This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...) autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research. (shrink)
Tai Chi: I Ching Form - Embracing the Mystery is an easy to follow instruction manual that enables practitioners to tap into and express directly each of the sixty-four energies that exist throughout the eternal movement of Tao, as outlined and explained in the I Ching (The Book of Changes). By way of mindful illustration, multiple pictures of postures and movements, and careful attention to detailed description, the practitioner is carefully led through the various postures and transitional movements presented in (...) this form. The form is divided into two essential sequences: Heaven and Earth. Daily practice allows the practitioner to maintain physical, mental, energetic and spiritual alignment with Spirit -- the unspeakable Mystery that is Tao. In effect, the practitioner becomes the harmonizing link between Heaven and Earth! Tai Chi: I Ching Form - Embracing the Mystery brings together aspects of the Taoist tradition in a very unique way, by combining the philosophical insight of the Tao Te Ching, the spiritual understanding of the I Ching, with the practice of Tai Chi. It accomplishes this by offering practitioners a comprehensive understanding of themselves -- as both a part of nature and as Spirit. It is the unification of these three, typically separate, strands that truly makes this work a unique enterprise. • The Tao Te Ching is the most efficacious philosophical text in China, having now influenced millions of people throughout the world with its teachings concerning the relationship between self, nature and ultimate reality. • The I Ching is the most ancient spiritual system in China, describing in a very practical fashion, the way in which Tao -- the ultimate Mystery -- influences and reciprocates with us through sixty-four universal energies formed by the combination of the eight most basic elements in nature -- Heaven, Thunder, Water, Lake, Earth, Mountain, Fire and Wind, otherwise known as Pa Qua. • Tai Chi is a universal and most honorable practice, enabling individuals to work on understanding, strengthening and unifying body, breath, mind and spirit. What also makes this book unique is the bold claim that if understood thoroughly and practiced properly, the I Ching Tai Chi Form may enable an individual to not only become proficient at tai chi and martial arts, to not only increase one's ability to concentrate, to not only enhance one's physical and emotional well-being, but to actually move closer to full and complete realization of one's most essential being, that is, closer to enlightenment, the original purpose of movement meditation. In the presentation of this form, each of the sixty-four postures is accompanied with a philosophical insight describing the essence of the energy which the practitioner is meant to access and express through the movement. Along with these insights are appropriate quotations from the Tao Te Ching that assist the practitioner in understanding the way in which this form corresponds to the universal and eternal movement of Tao. In addition, Tai Chi: I Ching Form - Embracing the Mystery includes chapters on Tai Chi as a practice and a way of life for beginners and masters; on the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching, explaining their contributions to insight regarding the nature of the universe and oneself; on what the Tai Chi I Ching Form offers that other styles do not; on exercise, energy and health; on the integration of meditation, both theory and technique; on how to warm-up, practice and perform the Tai Chi I Ching Form, including what to wear, appropriate environments for practice, incorporating music, stances, exercises, and how to pace oneself. (shrink)
It is necessary for us to know what erroneous thinking is before we discuss its relationship with existence. The so-called erroneous thinking, as I see it, refers to the opposite of correct thinking. If correct thinking means that man's comprehension of objective existence can lead to the grasping of the law of objective existence and can correspond with objective existence, erroneous thinking represents the failure of man's comprehension of objectivity to grasp the law of objective existence. Therefore erroneous thinking is (...) contradictory to, not corresponding with, objectivity. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of interpersonal influence on personal software piracy, also known as softlifting. A laboratory experiment with 54 subjects was conducted, in which each subject was told to participate in a software quality evaluation exercise. However, a ploy was carried out to measure the subjects intention in software piracy under different levels of group pressure and financial gains. The results are interesting. On the intention of softlifting, both group pressure and financial gains (...) are significant determinants. The interaction of group pressure and financial gains is also significant: when group pressure is toward pirating software, financial gains is not a relevant factor; whereas when group pressure is toward purchasing, financial gains becomes a dominant factor in softlifting intention. A further survey (with 216 college students from two public universities in Taiwan) designed to investigate the relationship between consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (Bearden et al., 1989) and softlifting intention/behavior. A path analysis demonstrated that normative influence was related to softlifting intention, yet information influence effect was marginal. The effect of normative influence on softlifting behavior was mainly mediated by softlifting intention. Implications are also discussed. (shrink)
This chapter explains the concept of effort on the basis of evidence from experimental and cognitive psychology, demonstrates how it has been used in conducting studies of brain activity, and goes on to examine the individual differences that play a role in determining the efficiency of brain networks associated with effortful control. It also reviews certain educational training methods; those when used among children can change these networks, along with conditional changes developed in adults through meditation training. The findings reveal (...) that meditation helps in producing better attentional performance and the subjective condition related to effort. The chapter also investigates how these training methods play a role in determining the concept of flow. (shrink)
The current study aims to separate conscious and unconscious behaviors by employing both online and offline measures while the participants were consciously performing a task. Using an eye-movement tracking paradigm, we observed participants’ response patterns for distinguishing within-word-boundary and across-word-boundary reverse errors while reading Chinese sentences . The results showed that when the participants consciously detected errors, their gaze time for target words associated with across-word-boundary reverse errors was significantly longer than that for targets words associated with within-word-boundary reverse errors. (...) Surprisingly, the same gaze time pattern was found even when the readers were not consciously aware of the reverse errors. The results were statistically robust, providing converging evidence for the feasibility of our experimental paradigm in decoupling offline behaviors and the online, automatic, and unconscious aspects of cognitive processing in reading. (shrink)
Nanotechnology is the new(est) star in the high technologies sky. While nanotechnologies remain technologies of promise and potential, a growing number of nano-materials and nano-particle-reliant products are being produced. And although a growing number of academic, policy and industry reports are exploring nanotechnologies, there are very few genuine ethical assessments of nanotechnologies as they exist and might evolve in the coming years. Many questions have yet to be answered about the nature, development, and social and commercial deployment of nanotechnologies and (...) what that means for the human condition and the preservation of our core values. We argue that the early and potentially risky nature of this interdisciplinary science does not justify a blinkered focus on risk assessment and management to the detriment of deep and ranging ethical evaluations. Much improved ethics evaluations must be undertaken, particularly in Taiwan where very little has happened despite grand expectations for, and funding of, the science. In this paper, we uncover the development imperatives for nanotechnologies, demonstrate the paucity of genuine nanoethics exercises, outline key questions for stakeholders undertaking nanoethics exercises to consider, and we articulate some preliminary actions for Taiwan (and other similarly situated jurisdictions). (shrink)
Denton and Hockx present thirteen essays treating a variety of literary organizations from China's Republican era . Interdisciplinary in approach, the essays are primarily concerned with describing and analyzing the social and cultural complexity of literary groupings and the role of these social formations in literary production of the period.