina Tokareva - 2014 - Схід 6 (132):36-39.
    The article considers the concept of staff assessment. Being eligible to evaluating the personnel in public institutions, the methods and criteria are summarized, being based on the analysis of the classification of areas of business entities personnel evaluation and on the approaches and methods of this assessment described in the literature. The paper argues that incomprehensive and unsystematic personnel evaluation assessment procedures are typical in the domestic practice. The authors claim that effective system of personnel estimation in public institutions should (...)
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  46.  18
    The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction as a Repair Mechanism. Part I. A Model for Self-Repair and its Biological Implications.I. Walker - 1978 - Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4):133-158.
    The theory is presented that the sexual process is a repair mechanism which maintains redundancy within the sub-structure of hierarchical, self-reproducing organisms. In order to keep the problems within mathematically tractable limits , a simple model is introduced: a wheel with 6 spokes, 3 of them vital and 3 redundant, symbolizes the individual . Random accidents destroy spokes; the wheels replicate at regular cycles and engage periodically in pairing and repair phases during which missing spokes are copy-reproduced along the intact (...)
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  47. Random Predicate Logic I: A Probabilistic Approach to Vagueness.William A. Dembski - unknown
    Predicates are supposed to slice reality neatly in two halves, one for which the predicate holds, the other for which it fails. Yet far from being razors, predicates tend to be dull knives that mangle reality. If reality is a tomato and predicates are knives, then when these knives divide the tomato, plenty of mush remains unaccounted for. Of course some knives are sharper than others, just as some predicates are less vague than others. “x is water” is certainly sharper (...)
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  48.  16
    Utfordringar i å vere eit forskande kroppssubjekt.Torhild Godø Sæther - 2016 - Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi 4 (2):94-102.
    Maurice Merleau-Ponty claims that we as body-subjects have an immediate sensational understanding of the world. A body that perceives and experience the world before any thought and word can render it. The words we use describing sensations are interpretations of sense-experiences, and will never render the total bodily understanding of the world. This article gives a brief insight of what an understanding of Merleau-Ponty’s body-subject implies for the researcher in body-phenomenological studies of toddlers.
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  49.  79
    A Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I: The Structure of the Sets of Contexts and Properties.Diederik Aerts & Liane Gabora - 2005 - Aerts, Diederik and Gabora, Liane (2005) a Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations I.
    We propose a theory for modeling concepts that uses the state-context-property theory (SCOP), a generalization of the quantum formalism, whose basic notions are states, contexts and properties. This theory enables us to incorporate context into the mathematical structure used to describe a concept, and thereby model how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept. We introduce the notion `state of a concept' to account for this contextual influence, and show (...)
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  50.  41
    On Competing Against Oneself, or 'I Need to Get a Different Voice in My Head'.Leslie A. Howe - 2008 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (3):353 – 366.
    In a recent paper, Kevin Krein argues that the notion of self-competition is misplaced in adventure sports and of only limited application altogether, for two main reasons: (i) the need for a consistent and repeatable measure of performance; and (ii) the requirement of multiple competitors. Moreover, where an individual is engaged in a sport in which the primary feature with which they are engaged is a natural one, Krein argues that the more accurate description of their activity is not 'competition', (...)
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