The explanation of the relationship between God and humans, as portrayed in Islam, is often influenced by the images of God and of human beings which theologians, philosophers and mystics have in mind. The early period of Islam disclose a diversity of interpretations of this relationship. Thinkers from the tenth and eleventh century had the privilege of disclosing different facets of the relationship between humans and the divine. God and Humans in Islamic Thought discusses the view of three different scholars (...) of the time: Abd al-Jabbar, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali. The relationships discussed in this work are: divine assistance, lu³f, according to 'Abd al-Jabbar; human love and attraction to the divine, 'ishq, according to Ibn Sina, and finally the mystical annihilation of the self in the divine unity, fana', of al-Ghazali. They introduce three approaches of looking at this relationship. In order to perceive these concepts, their perception of God and of the human nature will also be examined here. The starting-point of this research was the desire to set forth a variety of possible relationships which are all in accordance with Islamic belief, but nevertheless demonstrate diversity in understanding the relationship between the human and the divine which in turn suggests the concept of plurality within one religion. Examining these three concepts, which build firm connections between God and humans, reveals the importance of rational inquiry in medieval Islamic thought, not only because it was a source of logical arguments for Islam against its opponents but mainly because it built different bridges leading to God. God and Humans in Islamic Thought attempts to shed light on an important side of medieval rational thought in demonstrating its significance in forming the basis of an understanding of the nature of God, the nature of human beings and the construction of different bridges between them. (shrink)
Since Ibn Mattawayh and Mm up until George Hourani and Marie Bernand, there is an unstoppable interest among scholars towards r theory of knowledge. This interest has increased after the publication of the works of the late Mub al-Mu Ul al-D and Kitaffu al-rAbd al-Jabb and other sources from his students and the late MuAbd al-JabbAbd al-Jabbn).
A study of the opinions of a prominent tenth-century scholar pertaining to different aspects of pain, including his theological explanation of the existence of human suffering as well as a historical survey of his Bahšamiyya Mu‘tazila school.
This paper attempts to rethink the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal and challenge the still prevailing tendency in Iqbal scholarship to view it merely as an outcome of the influence of the ideas of various Western/European philosophers. I present Iqbal’s arguments in their particular historical and intellectual context to show that they developed in response to a specific philosophical problem and that Iqbal looked for a solution to that problem in Islamic tradition. I suggest that Iqbal’s philosophy is best understood in (...) the context of, and as a response to, the problem of nihilism as it was debated in modern German philosophy during ‘the pantheism controversy’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. To demonstrate this, I analyse Iqbal’s article on ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī to show his concern with the problem of nihilism, and his solution to it based on al-Jīlī’s Sufism. (shrink)
Gracias a la documentación conservada en la Real Academia de la Historia y a una cuidada revisión bibliográfica, se aportan nuevos datos para el conocimiento del descubrimiento y primeros estudios del epitafio del monarca aftasí, Abd Allah al-Mansur I de Badajoz.
In this paper I argue that al Ash'ari was a Theological Determinist whose position on free will and human responsibility was marred by his failure to distinguish between two senses of the word 'can' (yastati'u ). I also compare al Ash'ari's position with that of the Mu'tazilite thinker al Qadi 'Abd al Jabbar. I conclude that their positions may not have been so much opposed to each other as merely different. This, I suggest, should invite us to re evaluate the (...) nature and extent of the disagreement between the Ash'arites and the Mu'tazilites on the free will question. (shrink)
En el presente escrito se estudian varias piezas hasta ahora inéditas tanto al corpus de precintos producidos durante el períodod inicial de al-Andalus, como al de los ponderales realcionados con las emisiones monetarias de épocas diversas en la historia andalusí.
The Qur’an has been transmitted as both a written text and an oral recital. This has led to the development of a reading tradition that permits numerous different vocalisations to be made upon the basic skeletal text of the established ʿUthmānī codex. Ibn al-Jazarī chose ten early readers whom he felt were most representative of this tradition and whose readings are treated as canonical up until this day. One of these, the Kufan linguist al-Kisāʾī has been characterised in the literature (...) as more focused on the grammar of the Qur’an than his reader peers. This article explores al-Kisāʾī’s process of ikhtiyār when deciding between various possible readings. The sample for analysis consists of Kisāʾī’s tafarrudāt, the approximately fifty cases in which his reading differs from the other nine readers. By comparing his reading with the comments of early scholars of Qur’anic linguistics, especially his near-contemporary al-Farrāʾ, it is possible to construct a typology of the suspected principal reasons for al-Kisāʾī’s tafarrudāt. Not only are many of these based on grammatical preferences, but they demonstrate a significant degree of consistency. Furthermore, analysis of a cluster of readings with implications for the interpretation of the sharīʿa provides evidence for a subtle exegetical dimension to al-Kisāʾī’s work as a reader-grammarian. (shrink)
An Introduction to Islamic Philosophy: Based on the Works of Murtada Mutahhari, by Abd al-Rasul Obudiyyat, is a useful guide to the ways in which philosophy is taught in much of the Islamic world, and in particular in what is surely the center of Islamic philosophy, Iran. Mutahhari is an important twentieth-century thinker and his grasp of Islamic philosophy is displayed nicely in this volume, although it has to be said it is not actually by him. It is a selection (...) of his writings from various places, and the author makes it clear that he has gathered together Mutahhari's views and arguments and put them together here in a concise and clear way. To a large extent the style of the text reflects the fact that it is a... (shrink)
: The medieval Karaite grammarian and exegete Abū l-Faraj Hārūn b. al-Faraj was a broad reader of the literature available in Arabic, in a variety of genres. Earlier studies have demonstrated that in his grammatical works on the Hebrew language, Hārūn adapted discussions from well-known compositions focused on Arabic and the Qurʾān. The following examination of Hārūn’s treatment of the subject of biblical majāz, non-literal language, aims to show that in constructing his sophisticated and innovative discussion of the topic, the (...) Karaite scholar read widely – and adapted creatively – incorporating the methods of a variety of genres in Arabic, including uṣūl al-naḥw, uṣūl al-fiqh and even iʿjāz al-Qurʾān and combining them together with earlier Jewish and Karaite scholarly tradition to produce what seems to be the first comprehensive discussion of non-literal language in Judeo-Arabic. (shrink)
In _Knowing God_, Ismail Lala investigates the nature of God and whether we can truly know Him according to the influential mystic, Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn ʿArabī, and his disciple, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Qāshānī.
The present work provides a detailed account of the available data on ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Baġdādī’s biography, an outline of his philosophical thought, and a detailed analysis of his reworking of pre-Avicennian Greek and Arabic metaphysics.
It is quite common to refer to al-Ghazālī as one of the most important thinkers in the Islamic intellectual tradition. Aladdin M. Yaqub’s Al-Ghazālī’s Moderation in Belief: al-Iqtiṣād fī al-i’tiqād shows that this remark is not hyperbolic. And this volume has many characteristics of a good translation of classical texts. First of all, Aladdin M. Yaqub is very consistent with his use of terminology. He explains his preferences for Arabic philosophical terms in “Note on the Translation”. As is well known, (...) Moderation in Belief is the first text in which classical Greek logic is systematically used in Islamic theology (see the “Fourth Introduction: On explaining the methods of proof that we employ in... (shrink)
Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) is clearly one of the most important figures in the early history of Islamic jurisprudence. His Risala or "Treatise" on the "principles of jurisprudence" (usul al-fiqh) is also of interest as an example of an approach to ethics that focuses on divine commands. Following a brief introduction, I offer the reader a few comments about al-Shafi'i's context. I summarize the content of the Risala and then analyze it as an example of divine command reasoning in ethics. Finally, (...) I present some observations on the place of al-Shafi'i's theory in the history of Islamic ethics, particularly with respect to his comments on ikhtilaf, "disagreement.". (shrink)
Este trabajo tiene por objetivo mostrar el carácter dialéctico de la refutación al eleatismo en Física I, 2-3. En primer lugar, se argumenta que la dialéctica aristotélica puede llegar a constituir un método de investigación científica, ya que permite esclarecer los principios de una ciencia particular. En segundo lugar, se muestra que la refutación al eleatismo en Física I 2-3 solo se justifica en el marco de una argumentación dialéctica, ya que esta refutación constituye un método de esclarecimiento de los (...) principios de la física. (shrink)
In questo lavoro vengono sviluppate alcune considerazioni sulla funzione dell’istruzione nel presente contesto storico–culturale, in particolare riguardo alla matematica. Tra i molti aspetti che rendono l’epoca attuale diversa dalle precedenti ve ne sono due che più di altri invocano la necessità di un cambiamento nelle impostazioni didattiche. Il primo è una crisi che, per durata ed estensione, appare non più come dinamica di aggiustamento all’interno di un modello ma come irreversibile degenerazione del modello stesso. Il secondo riguarda la quantità di (...) informazione a cui l’individuo ha accesso e la facilità e velocità di tale accesso. Cambiamenti così profondi provocano una domanda: i modi e i contenuti della didattica devono rimanere gli stessi o occorre ripensare l’istruzione progettando cambiamenti altrettanto irreversibili quanto lo sono quelli dell’economia e della società? Queste considerazioni ci portano a una riflessione sul rapporto tra educazione e società e, più in generale, tra cultura e società. I prodotti scientifici e culturali sono dei codici cristallizzati come idee platoniche o piuttosto acquistano valenza e significato a partire dal contesto in cui nascono? Questa domanda poi ne richiama altre ancora sul rapporto tra individuo, sistema scolastico e società. In che misura il ruolo della scuola di standardizzare la cultura è compatibile con quello di favorire la creatività e le possibilità espressive dell’individuo? E cosa significa oggi dare all’individuo gli strumenti per sviluppare al meglio le proprie possibilità? L’insegnante dovrebbe osservare, ipotizzare, sperimentare, esplorare opportunità senza pregiudizi culturali. Egli sa che molte idee che sulla carta sembrano vincenti potrebbero rivelarsi inefficaci, ma ciò non deve costituire un alibi. Se infatti si possono nutrire dei dubbi su alcune proposte di innovazione, su una cosa vi è certezza: la didattica tradizionale ha ormai poco senso ed è totalmente inadeguata rispetto alle sfide di questi e dei prossimi anni. (shrink)
Al-Shāfi’ī has been unreservedly credited as one of the designers, if not the “master architect,” of uṣūl al-fiqh. His most important scholarly work, Al-Risālah, clearly demonstrates his cognitive creativity in this field. One of the methodologies for the decision of cases under Islamic law that Al-Shāfi’ī championed is qiyās, which he equated with ijtihād. His balanced approach invites further enquiry into the extensive use of qiyās in general and in criminal law in particular. The extent to which qiyās can be (...) applied to Islamic criminal law depends upon the degree or typology of qiyās being used, taking into account the Islamic theory of criminology. This article will analyse the position of al-Shāfi’ī in this regard. It will critically examine al-Shāfi’ī’s complex views on the use of qiyās as a method for establishing culpability under Islamic criminal law. It will then explore how his position corresponds to the human rights paradigm in the contemporary age. This article concludes that, while the use of qiyās in criminal law, especially in law of retaliation and predetermined punishments in accordance with al-Shāfi’ī’s approach is tantamount to incriminating a person based on less than certainty, it also represents the most promising way of protecting the right of victim. (shrink)
Los califas almohades afirmaron pertenecer a la tribu árabe de Qays cAylān por descendencia agnática. Qays cAylān no incluye a la tribu de Qurayš, con la que los mu'miníes afirmaban estar emparentados por línea materna. Según la doctrina clásica del califato, recogida por ejemplo por Ibn Hazm, los califas deben ser qurayšíes por línea paterna. En este artículo se analizan las ventajas que ofrecía a los califas mu'miníes esa ascendencia qaysí, de larga tradición entre las poblaciones beréberes del Norte de (...) África. Entre esas ventajas se cuentan la vinculación de parentesco con las tribus árabes de Sulaym y Hilāl, elementos fundamentales del ejército mu'miní, y con el profeta árabe pre-islámico Jālid b. Sinān al-cAbsī. (shrink)
I De las muchas cosas que lleva ya escritas Jorge Riechmann sobre problemas sustantivos relacionados con la crisis ecológica, la última publicada, Cuidar la T(t)ierra, es seguramente la más notable. Y, sin duda, es la aportación más sugerente que ha aparecido por estos pagos al concepto de sostenibilidad y a su práctica en el mundo actual. Se trata de un libro de más seiscientas páginas en el que el lector atento apreciará un montón de cosas que sólo excepcionalmente suelen darse (...) juntas: la .. (shrink)
Von diesem Kommentar zum Muwaṭṭaʼ des Mālik b. Anas, der in der Erforschung der mālikitischen Rechtsliteratur bisher weitgehend unbenutzt geblieben ist, sind nach meinen heutigen Kenntnissen nur zwei Handschriften erhalten. Ein Exemplar davon liegt in der Ḫizāna al-ʽāmmain Rabat unter der Katalognummer 64 Ḥ und ist bis auf einige fehlende Seiten am Schluss vollständig. Die andere Handschrift habe ich 1998 in der Moscheebibliothek von Qairawān unter mehreren ungeordneten Blättern und Heftresten unterschiedlicher Provenienz identifiziert; sie trägt bisher keine endgültige Katalognummer. Der (...) Fund, wie so oft unerwartet und zufällig, bestätigt allerdings die vagen und nur wenig informativen, vor allem aber nicht mehr aktuellen Angaben im alten Siğill der Bibliothek aus dem Jahr 693/1294, in dem der Muwaṭṭaʼ-Kommentar von al-Qanāziʽī angeführt wird. (shrink)
The Commentary of al-Nayrizi on Euclid’s Elements occupies an important place in the history of mathematics and of philosophy. The present work presents an annotated English translation of Books II-IV and of a hitherto lost portion of Book I.
This volume provides a thorough investigation of the theological views of the Twelvershī‘ite Ibn Abī Jumhūr al-Aḥsā’ī who combined traditional Mu‘tazilite thought with the philosophical tradition of Ibn Sīnā, with the Illuminationist tradition and with speculative mysticism.